Yemen

of these articles treats the Republic of Yemen. For further meanings see Yemen (term clarifying).
الجمهوريةاليمنية
aluminium-Dschumhūriyya aluminium-Yamaniyya
Republic of Yemen
Flagge Jemens
(detail)
office language Arab
capital Sanaa (or San´a and/or. Sana´a)
system of government Islamic Präsidialrepublik
head of state president Ali Abdullah Saleh
prime minister Abdul Qader Bajamal
surface 527,970 km ²
number of inhabitants 20.727.063 July 2005
population density of 39 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 469 US-$ (2004)
currency Yemen Rial (YER)
time belt UTC +3h
national anthem United Republic of
Kfz characteristic YAR
Internet TLD .ye
preselection + 967
Image:LocationYemen.png
Bild:Ym-map.png

Yemen (arab.: اليمن aluminium-Yaman) is a state in the Near East, in the south of the Arab peninsula. It borders in the east on Oman, in the south on the gulf of Aden and on the Arab sea, in the west on that Red Sea and in the north at Saudi Arabia. Djibouti and Eritrea lie only few kilometers far away opposite the Red Sea.

Table of contents

geography

the largest cities is (conditions 1. January 2005): Sana'a of 1.937.451 inhabitants, Hodeida of 617,888 inhabitants, Tais of 615,467 inhabitants, Aden of 550,744 inhabitants and Mukalla of 258,428 inhabitants. To Yemen belongbeside numerous small islands in the Indian ocean also the large island Sokotra.

See also: List of the cities in Yemen.

population

the country is inhabited to 97% of Arabs. In the Tihama are it shownsome influences from Africa. 1% of the population are Indian of Pakistan or - Muslim immigrant workers, about 2% ethnical Somalis, on which many live already longer in the country.

See also to Wayilah

religion

the citizens of Yemen are too100% Muslim. 53% of the population belong to the Shiite religious community of the Shiite Zaiditen , 47% are Sunniten. The Missionierung to other religions than the Islam is forbidden. The not-Muslim immigrant workers in the country may not do their religionpractice, do they it nevertheless, them are hard punished. Dropping from the Islam is punished with death. In January 2000 a Somali citizen gone over to the Christianity was condemned and executed to death.

economics

work on []

Agriculture

in the economy Yemen dominates the agrarian sector. The most important cultivation products are millet, barley and other grain as well as different fruits, cotton and tobacco. The moreover one coffee and the Kathstrauch are cultivated, whose sheets can be chewedand a popular everyday life drug in Yemen are. In the last decade the cultivated area of the Khat was strongly extended. Before the coasts in the gulf of Aden fishing is operated.

raw materials

in middle Yemen are some medium sized oil fields, those of societies among other things from the USA, France and South Korea to be used.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

history

traditional townscape in Yemen (picture: Steve Evans)
view of the city Shibam

major item: History Yemen

the history Yemen is since that 8. Century v. Chr. particularly by the Weihrauchhandel anditself the kingdoms justifying on it characterized. The most important realm was Saba with its capital Marib. Around the turn of an era the slow fall the antique realms began to the Weihrauchstrasse. Succeeded to the Himjariten in the 3. Century again the agreementthe country, but the country 525 was conquered by Aksum. the Yemen of the theory of the prophet Muhammad followed 628 .

The population took over fast the Islam. Within the Kalifats Yemen climbed down however to an edge province. Thisfavoured since that 9. Century the emergence of several dynasties, whose were most important those the Zaiditen. It should prevail in north Yemen to 1962. As itself in 10. Century the emphasis of the trade routes between Mediterranean and India from the Iraq to Egypt shifted,the economic upswing began also in Yemen. Its bloom time experienced the country under the Rasuliden to in 15. Century.

With the discovery of the sea route to India by the Portuguese the country for the world trade at meaning lost and becamein 16. Century of the Osmanen conquers. After the opening of the Sueskanals in 19. Century came Yemen again strengthened into the focus of the great powers. While Great Britain occupied 1839 Aden and with it South Yemen in the year, north Yemen could underthe Zaiditen its by the Osmanen supported nationalness maintain.1905 specified the Osmani realm and Great Britain the common border between their protectorates. After the decay of the Osmani realm north Yemen became independent 1919 and from then on always ledagain a guerrilla war against southern, still British, region.

However it did not succeed to the governing Imamen to modernize the country. Their conservative rule led 1962 to the fall of the Zaiditen and to proclaiming the republic. Since then those becameIntroduced modernization of the country, but the economic problems could be not really solved by the high population growth.1990 succeeded by the connection to communist, material-socialist and secular South Yemen also the combination of the country, political stability and democracy prevailin Yemen however yet, do not see under politics.

politics

home policy/elections

1993 took place in freshly combined Yemen the first free elections, in which three large parties stood themselves opposite: The general congress of people,formerly a unit party in north Yemen, the socialist party, a unit party South Yemen, as well as third the Yemeni combination for reforms (Islah). The coalition of Islah and congress of people became nearly model for an Arab democratization. However all parties kepttheir troops, which provided by military balance for stability.

With the parliamentary election in April the socialists and president Ali Abdullah Saleh were subject to 1997 could with an absolute majority without the Islah govern.

To 23. September 1999 became since 1978governing president a fifth time selected, the only rival candidate, the parliament chairman of many years and sheikh Abdallah aluminium-Ahmar, had been selected from the own rows and so was 96.3% of the voices for Saleh also no surprise. In only 6 yearsYemen had become again a typical Arab a party state.

Starting from 1999 the pressure was increased to the opposition parties, although the regional elections led in February 2002 by a decentralization law to pluralistischen municipality and regional advice.

In February 2001 the state party could do theirPower with one by a referendum secured third constitutional reform strengthen. The consultation advice was changed into a second chamber (Majlis ash Shura) and the präsidiale term of office lasted now sieves instead of five years. President Ali Abdullah Saleh becomes thereby until 2006to govern can. He announced that he will not begin with the next presidency elections. Therefore it will probably be replaced from its son Ahmed Saleh.

After that 11. Septembers 2001 were painted foreign students both to scholarships and visas,whereby these were forced to the departure.

The radical wing of the party, aforementioned of sheikh Abdelmadschid aluminium-Zandani, came just like the oppositional press under bombardment. Literally under bombardment also the son of the parliament president turned out, to 24. October in onearmed fight between police and the guard of the parliament president heavily one hurt.

To 28. December 2002 was killed the secondarymost important politician of the socialists , Jarallah Omar, with the Party Congress of the Islah. Those or the author were so far not determined however were not suspected,the government trailer of the Islah, although this straight from Omar to a coalition against the state party had been called. To 2. November 2005 was condemned Ali Alsa'awani to death because of the murder by Jarallah. It was criticized that the court inInterest of the government motives and does not background the act brought up for discussion. The condemned one confessed the act, it saw in Jarallah the architects of the coalition of the socialists and the Islah.

foreign policy

in the Gulf War of 1990 had Yemen stillthe Iraq supported, could however 1999 the relations with Kuwait normalize.

The efforts with regard to foreign policy of the head of state showed very good successes. 1998 was taken up diplomatic relations between Yemen and the holy chair and France gradated Yemen as “zone de solidaritéprioritaire " , which means an intensified co-operation between both countries. In the Somalia - conflict could mediate Yemen in December 2000 with success.

The relations between the USA and Yemen is despite a meeting of Bill Clinton and Ali AbdullahSaleh in April 2000 strained. Yemen knocks a harder pace since beginning of the second Intifada into Palestine (see home policy) and is zaghaft in co-operation for more security. In addition, the employment of US drone, to 3. November 2002 six presumed aluminium-Qaida - fighter in Yemen killed, as well as the murder of three US mission acres to 31. Decembers 2002 load the relations. Nevertheless Washington is interested in a stabilization of the Yemeni government.

In January 2002 Yemen stepped the gulf co-operation advice, for the time being only as observers.

To 6. October 2002 was heavily damaged the French oiling anchor Limburg by a bomb attack before the coast by Mukalla.

one attached to border disputes the conflict around the exact course of the border to the Sultanate of Oman.

In Agreements of Dschidda were terminated the border disputes with Saudi Arabia. Yemen received an area strip, under which most likely oil is, and accepted in response the agreement of Taif 1934, in which Imam Yahya is Muhammad Saudi Arabia two provinces left.

InReference to the Hanischinseln was called the international Court of Justice, which decided in October 1998 against Eritrea.

administrative arrangement

the state is divided into 19 Gouvernorate and the capital district.

Web on the left of

Commons: Yemen - pictures, videos and/orAudio files
Wikinews: Yemen - current messages


coordinates: 15° 00 ' 00 " N, 48° 00 ' 00 " O

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geographical map, position Yemen
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