Jena

coat of arms map
Wappen Jenas Lage von Jena in Deutschland
base data
Land of the Federal Republic: Thuringia
district: Circle-free city
surface: 114.29 km ²
inhabitants: 100.349 (1. March 2006)
Population density: 895 inhabitants for each km ²
height: 155 m and. NN
postal zip codes: 07701-07751 (old: 69xx)
Preselection: 03641
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 50° 56 ' N, 11° 35 ' O
50° 56 ' N, 11° 35 ' O
Kfz characteristics: J
municipality key: 16 0 53 000
city arrangement: 41 urban districts
and/or. 24 localities
official Website: www.jena.de
E-Mail address:
Politics
mayor: Dr. having IL Peter Röhlinger (FDP)
market place

Jena is in the middle in Thuringia been because of the river Saale a German university town. It is after Erfurt and Gera the third biggest city as well as one of the three upper centers of the Free State Thuringia and has the status of a circle-free city. After different incorporations Jena became 1975 large city.

Table of contents

Geografie

Jena lies in the middle hall valley between partial from mixed woodlands shelly limestone and sandstone slopes covered. On them numerous z come. T. rare Orchideenarten forwards. The largest expansion amounts to from north to south 14.7 km and from east to west 12.2 km. The following larger cities lie in close proximity to Jena: Gera, approx. 35 km east, Erfurt, approx. 40 km west, Weimar, approx. 15 km western, Naumburg (Saale), approx. northeast, resounds to 33 km (Saale), approx. 70 km northeast, Leipzig, approx. 75 km northeast and Chemnitz, approx. 94 km east, Rudolstadt, approx. 30 km south.

neighbour municipalities

the following municipalities border on the city Jena. They are specified in the clockwise direction beginning in the north:

city arrangement

the city of Jena is divided into altogether 41 statistic districts. The administration of the city Jena is partitioned in the town center and 23 localities in the sense of § 45 the Thüringer local order. These localities were furnished by the main statute of the city Jena. It concerns usually spatially separated areas and/or. Villages, which were formerly independent municipalities. For each locality there is a locality advice selected by the people on the occasion of a citizen assembly. Chairman is a local mayor likewise selected by the people.

The statistic districts of the city Jena with their official numbers:

  • 011 bunting brook place
  • 012 Beutenberg/Winzerlaer road
  • 021 Burgau place
  • 022 ring meadow corridor Burgau
  • 030 Göschwitz
  • 041 Jena center
  • 042 Jena west
  • 043 Jena north
  • 044 Jena south
  • 051 Lichtenhain place
  • 052 mill road
  • 061 Lobeda - old part of town
  • 062 praise since west
  • 063 praise since east
  • 071 praising EDT place
  • 072 north II
  • of 081 few Jena/core mountains
  • 082 few Jena place
  • 083 Wenigenjena/Schlegelsberg
  • 090 Winzerla
  • 100 Wöllnitz
  • 111 Ziegenhain place
  • 112 Ziegenhainer valley
  • 120 Zwätzen
  • 131 Drackendorf/Lobeda east
  • 132 Drackendorf
  • 133 Ilmnitz
  • 141 Maua
  • 142 Leutra
  • 151 Münchenroda
  • 152 Remderoda
  • 161 crib village
  • 162 fourteen-holy
  • 170 eating first EDT
  • 181 Cospeda
  • 182 Lützeroda
  • 183 CLOSE joke
  • 191 Kunitz
  • 192 Laasan
  • 201 Jenapriessnitz
  • 202 Wogau

the 24 localities of the city Jena:

  • Bunting brook
  • Burgau
  • CLOSE joke
  • Cospeda
  • Drackendorf
  • Göschwitz
  • Ilmnitz
  • eating first EDT
  • Jenapriessnitz/Wogau
  • crib village
  • Kunitz/Laasan
  • Leutra
  • Lichtenhain
  • Lobeda old part of town
  • praising EDT
  • Lützeroda
  • Maua
  • Münchenroda/Remderoda
  • Neulobeda
  • fourteen-holy
  • few Jena
  • Winzerla
  • Wöllnitz
  • Ziegenhain
  • Zwätzen
360°-Panorama of Jena

history

map of the battle with Jena 14. October 1806
Jena (ca. 1890 bis ca. 1900)
Jena (approx. 1890 to approx. 1900)

Jena was mentioned documentary for the first time 1182. Long time an accepted connection with one already in the Hersfelder tenth listing from that 9. Century settlement mentioned Jani is drawn by a set of historians in doubts. Another theory means that itself the denomination from that 9. Century on the today's few Jena refers, there there extensive settlement finds from that 8. and. 9. Century within the range of the Schillerkirche were discovered.

Around 1230 Jena received municipal rights from the Mr. von Lobdeburg. With attenuation of the Lobdeburger the counts von Schwarzburg and Wettiner went into action. To 1331 the Wettiner arrived into the full possession of the city and 1332 gave it to Jena the gothaische municipal law. Since 1423 Jena belonged to the cure principality Saxonia, since the Wettiner after becoming extinct the Askanier received. Also with the Leipziger division Jena remained in the ernestinischen cure principality Saxonia. By the defeat in the Schmalkaldi war, the Ernestiner lost . Jena belonged from now on to the duchy Saxonia. Consequently as replacement for the missing university joke mountain was created in the year 1548 the high school in Jena, made of which 1558 the today's Friedrich Schiller university Jena comes out. For short time (1672 - 1690) Jena became capital of an independent Principality of Saxonia Jena. To the death of the duke of Saxonia Jena (1692) the city came to the ernestinische line Saxonia iron oh and 1741 to the duchy Saxonia Weimar, into 19. Century to the Grand Duchy was raised (Grand Duchy of Saxonia).

To 14. October 1806 fought Napoléon victoriously the Prussian and Saxonian armies in the double battle with Jena and Auerstedt. With the combination of the Thuringian states 1920 Jena part of the country Thuringia became. Here the city became 1922 circle-free. At the same time the district Jena developed, for that with the circle reform to the 1. July 1994 part of the Saale Holzland circle became. During the GDR - time belonged the city to the district Gera.

incorporations

following municipalities and Gemarkungen became to Jena in in common December. In the year 1900 the area conditions of the city amounted to 1,323, 2 hectars. Since the last incorporations of 1994 the city covers 11,421, 6 hectars.

Year of places increase
in hectar
of 1909 few Jena with Camsdorf 603.3
1. January 1913 Lichtenhain (city) 245.0
1. January 1913 Ziegenhain 448.8
1. October 1922 bunting brook 599.6
1. October 1922 Burgau 190.4
1. October 1922 praising EDT 262.5
1. October 1922 Winzerla 500.0
1. October 1922 Zwätzen 546.0
1. October 1922 Göschwitz 226.1
1. October 1922 Lobeda 655.1
1. October 1922 Wöllnitz 262.3
1. October 1922 Kunitz 593.7
1. October 1924 Göschwitz ¹ - 226.1
1. October 1924 Lobeda ¹ - 655.1
1. October 1924 Wöllnitz ¹ - 262.3
1. October 1924 Kunitz ¹ - 593.7
1. August 1946 Lobeda 655.1
1. August 1946 Wöllnitz 262,3
Year of places increase
in hectar
of 1. April 1969 Göschwitz 226.1
1. July 1994 Drackendorf 446.2
1. July 1994 Ilmnitz 163.7
1. July 1994 Maua 334.2
1. July 1994 Leutra 467.4
1. July 1994 Münchenroda 411.7
1. July 1994 Remderoda 94.9
1. July 1994 crib village 315.1
1. July 1994 fourteen-holy 197.7
1. July 1994 eating first EDT 685.4
1. July 1994 Cospeda 335.4
1. July 1994 Lützeroda 143.8
1. July 1994 CLOSE joke 410.2
1. July 1994 Kunitz 593.7
1. July 1994 Laasan 207.6
1. July 1994 Jenapriessnitz 583.1
1. July 1994 Wogau 168.7
Jena nach Bodenehr ca. 1720
to Jena soil-honour approx. 1720

¹ expenditure my fertilizing (the places were later however again integrated)

the last incorporations 1994 took place due to § 23 of the reorganisation law in Thuringia. With the places integrated at that time it only partly concerns independent municipalities. All integrated places (except eating first EDT) had taken up before already in or several neighbour municipalities, Cospeda the municipalities Lützeroda and CLOSE joke, Drackendorf the municipality Ilmnitz, crib village the municipality fourteen-holy, Kunitz the municipality Laasan, Münchenroda the municipality Remderoda, Maua the municipality Leutra and Jenapriessnitz the municipality Wogau.

Wüstungen

beside the today still existing local parts gave it on the today's city of Jena a multiplicity of places, which do not exist today any longer, so-called Wüstungen. 1. Proschitz 2. Krolip 3. Köt 4. Already village 5. Ziskau 6. Rödel 7. Schichmannsdorf 8. Toad village 9. Schetzelsdorf 10. Nollendorf 11. Hodelsdorf/on the sand 12. Doubt brook 13. Leutra 14. Nobis 15. Wüstenwinzerla 16. Dürrengleina 17. Niederleutra 18. Deer village 19. Selzdorf 20. Clöchwitz 21. Le seat 22. Schlendorf 23. Benndorf 24. Wenigenkunitz 25. Gaberwitz 26. Cold-lives

inhabitant development

to population trend

the number of inhabitants of the city to Jena exceeded 1975 the border of 100.000, whereby them became the large city. 1989 reached the total population with approximately 110,000 their historical highest level. Since the turn in the GDR the number of inhabitants remained relatively stable of Jena - contrary to many other cities in East Germany - and varies around the border of 100.000.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1833 it concerns usually around estimations, afterwards census results (¹) or official updating of the respective statistic offices and/or the city administration. The data refer starting from 1843 to the “localpresent population”, starting from 1925 to the resident population and since 1966 to the “population at the place of the main dwelling”. 1843 ago the number of inhabitants was determined in non-uniform collection procedures.

Year inhabitant
1490 3,800
1542 4,277
1784 4,366
1820 4,758
1830 5,491
3. December 1852 ¹ 6,505
3. December 1861 ¹ 7,000
3. December 1864 ¹ 7,200
3. December 1867 ¹ 7,500
1. December 1871 ¹ 8,260
1. December 1875 ¹ 9,020
1. December 1880 ¹ 10,337
1. December 1885 ¹ 12,017
1. December 1890 ¹ 13,449
2. December 1895 ¹ 15,390
1. December 1900 ¹ 20,677
1. December 1905 ¹ 26,400
1. December 1910 ¹ 38.487
Year inhabitant
1. December 1916 ¹ 43,560
5. December 1917 ¹ 44,117
8. October 1919 ¹ 48,847
16. June 1925 ¹ 52,649
16. June 1933 ¹ 58,357
17. May 1939 ¹ 70,632
1. December 1945 ¹ 76,266
29. October 1946 ¹ 82,722
31. August 1950 ¹ 80,309
31. December 1955 83,073
31. December 1960 81,190
31. December 1964 ¹ 84,307
1. January 1971 ¹ 88,130
31. December 1975 100,180
31. December 1981 ¹ 104,946
31. December 1985 107,401
31. December 1988 108,010
31. December 1990 102.518
Year inhabitant
31. December 1995 ² 101,061
31. December 1996 ² 100,278
31. December 1997 ² 99,273
31. December 1998 ² 99,095
31. December 1999 ² 99,779
31. December 2000 ² 99,893
31. December 2001 ² 101,157
31. December 2002 ² 100,542
31. December 2003 ² 102,634
31. December 2004 ² 102,442

¹ census result ² source: Thüringer national office for statistics: http://www.tls.thueringen.de/

religions

before the Christianisierung the area around Jena lived here in the 3. - 6. Jh. the Thüringer, which merged from several trunks into a master federation. By the various contacts with Rome and the Ostgotenreich it came promptly to influences of the Christianity, at least on the aristocracy sexes. One followed to the arianischen Christianity with priority. In some areas still older cults, which were taken over from the Roman realm , leave themselves prove (Diana cult etc.). The Thüringer hung first nordischen Gods on. This faith was to in 8. Jh. prevailing for the area, in which late Jena developed. In addition 7 came into. Jh. the slawischen immigrants, who along-brought their divinities and established temples. Only with the mission of the Bonifacius the Christianity was finally inserted in the area. First Pfarreien is to the west of Jena in the area Erfurt/Arnstadt in 8. Jh. demonstrably. A strengthening of the Roman-catholic faith found however only in 10. Jh. instead of.

The population of the area around Jena belonged originally in particularly the diocese Erfurt created for it. This did not have however long existence. Thus the area came to the diocese Mainz. It older church structures in the area gave before, showed up in the fact that the old “Urpfarreien “maintained a set of Pfarrrechten beyond the again created diocese borders further (e.g. Lobeda, few Jena etc.). The city was assigned to the Dekanat directly upperWeimar within the Archidiakonat Beatae Mariae virginis in Erfurt. Starting from 1909 the eingemeindete area on the right of the Saale belonged to the diocese Naumburg, although in the Middle Ages Jena possessed also the Pfarrrechte in few Jena and Camsdorf. 1252 are mentioned for the first time a clergyman in Jena. 1523 were held the first reformatorische lecture in Jena. It came to heavy arguments between the individual directions of the reformatorischen movement (Lutheraner, Flacianer etc.), consequently the reformation fast foot seized and Jena to a center of the Luthertums as new world view became.

Over long time Jena was an predominantly Protestant city. Prevailing was the lutherische confession, particularly since Martin Luther stayed several times personally in Jena. In place of the Pope the national gentleman had the guidance of the so-called “ev. luth. Regional church " taken over. Thus the church divided the fate of the respective national gentlemen into Jena. „The Evangelical-Lutheran church of the Grand Duchy of Saxonia “, to the Jena since that 18. Jh. belonged (at that time still duchy Saxonia Weimar), united after 1920 with the other regional churches of Thuringia to „the Thüringer Evangelist church “. 1948 called itself it into Evangelical-Lutheran church in Thuringia over. Jena is seat of a Superintendentur of the regional church within the supervision district east, whose office for circle church is in Gera. The Evangelical-Lutheran Pfarrämter Jena existing today belongs thus all to the Superintendentur Jena.

At the latest since that 19. Jh. also again citizens with catholic confession pulled into the city. The small municipality received at that time the ruin of the church „to pc. Johannes Baptist “, in the foundation walls very old a church, in up to the reformation beside the resounding church the pc. Michael, official acts (above all funerals) were made, which purged then however. The small catholic municipality was however already dissolved 1813 again and the catholics by Weimar out was cared for. Only 1905 were again established the Pfarrei. The church ruin was removed to the today's parish church, whereby a longitudinal ship direction the west was built at that time and the altar was shifted into a new Apsis in the west. 2 was by driving out and pursuit after that. World war more than 14,000 catholics in Jena. The parish church had capacity at the time at that time sowenig that despite eight Sundays services and branch offices in the surrounding villages not all catholics could come to the Sundays service. Therefore one developed 1957 - 1959 the altar the Apsis in the west and placed him into the input area at that time in the east. But one drew into the former Apsis a loft. The Apsis is to be recognized today still by its beautifully arranged choir windows. Starting from 1821 the Pfarrgemeinde, like most parts of the later country Thuringia, belonged to the area of the diocese Paderborn.

After the Prussian concordat of 1929 a re-organization of the areas of the catholic dioceses took place. The municipality in Jena came to the diocese Fulda. After the Second World War became ever heavier it for the bishop from Fulda to notice its office business in the East part of its diocese. Therefore the administration of the municipality in Jena was done via a Generalvikar with seat in Erfurt, which was appointed 1953 the bishop and 1968 the Bischöflichen commissioner. With the 1973 mechanism of the Bischöflichen of office Erfurt Meiningen and the collection from 1994 took place to the diocese Erfurt were finally responsible for Jena the Erfurter bishop. The Pfarrgemeinde in Jena belongs thus today to the Dekanat Weimar within the diocese Erfurt. There some late eingemeindete eastern local parts the area diocese of the Dresden Meissen belong to, are the minister of the Jenaer municipality Kaplan of the neighbouring Stadtrodaer municipality additional, in order to be able to care for also officially the catholics seelsorgerisch, who live behind the diocese border. The Pfarrei cared for also catholic outside of Jena and is with approx. 5000 members one the largest Pfarreien in the diocese Erfurt.

Beyond that there is also still municipalities, which belong to the free churches, among them the Evangelist-freechurch municipality (Baptisten), the Evangelist Methodisti municipality (Methodist), the Adventgemeinde, the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church (SELK) and the Christian municipality Lobeda. Beside the Christian churches it in addition, still another small Jewish municipality gives. It has approx. 150 members and in the last years from the influx of Jewish humans from Russia resulted. The municipality was not recognized yet as independent and therefore of the Erfurter municipality is cared for. The municipality has a small community center, but no synagog.

politics

the administration of the city Jena were incumbent on first the officials of the Lobdeburgi rule. But stood soon also an advice at the point of the city, which starting from 1317 by two advice masters one led. Since that 14. Century was three-divided the advice. 1540 introduced the cure prince of Saxonia a new city order. There were several mayors nevertheless starting from 1604 only a mayor at the point of the city. Starting from 1892 the city head carries the title mayor. The advice was selected by the population. Starting from 1933 the mayor was used by the party and after the Second World War formed the Soviet zone of occupation „the advice of the city “with a mayor. The advice was selected by the people. After the reunification of Germany that was again freely selected now as an town councillor designated committee. Chairman of this committee is „an town councillor chairman “. The committee selected at the beginning of also the mayor. Since 2000 the mayor is selected directly by the people. The mayor stand for 3 of the town councillor selected departmental head to the side. At present Dr. officiate. From Albrecht Schröter (SPD, social and culture), Christoph shrink (CDU, town development) and franc Jauch (SPD, finances, order, security). Jürgen Haschke, Dr. Gudrun Lukin, Dr. From Albrecht Schröter, Marco Schrul and Christoph shrink stand as a candidate with the elections 2006 for the office of the mayor.

Mayor since 1922

chairman of the town councillor

  • 1990-1999: Dr. Rainer Oloff
  • 1999-2004: Professor. Dr. Gustav Adolf Biewald (CDU)
  • since 2004: Dr. Gudrun Lukin (Party of Democratic Socialism)

allocation of seats in the town councillor

Party of Democratic Socialism CDU SPD the GREEN citizen for Jena FDP parliamentary group lot entire
11 10 8 6 5 4 2 46

coats of arms

the coat of arms of the city Jena shows a silver-blue dressed angel with long golden hair as well as golden nimbus, Harnisch, helmet and wing in silver; pushing with that rights a green kite a lance in the throats, in that linking golden sign with put up black lion holding; the left foot stands on the kite. Under the kite a small silver sign with blue Weintraube. The city flag is lengthwise in the colors blue-yellowish white, occupied with the Stadtwappen.

The coat of arms figure represents the ore gel Michael . The Weintraube symbolizes the once flowering viticulture in Jena. The lion was taken up as coat of arms figure of the Mr. von Meissen, when the city turned into to the land counts from Thuringia. The coat of arms figures were taken over from the historical seal of the city, which is already very old. In its current form the coat of arms was specified last by the main statute of the city in the year 1999.

a partnership between cities maintains partnerships between cities Jena with the following cities:

Lugoj, Romania - since 1983, attaining,
Bavaria - since 1987 San Marcos
(Nicaragua), Nicaragua - since 1996 Aubervilliers,
France renews 1993 - since 1999

economics and infrastructure

traffic

by the southern city leads the federal motorway 4 Erfurt Dresden in west east direction. The city has connection points in Jena Göschwitz and Jena Lobeda. Furthermore the federal highway 7 and the federal highway 88 lead by Jena.

The city is also a course junction. Here the main line Munich-Nürnberg--resound/Leipzig Berlin and the center Germany connection Weimar Glauchau (wood land course cross, in former times Weimar Gera course). Jena has two stations and four critical points. All courses in east west direction drive new ones over the critical point „give “at the southeast edge of the city, the station Göschwitz and the station Jena west (in former times Weimar Gera station, then west station). The connections in north south direction (hall course) run over the critical point Jena Zwätzen, the hall station (in former times the main station of Jena), Jena Paradies (ICE critical point) and the station Göschwitz. The two lines meet far outside of the city centre at the station Göschwitz (which into the 1970 - and -80er years as main station was planned). To 12. June 2005 became the newly built modern ICE - critical point Jena Paradies opens, which replaces a provisional wood platform plant operated up to then.

Serve the public local passenger traffic (ÖPNV) streetcar - and Buslinien of the Jenaer suburban traffic company ltd. (JeNah). For the streetcar net there are also two night lines, which operate once per hour. Some localities can be achieved only with the supraregional local passenger traffic of the JES public transport company ltd.

Due to several barrage weirs the Saale is today no longer navigable with Jena. In former times a point of application for smaller cargo boats and by Jena was the wood from the Thüringer wood country was geflösst here.

See also to suburban traffic belonged in

Jena [to work on

]

economic situation Jena to the three upper centers of Thuringia. That is called it oscillates for working more employees to Jena than away from Jena. In addition Jena beside Erfurt and Ilmenau are called one of the three technology locations of Thuringia. The economic strength points itself also to the unemployment ratio, where Jena with 12,6% (December 2005) the far under state average of 15,2% (December 2005) and under the Ostdurchschhnitt of 17,3% (December 2005). Jena lies nevertheless over the Federal average of 11,1% (December 2005).

resident enterprise

in Jena has those wood and paper trade long tradition. Today there is however only a paper factory in Porstendorf.

Since that 19. Century became in Jena the glass and optics industry resident. By inventions, which revolutionized the microscope and which are development of the Planetariums the residents enterprises today world-wide well-known. After that 2. World war the enterprises Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH and BULKHEAD JENAer GLASS of GmbH through emigrierte and created abgeworbene scientists and employees in West Germany again. Until July 1945 was dismantled a majority of the machines and shifted together with large parts know-how into the American zone of occupation. Afterwards something similar with the remaining remainder took place under Russian occupation. Since the Carl Zeiss donation possessed validity however alone in Jena, the enterprise was again organized gradually in Jena. From this later the collective combine VEB Carl Zeiss Jena developed. The bulkhead works were likewise converted into a collective combine. Additionally a pharmaceutical branch in form of the JenaPharm developed in the GDR time in Jena.

After the turn the state-owned large collective combine Carl Zeiss, which had nearly all optical enterprises within the GDR, was denationalized. Carl Zeiss upper cooking took the responsibility for the optical core business. For the predominant part of the Jenaer works a Sanierer was found searched - and with Lothar Späth. In Jena thus the Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH developed as subsidiary company of Zeiss upper cooking and the Jenoptik GmbH as a right successor of the former collective combine with Späth at the point. 1996 dared the Jenoptik as corporation the step to the stock exchange.

In the meantime the optical industry developed in Jena excellently: a multiplicity of highly innovative new enterprises developed, which contribute and partly even state the world market. The interests of the enterprises and institutes in the area of the optical technologies become of the firm group OptoNet registered association. represented.

With the Intershop Communications AG a company developed for the development of software for the so-called eCommerce. After financial difficulties today only a small part at coworkers remained remaining. The name Intershop is an allusion on the Intershop - shops in the GDR, in which west commodity was sold against west money.

Besides also a quantity of small enterprises within the range of the Internet trade were established. They were created partially with former coworkers by Intershop Communications AG. In the course of the successful application as bio region in addition numerous biotechnology enterprises were based.

The company Jenapharm could not maintain ground in the competition and by the Schering AG was bought up. A whole number of pharmaceutical institutes in their surrounding field in Jena settled. Starting from 2006 the Schering AG shifts to enterprise Weimar and Berlin. The Jenapharm GmbH & CO kg will only continue to exist the name to in Jena: She is to take over the location management as an operator company.

there

are media in Jena restaurant editorships of the daily papers Ostthüringer newspaper (OTZ, come out from the central executive body of the SED in the district Gera “is awake”) and the present-weaker Thuringian national newspaper (TLZ). Both belong to the group of newspapers Thuringia (WAZ - company). The open channel Jena, a Radiosender, sends since 1998 on 103.4 MHz (UKW) and in the cable on 107.90 MHz. Further there is a TV-transmitter JenaTV, which feeds since 1998 moving picture messages in and from Jena into the local cable system. The moreover one appear to Akrützel at the Friedrich Schiller university Jena, the FH Jena and at some High Schools the student newspapers, the root and Unique.

public mechanisms

in Jena is an agency of the German patent and mark office, whose head office is in Munich.

education and research

in the Saalestadt settled in neighbourhood to the steeped in tradition Friedrich Schiller university and the 1991 created professional school Jena numerous institutes and small biotechnology - enterprise, the basic research to operate or medical instruments develop. Many academic institutes and starting UP enterprises are settled at the hiving mountain Campus. Jena belonged to the BioRegio - group and operates a bio instrument center for the promotion of Biotech enterprises. In addition Jena is the only city in the Free State Thuringia with a full university and possesses a professional school. In Jena over 20.000 students are trained clearly at present.

further research establishments::

  • Leibniz institute for natural substance research and infection biology - Hans Knöll institute registered association. - (HKI)
  • Leibniz institute for age research - Fritz Lipmann institute (FLI, in former times IMB)
  • institute for Max-Planck for bio geochemistry
  • institute for Max-Planck for chemical ecology
  • institute for Max-Planck for Ökonomik
  • institute for Fraunhofer for applied optics and precision mechanics (IOF)
  • Institut for physical high technology (IPHT)
special ones schools

public education and Reformpädagogik have long tradition in Jena. Center 19. Century worked the paedagogue Karl Volkmar Stoy here. In the summer 1853 is it with an entire school by the landscape pulled and so the moving day invented. The school created by it 1844 was one first with cultivated gymnasium. Today an occupation school center carries for its names. Beginning 20. Century created Hermann Pistor a technical school for ophthalmic optics and the paedagogue Peter Petersen developed that Jena plan - model at the university in the city.

A free Rudolf Steiner School in the south and a European school in the quarter alto Lobeda exist. The integrated comprehensive school “Grete impure” developed 1991 as a special model with the transformation “Erich wine ore - for school " to the Leutra to the primary school. In Jena the special High School „Carl Zeiss “, with emphasis on mathematics and natural sciences are, and „Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths High School “in the range sport. Under nationalchurch working group stands the Christian High School Jena.

law

leisure and sports sites

in Jena are several sports fields. The largest is the seriousness Abbe athletic ground, with a capacity of 12.000 spectators. In addition come the post office sports field into Jena east, beside the east bath and a sports field into Jena Zwätzen. In praise since west a sport resounding complex with a spectator capacity of 1.000 spectators exists. In addition sport resounding of various schools, as well as the sport resounding complex of the TuS come - Jena opposite the seriousness Abbe athletic ground. This is used also by the sport High School. Dogs a training plant is in the close of the land count.

In former times existed in the city centre the people bath, an indoor swimming pool and Saunakomplex at the bus station. This was shut down after the establishment of the leisure time swimming pool Galaxsea in Jena Winzerla. Afterwards theatre performances and discotheques were organized here. There are plans to remove the people bath to a cure complex with attached health center. A further indoor swimming pool exists in praise since west. This is used mainly by the school sport and by associations. Jena has with „the Galaxsea “its own leisure time swimming pool. This possesses a sport basin, which is used by associations and schools beside some fun basins also. Set up on the area of the leisure time swimming pool in the winter a mobile ice-run-resounds.

On the Saale becomes in the warm season water haven in the form of Kanu -, Kajak - and rowing boat driving operated. The largest clubs in this connection are settled on the opposite hall bank of the stadium. Here also a Slalomstrecke on the river is installed.

In the quarter Münchenroda is the golf course of the gulf club Weimar Jena registered association.

The Flugsport is settled at the airfield Schöngleina. Occasionally hanging gliders -, paraglider - and engine screen fliers use the slopes around Jena for starting and flying. The Paradies is used in good weather as starting and landing zone for hot-air balloon travels and their Rallyes.

culture and objects of interest

theatre

Philharmonic Concert Halls

The Jenaer Philharmonic Concert Hallwas created 1934 as a concert orchestra and extended 1969 on its current size. To it also three choirs belong: Philharmoni choir (based 1970), boy choir (1976) and Madrigalkreis (1968).
Botanischer Garten Jena
Botani garden Jena

museums

in the city museum Göhre gives it beside a museum to the urban history also to itinerant exhibitions. The bulkhead glass museum offers views of production and use of glass as well as over the family background of Dr. Otto bulkhead, the founder of the Jenaer of glass work and inventor of the fireproof glass. In the optical museum one finds an exhibition for history and the function mode of optical devices, like eyeglasses or microscopes. One finds biological exhibitions in the Phyleti museum and in the Botani garden. Literary exhibitions are to be found in the romantic house and in the Goethe memorial place. There is a memorial place in the municipality Cospeda to the battle with Jena and Auerstädt.

Wanderaustellungen are not only in the Göhre to find but also in the bulkhead mansion or the princess lock.

there

are monuments in Jena several Holocaustdenkmäler. Among other things several Gedenktafeln for the prisoners of the concentration camp beech forest on B 7, who went past here on their death march for the end of the Second World War , hang. On the west station a Gedenktafel, there from here the Jews , hangs Roma and Sinti into the courses for the concentration camps was shipped. A monument stands at B 7 between Johanniskirche and peace church. On the stone the saying stands „for the dead ones to the memory, the murderers to the dishonor, the living person for reminder “.

To the most important war monuments a soldier monument on the north cemetery, as well as the monument on the peace mountain belong.

„there were seven miracles “

of Jena in Jena seven so-called miracles, with those the city already in 17. Jh. over its borders away recruited. Today still five of these miracles at that time are present (all except Pons and Domus). Latin noticing saying, which one already should at that time have known as a student of the Jenaer university by heart, reads: “Era, caput, draco, mons, pons, vulpecula turris, Weigeliana domus, septem miracula Jenae” (altar, head, kite, mountain, bridge, fox tower, Weigel house, the seven miracles of Jena).

  • One of the seven miracles is a cross elbow under the altar (era) of the town church, which at that time only approach road to 1301 the created Cistercian monastery was.
  • The snatching Hans (Hans of those) (Caput =Das head) at the city hall snatches to each full hour at a golden ball at a staff, which a pilgrim holds, who stands to the left of the clock on a base. The ball is to represent one the famous Thüringer Klösse. A legend means that the world would go down, if it can snatch these. On the right of the clock is an angel, who holds a bell in the hands before the body. This figure induces itself to the quarter of an hour impact.

The original snatching Hans is to be seen today in the city museum. At the city hall today a copy “snatches”. Only the very hagere (hungry) head is to be seen by the snatching Hans at the city hall.

  • A kite statue (Draco) with seven heads, four legs, two arms and four tails became at the beginning 16. Jh. probably as fun of Jenaer student made, from animal bones, wire and Pappmachè; Draco is to be admired in the city museum.
  • The mountain (Mons) means the most salient mountain of Jena, the Jenzig, a 365m high shelly limestone mountain with a salient bald place, the nose in such a way specified.
  • The old Camsdorfer bridge (Pons), a stone elbow bridge, existed 1912 of a new bridge with its 9 elbows for approximately 1480 and had to yield. On it also a chapel, it was belonged to its construction period to the largest bridges of Germany. The newly built bridge was blown up 1945 by German troops, which was actually senseless, since the Americans had already crossed the Saale in another place. In the GDR time the bridge was developed with the help of the Russian Besatzer again and carried therefore for the names „bridge of the GermanSoviet friendship “. It was the first building of Jena, which was again-built after the war. The new Camsdorfer bridge had to be reorganized 2005. Plans Jenaer citizen insist to let also the small chapel arise on the bridge with the coat of arms of Jena shared angel residents of Munich of an artist on the roof again. Straight one of this salient work of art exists however only a photo.
  • The fox tower (Vulpecula Turris) is an old donjon on the house mountain, that to the castle Kirchberg belonged (not to the Königspfalz Kirchberg, which lay western of it). Over it there are several legends. One means that here the soil under the feet of a giant opened itself and devoured it; only its small finger exceeds until today in shape of the tower still. Further legends climb around coming off its current name. With the fox tower is today a popular trip restaurant. In former times wild pigs and perhaps also foxes were held there.
  • The last miracle of Jena was that 1898 for the widening of a road torn off Weigel house (Weigeliana Domus). It stood for 17 with the town church and owed its fame to mathematics professor Erhard Weigel from that. Century. It had let insert many technical finesses, among other things a wine line from the cellar, an elevator with pulley-block principle and is enough for tubes by the whole house to by the roof for star observation also by day.

archives

  • city archives
  • enterprise archives BULKHEAD JENAer GLASS of GmbH
  • enterprise archives Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH
  • archives of the Friedrich Schiller university Jena

buildings

JenTower in Jena
Stadtmauer between Johannisturm and powder tower in Jena.
Marktplatz Jena
Market place Jena
anatomy tower Jena

the most salient building in Jena and landmark is the JenTower (in the vernacular university tower or “cookie role”), the highest office building in the new Lands of the Federal Republic. Besides there is still the old, no more in enterprise standing TV tower on the land count, and the tower remnants of the old Stadtmauer. In addition belong the 1995 with repair works (however in the meantime again developed) red tower at the southeast end, the anatomy tower, in the Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, collapsed , researched and with C.J. Blaze to the Zwischenkieferknochen discovered, at the southwest end and the Johannistor at the western end of the old town centre. From the Johannistor a short piece of wall runs, on that the so-called. House on the wall stands, up to the former powder tower in the northwest of the town centre.

Within the town centre one finds the Collegium Jenense, an old university building, which was furnished in a former monastery. At the historical market place also the Göhre is beside the historical city hall with the snatching Hans, in which the city museum is. On the market place a monument of Johann Friedrich I. stands., „the largecourageous “, the founder of the Jenaer university. In Jena it is called also „Hanfried “. Because of the northeast end that is to university main building. It became 1905 - 1908 builds. In its place stood up to then the old Jenaer city lock, which was torn off particularly for it. Of the lock today only the old lock well in the inner court reminds.

If one leaves the town centre in northern direction, then one comes to the again built Thüringer university and federal state library (short ThULB). The building contains nearly all libraries of the Friedrich Schiller university, as well as a large restoration - and digitization workshop. To the left of the ThULB, northward, the Botani garden is and directly behind it to 18. July 1926 opened Zeiss Planetarium. It is the oldest received planet air around building. To the Planetarium that comes Griesbach summer-house, also Prinzessinnenschlös mentioned, with a large garden plant.

If one leaves the town centre westward, then one meets one of the first German multistoried buildings which at the seriousness Abbe place is. Besides is the shopping centre Goethe gallery, which was built on a former factory site of the Carl Zeiss of collective combine. On one of the buildings between seriousness Abbe place and the gallery one finds a small dome, where the first performances of the Planetariums were accomplished.

If one crosses the Goethe gallery of far direction the west, then one arrives at a place, which borders on the gallery, the community center, as well as the old hospital area brook route. At the place a monument is built in form of a temple for Ernst Abbe, which represents art nouveau with its roof structure. The community center contains today not only halls for various meetings and performances and the sample areas of the Jenaer Philharmonic Concert Halls, but also a majority of the Jenaer municipal library, the seriousness Abbe library.

If one leaves the town centre of the anatomy tower from southward, then one comes to the Schillerhaus with garden and the theatre, from which today only the stage area stands. In Schillergäs is the people observatory Urania Jena. Here regularly public sky observations and astronomical lectures are offered.

If one goes from the town centre out of eastward and if the Saale crosses bridge over the new Camsdorfer, then one to the hotel the Green fir, the establishment place the Jenai Burschenschaft, which are called today the Urburschenschaft , comes. The hotel is today in the possession of the Burschenschaft Arminia on the castle cellar.

bridges

Jena is by the Saale divided, which made several bridges necessary. The old Camsdorfer bridge, which belongs to the seven city miracles, was cleared away starting from July 1912 and replaced until November 1913 by a broader, in order to become fair that more strongly becoming traffic. The Camsdorfer bridge blown up in the Second World War by the armed forces was again developed 1946 with the help of the Soviet army and had to be reorganized due to serious damage in the year 2005 completely.

Long time was the Camsdorfer bridge the only transition in the Jenaer city, passable in the heavy transport.

Further bridges became only in outgoing 19. Century builds. Like that there was the contactor bridge (since 1882) and the meadow bar, which had above all meaning for the pedestrian traffic. This had with to move building activity in Obercamsdorf and few Jena do. 1927/1928 the contactor bridge was replaced by the some meters upstream again built Paradiesbrücke. The meadow bar got somewhat upstream the convenient Griesbrücke as replacement. Between the south quarter and the Oberaue is a footbridge. After incorporation of different surrounding villages the bridge between Zwätzen and Kunitz , as well as the Burgauer bridge and the Mauaer bridge were added . Into the 1980er years became between new Lobeda - west and Göschwitz a further bridge establish. Only into the 1990er years then the evasion was placed from few Jena completely, the Jena east with the city center by the meadow bridge, (Jenzigweg/Löbstedter road) connects.

The bridge in Burgau was blown up, like the remaining Jenaer bridges also , 1945. It is today, after their reconstruction, closed for motor vehicles and corresponds in their figurative and constructional feature to the medieval model. The motor traffic is led over a new building bridge from the 1990er years. For the streetcar into the Oberaue a separate bridge one established. Only in Burgau and to the Paradiesbrücke existing bridges were used from the 1940er years.

castles and attachment plants

Lobdeburg bei Jena-Lobeda
Lobdeburg with Jena Lobeda

of the former castles of Jena are today only ruins or small parts available. The southernmost castle is the upper Lobdeburg. The lower Lobdeburg is directly in Lobeda. A further castle of the Lobdeburger was in the local situation of Burgau. On the Johannisberg (between Lobeda and Wöllnitz) are directly several attachment plants. The youngest of the barrier plants originates from the time 7. - 9. Jh. East the town centre are equal 4 former attachment plants. The fox tower is remaining remained tower from that of the 12. Century due castle plant Kirchberg. From west to east one finds the remainders of the castles grab mountain, Königspfalz Kirchberg (10. Century), castle Kirchberg (12.Jh.) and wind mountain. Further north, on the Jenzig is a stone-temporal barrier plant. In the north one finds the ruin Kunitzburg, actually to castle track mountain, former seat of Reichsministerialen.

In Jena was on the area of the today's main building of the Friedrich Schiller university the city lock, which from 1670 to 1692 seat of the government of the duchy was Saxonia Jena. This had to yield the new university construction, which was inaugurated 1908 on the occasion of the 350-jährigen Universitätsjubliläums.

churches

evangelische Stadtkirche „St. Michael“ im Stadtzentrum
Evangelist town church „pc. Michael “in the city centre

in the city centre is the lategothical dreischiffige town church pc. Michael, the Evangelist Parochialkirche (main church) Jena. Its building of predecessors, a old-Roman parish church, experienced several changes; the largest made with the 1301 took place establishment of the Cistercian nun monastery (today no longer existence). Over the age of this building of predecessors there are different Lehrmeinungen. It is most likely due to the emergence of the German market settlement in 12. Developed for century, as successors of the church today in few Jena. The today's resounding church became after two buildings of predecessors 1380 - 1506 (completion of the nave) establish; the tower became from 1486 - 1557 builds. It is considered as the largest resounding church of east Thuringia. Martin Luther had several times preached here; its gravestone (however not its grave) is since here 1571.

As the oldest still existing church of Jena the Roman-catholic church pc. is considered. Johannes Baptist in the city centre in would dare-suppl.-eat. The first part is in the 11. Century built its, whereby after newest research of the city archaeology within this range no finds could be made from this time.

Close one of the catholic church stands the former garrison church peace church, actually for Johann George church, on the Johannesfriedhof. After Jena became 1672 capital of the duchy Saxonia Weimar, one built the church on the area of the old Johannisfriedhofes on recommending Johann George II., duke of Saxonia iron oh, in the years 1686 - 1693, her were designated after her founder.

Further churches played an important role in the urban history, like e.g. the Kollegienkirche, which was the university church of the Collegium Jenense, developed from the former Dominikanerkloster at the southwest end of the old part of town. Not far of it, at the angel place, the Karmeliterkloster was. For the travelers and patients above all the church was pc. Nicolaus a place of the prayer, which stood before the city in the range of the today's Spittelplatzes.

One of the buildings of predecessors of the Schillerkirche “our dear wives” pc. Marien was according to opinion of some researchers the church of the old “Jani”, which is mentioned also 937 in connection with the castle Kirchberg. The first parts the today's Schillerkirche became in 14. - 15. Century establishes; building the nave only 1557 “provisionally” was terminated. The church received its names, because to 22.2.1790 Friedrich the Schiller and Charlotte of Lengefeld were trusted here.

The village church pc. places the leftovers of the seat of the former Deutschordensballei Thuringia. Marien in Zwätzen.

The church pc. Peter in Lobeda is probably the oldest church in the area around Jena, since it concerns here a so-called Urpfarrei, which was up to the reformation center of the Dekanats Lobeda within the diocese Naumburg.

In the church in Drackendorf is the burial place of the family of Ziegesar, close friends of Goethe. Likewise here the “bird minister” preached to Christian Ludwig Brehm.

After newest research originated in from in 9. Liuthraha the place Leutra with the former military church in the Leutratal mentioned century.

one discovered cemeteries the oldest cemetery in Jena within the range of the church of “our dear wives” in few Jena. It hands in 9. Century back. Therefore by city archaeologists Matthias Rupp is accepted that in few Jena the origin and the first settlement area of Jena lie.

The largest cemetery in Jena is the north cemetery, in second place stands the east cemetery (1912 inaugurated). Besides there is still the historically interesting Johannisfriedhof, which was probably established in the course of the regular city plant of Jena outside of the Stadtmauern and used since the Middle Ages. In the course 19. Jh. it too small for the expanding city and was put in such a way the foundation-stone for the north cemetery; the Johannisfriedhof is only used since 1978 as park. On its area is the Schillerkirche. The Johannisfriedhof extended in former times also up to the catholic church, however he was Weimar strongly made smaller by the building of the today's federal highway after B7.

Further cemeteries are in the respective eingemeindeten villages.

In the churches of the city is above all grave clutch of eggs of the ministers and makes gentlemen of the city Jena. Thus there were these in pc. Michael, in the Kollegienkirche, the Karmeliterkloster, in the hospital and to pc. Nicolaus.

park

  • Paradies: historical park in the Saaleaue between Saale and city centre
  • Oberaue park plant between Saale and core mountains, into also the sports stadiums of the city lie with historical wells and a protected area.
  • Botani garden
  • semolina-Bach garden
  • peace mountain with war memorial
  • Goethe park in Jena Drackendorf
  • Schillers garden with little house Gartenzinne (1740/1798, today reproduction of 1979), in which it wrote parts boiling stone.

regular meetings

  • April: Black beer night
  • April/May: Cellu l'art short film celebration
  • May: Well celebration at the romantic house
  • June: Museum market on the market place
  • July until August: Culture arena - sechswöchiges open air music festival in the center
  • Septembers: Jenaer jazz days
  • Septembers/Octobers: Old part of town celebration
  • Octobers/November: Irish days
  • November: Theatre in motion - international dance and Bewegungstheaterfestival (every 2 years)
  • Decembers: Weihnachtsmarkt

other leisure-time facilities

important centers of the Jenaer of night life are beside some clubs and discotheques would dare-suppl.-eat and their closer environment; here above all taverns and Cafés are settled.

personalities

honour citizens

see: List of the honour citizens of Jena

sons and daughters of the city

not in Jena the following persons, who worked however in Jena, are born:

indication of source

<of references/>

literature

  • “German city book. Manual of urban history " volume II Central Germany - on behalf the conference of the nationalhistorical commissions of Germany with the support of the German municipality daily, hrsg. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart, 1941
  • “school TZE. J. H.: Jena. Become, growth and. Growth prospects D. University and. Industrial city " publishing house G. Fischer, Jena, 1955 - detailed work for the planning of the town development (only second-hand available).

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