Jiajing 嘉靖 (* 16. September 1507; † 23. January 1567), birth name: Zhu Houcong 朱厚熜, temple name: Shizong 世宗, was the elfte Chinese emperor of the Ming dynasty. It prevailed from 1521 to 1567 over China.
Emperor Zhengde did not have sons, so that the kite throne at Jiajing was left, which Zhengde had adopted before. Jiajing was a descendant of a younger son of emperor Chenghua and a Konkubine from Hangzhou. Its nut/mother was introduced and trained by a Eunuchen, e.g. learned she, hundreds of seaweed - to rezitieren poems, in order to impress the emperor. Jiajing was since its twelfth Lebensjahr as a heir to the throne auserkoren, yet him his adoption status and it insulted tried this fact to erase. Officially given it would have inherited the throne alone over its physical parents. It gave a posthumen emperor title to its father and made his nut/mother the empress widow. It let the Mausoleum of its parents build as emperor grave complex again. As a founder of a new Nebenlinie of the dominant dynasty, he builds his own Mausoleum in the Ming graves just as magnificently and expanded as that one from emperor Yongle.
Under the Ming emperors it is singular that Jiajing was a glowing Verehrer of the Daoismus, which looked unyieldingly for the Elixier of the immortality. It spent enormous sums, in order to establish in Peking daoistische temples, equipped with special inventory for the production of Elixieren from beads, Ambra and gold. However for the execution of a only one daoistischen ceremony, which lasted over 12 hours, thousands ounces gold were spent. Texts were out gold-deaf written, which the man of letters with their brushes gathered. The emperor looked for again and again the contact with the spirit world, gave to Omen largest attention, tried however the Buddhismus to suppress. Even the buddhistischen temple in the forbidden city it let 1536 clear away. In addition it forbade the use of pictures in konfuzianischen temples.
Jiajing was considered as moody and up-brew-sends, every now and then inconsiderately opposite everyone. Due to its it escaped 1542 only scarcely from an assassination attempt, implemented from its own Konkubinen. Eighteen palace girls tried to strangle the emperor at the night during it slept, but they used the wrong cord, so that their plan failed. In addition one of the girls warned the empress nut/mother, so that all were exekutiert except it.
Jiajing' s first wife Chen, died 1528 after an abortion, which a rage outbreak of the emperor had released. Its second wife Zhang, was set off 1534 without indication from reasons and died shortly thereafter. The third empress Fang was those, which give the reference to the assassination attempt had. His Konkubine you posthum the empress raised after its son Longqing emperor became.
When Jiajing mounted the throne, he cleaned the yard of that Eunuchen, which had abused their power so openly under Zhengde with the help of the empress widow and the large secretariat. Alone by the Obereunuchen 70 crates gold and 2,200 crates silver were seized and led back the imperial Treasury. As strictly a creditor Daoist it subjected and obeyed themselves to the rules of the Daoismus the maxim of acting by non--acting. Consequently the emperor withdrew himself from the Regierungsgeschäften, appointed however capable Ministers and large secretaries, who had to govern at its place. The length of the Jiajing rule gave stability to the realm of the center, but the Passivität of the emperor favoured corruption among the officials. Large tax revisions as for instance the reform of the work service ensure for the fact that one could pay from now on Frondienst and taxes alone in the form of coins. The financial reforms helped of China economics to recover after the heavy earthquake in Shaanxi in the year 1556 fast again when the yellow river thereupon over the banks had stepped and 830,000 humans came around life.
did not become Jiajing nevertheless with outside problems finished. In the north it succeeded to again-unite and to China break in Altan Khan the Mongolian trunks. In the year 1542 its troops plünderten within a monthly the border region, capture 200,000 Chinese as hostages, stole one million crates with commodities as well as horses and burned thousands of houses. 1550 succeeded to advance it the Mongols even until Peking, only the substantial troop operational readiness level around Peking held the invaders and only with trouble could the Mongols into quilt to be back-thrown. In the southeast Japanese (the Wokou ) and other Piraten controlled the coasts of China. The trade with Japan thereupon adjusted, whereupon the relations with Japan became worse and worse. That led Japanese Piraten to smuggling by the Chinese dealers and still more, since one estimated the Chinese goods in Japan much. The government was to be controlled however unable all waters. As reaction Jiajing 1525 instructed the destruction of all Dschunken with more than three masts, in order to prevent the Schmuggelei. it forbade even the entire foreign trade to 1551. These restrictive edicts were not at all obeyed as well as, smuggling to Japan continued and 1555 even cleared a group from only 70 Piraten the way after Nanjing and plünderte the region for two and a half months unimpaired. 1560 landed 6,000 Japanese and devastated the province Fujian. Only Jiajings successor Longqing succeeded to become it these problems gentleman and permitted the foreign trade again.
With 45 years the secondarylongest reign during the Ming dynasty possibly ended by an overdose mercury.
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||birth name: Zhu Houcong 朱厚熜, temple name: Shizong 世宗|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Chinese emperors of the Ming dynasty|
|DATE OF BIRTH||16. September 1507|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||23. January 1567|