Jerzy Grotowski (* 11. November 1933 in Rzeszów, Poland; † 14. January 1999 in Pontedera, Italy) was a Polish director and theatre theoretician. It is considered as one of the prominent representatives of the theatres avant-garde 20. Century.
Table of contents
up to beginning of the Second World War its family in Przemyśl lived and was then separated. Its nut/mother pulled with him into a small village and its father became an officer of the Polish army. After the surrender of Poland 1939 the father fled to England and became a soldier of a Polish division within the British army.
1955 terminated Grotowski a play study in Kraków (Krakau) and went then to Moscow. There he learned the theatre art of the Russian Avantgardisten, in addition, the actor training methods Stanislawskis, which „rhythmic exercises “of Charles Dullin, which „biomechanical training “ Meyerholds as well as Wachtangows synthesis, which likewise like Berthold break or Antonin Artaud affected him. it turned 1956 after a journey to Central Asia and China, where it the Peking opera, that studied Indian Kathakali and the Japanese NO theatre, to Poland to the play school in Krakau back, in order to begin a direction study, which it locked 1960 with the direction diploma.
the Teatr laboratory
still during the study he took over 1959 with the literary critic Ludwik Flaszen (* 1930) the Teatr 13 Rzędów, the theatre of the 13 rows (34 places) in Opole (Oppeln), which was renamed later in Teatr laboratory 13 Rzędów. To the initial members the actors Rena Mirecka, Antoni Jaholkowski and Zygmunt Molik, later then still to Ryszard Cieślak and Zbygniew Cynkutis, belonged which should work up to the end of the laboratory with Grotowski. Before it had already led with different stages and with the Polish broadcast direction. Between 1961 to 1968 Grotowski concerned itself mainly with the training of the actors. One its pupil in this time in Opole was Eugenio Barba, which created the Odin Teatret in Oslo later on the bases of its work with Grotowski (see in addition also: Road theatre).
To 2. January 1965 moved the theatre after Wrocław (Breslau) and got there the official status of an institute. The complete name was: Theatre laboratory of the 13 rows - Forschungsinstitut for schauspielerische method (starting from 1966 the thirteen rows in the title were painted, starting from 1975 only: Institut laboratory). The o. g. Actor trunk was extended Andrzej Paluchiewicz and Stanisław Scierski, with which it could convert and again invent its ideas of a theatre released from all chains by Elizabeth Albahaca. Irena Rycyk, Zbigniew Kosłowski, Teo Spychalski and Jacek Smisłowski were added still later, whereby it is to be noticed that there was a certain fluctuation among the actors of the laboratory (all on this side specified however remained from their respective entrance over the entire creative period and led partly also the following institutes).
Grotowskis of goals
Grotowski wanted to reach a Zurückbesinnen cleaned by all abundance of the theatre apparatus („rich the theatre “) on the Urgrund of the play art. It tries to disinhibit the actor to loosen its Physis to break and to it „its mask take its psyche “, so that the actor steps the public, which he raises too „witnesses “, quasi „naked “opposite. It uses a hard physical and psychological training, because it requires „a itself exceeding of the actor “, as well as the exact analysis of the individual processes by special sciences. „The actor is at least in his role of creators, model and creation in one “, like that Grotowski. The work and way of life of its ensemble correspond to this requirement: freiwilliger renouncement of material goods, sparkling wine-like living together, collective invention and a high Ethos.
- Orpheus after Jean Cocteau (1959)
- Kain after lord Byron (1960; is considered as the first important performance; means contains of the Pantomime, and Kabarett, fights with tennis racquets, rings and boxes) fist
- of the satire after Goethe (1960 outside of the own theatre with other actors)
- Mysterium buffo after Majakowski (1960; in addition inspired by the text the sweating bath of the same author, is considered it as biting argument with the civil art)
- to Schakuntala after potash Daimler Benz Aerospace AG (1960; extended by fragments from the Kamasutra, with only few actors occupies: Characteristic were artificial language and gestures, the costumes by children of a school for screen end of arts were sketched)
- the dead celebration after Adam Mickiewicz (1961; for the first time between the public, which also certain roles will transfer) Kordian
- is played after Juliusz Słowacki (1962; the action place is shifted into a psychiatric hospital, it gives several floor beds, on which the actors act in the midst of the public and who sit spectators)
- to Akropolis after Stanisław Wyspiański (1. Version 1962; the action is shifted into Nazi table a concentration camp, the actors builds during the performance an absurd stand from pipes: „Work frees! “to disappear around thereafter closed into a symbolic Gaskammer)
- Akropolis (2. Version 1962)
- Dr. Faustus after Marlowe (1963; the spectators are guests with the parting meal of the Faustus, sit at tables, on which the actors act)
- study over Hamlet after Shakespeare /Wyspia ński (1964; in an empty hall, the spectators sits at the walls) Akropolis
- ( 3 is played. Version 1964)
- Akropolis (4. Version 1965)
- The ul prince after Calderón /S łowacki (1. Version 1965; the action is a factor behind four Holzwänden, the spectators must over these look as into a kind „lion pit “; the parade figure of the Ryszard Cieślak)ful
- the ul prince (2. Version 1965)
- Akropolis (5. Version 1967)
- The ul prince (3. Version 1968)
- Apocalypsis cum figuris after texts from the Bible/Dostojewski /S łowacki/T. S. Eliot/Simone because (1. Version 1969; under the work title developed , just as affected by of Thomas's man doctor Faustus , to the spectator the role comes to gospels as „a witness “. A critic wrote: there are „six actors… and the spectators. Otherwise there was only a loaf bread, a bucket water, a measurer, a towel, candles and two headlights. That and only that. “)
(„after “it shows that Grotowski produced never „away from the sheet “, but the collecting mains by z. B. free improvisations and associations of the actors „invented completely again “; the different versions show that the productions were never completely final, but part one „alive process “, so Grotowski!)
Afterwards Grotowski, mainly with the actor, made who its principles to most embodied: Ryszard Cieślak, widens journeys, around its theory and practice in lectures, seminars, tours and Theaterfestivals in the whole world (z. B. to present the theatre of the nations 1967 in Paris and 1975 in Warsaw or in the culture competition, which accompanied 1972 the olympic plays in Munich). Both received numerous
honors (a selection):
- state State of 1. Class Polish People's Republic in the area of the art,
- tidy professor of the Ecole Supérieure D' kind Dramatique in Marseille,
- honour doctor title of the university in Pittsburgh,
- earnings/service diploma of the national museum of the USA Smithsonian of institutes in Washington „for the outstanding contribution for the development of the world theatre “.
- of best actors off Broadway of the season 1969/70 in two categories (for the first time to an actor, that not in English plays!).
„the Special Projects “
1975 carried out Grotowski the most drastic step in its development: it turned away from theatre in the sense of a performance consistently and full-led only „Special so mentioned Projects “, thus paratheatralische experiments and self experience practical courses, in which the participants are encountered unexpected tasks and situations and which went usually over several days in free nature.
After the end of the theatre laboratory Grotowskis created personal female assistant of many years Teresa Nawrot 1984 Ausbildungsinstitut for play, in which his method is maintained and developed further. At present this Institut under the name Reduta Berlin exists. Other actors opened different institutes, which concerned themselves with aspects of the theatre and actor work Grotowskis and these common.
Grotowskis Charisma let grow up it fast to a new theatre guru, which caused refusal and even disgust at conventional theatre public, however followed it the young actors in the spirit of the youth movements of 1968 as young. Grotowski created also the theoretical basis for its work by its writings, which demanded „a poor theatre “, thus a theatre limited by all redundant Requisiten released and only to the actor and its art. It practiced a large influence on many actors, directors (here above all: Peter Brook!) and free groups of theatres out.
Web on the left of and books
| | * Literature of and over Jerzy Grotowski in the catalog of the DDB
- Burzyński, Tadeusz and Osiński, Zbigniew: The theatre laboratory Grotowskis, publishing house inter+press, Warszawa 1979 (in Poland appeared on German, it offers the best view of outstanding ones of the entire work Grotowskis and a great many photos!).
- Brown-hit a corner, Manfred: Theatre in 20. Century, Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1982, ISBN 3499162903 (several chapters of and to Grotowski contain).
- Shawn, Wallace and André Gregory: My meal with André. A film script, Alexander publishing house 2003, ISBN 3895811033 (the film script of the film of the same name of Louis Malle, in which two men, of it a Project “Grotowskis, speak visited a straight „Special about the sense of the life. The film is naturally also extremely interesting!).
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Polish director|
|DATE OF BIRTH||11. November 1933|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rzeszów, Poland|
|DYING DATE||14. January 1999|
|DYING PLACE||Pontederra, Italy|