Johann Christian Reil

Johann Christian Reil (* 20. February 1759 in Rhaude (East Frisia); † 22. November 1813 in resounds) was a physician (Stadtphysikus) and professor in resounds and to Berlin and invented 1808 the term “Psychiaterie” [1], from then very fast those“Psychiatry “became.

Table of contents

I. Reil as founders of general and integrativer Psychotherapie

stations of its life

in the ostfriesischen Rhaude asSon of a minister born and grown up. For school dismissal 1779 it carries a poem “praise of the Medicin in verses vorgestellet” forwards. Reil studied first in Goettingen - where Albrecht of Haller (1708-1777) until 1753 taught - until homesickness packed it, then starting from autumn 1780 inResounds. There it attaches its Mentor Goldhagen and becomes member of the Loge “the three swords”, with which Goldhagen has the presidency. 1782 graduation. Afterwards the mandatory Cursus in Berlin with a recommendation at Marcus heart (1747-1803), where it at the mental lifein the surrounding field of the Jewish family heart participates. Afterwards practice in its ostfriesischen Gymnasialstadt the north. 1785 first publication “Diaeteti family doctor for my compatriots”, from whom Reils social and communication-medical request is to already come out. Starting from 1787 Reil is again in resounds - it assumed on suggestionGoldhagens - and becomes private lecturer. Reil participates in from Goldhagen starting from 1786 developed national schola clinica. Here the following stands on the lecture program: Clinical exercises, Pharmakotherapie (special when feverful and chronic illnesses), pathology, pathology, people medicine customer and Ophthalmologie. After death Goldhagens assumptionthe Scholaclinica Halensis - which becomes under it a success enterprise - and Professur 1788. From the status of the Schola a kind more modern poliklinisch internal instruction follows like it „today hardly differently in the outpatient clinic an university clinic is also practiced…” (emperors & Mocek1979, S. 29). 1789 assumption of the Stadtphysikats in resound. 1795 it created and therein from the vitality published „archives for physiology” (see below). Goethe notes 1795 in his diary at the 1. July 1795: ” Yak-generic terms empirical psychology. Reil”. 1802 refusal of an appointment to Goettingen; firstpersonal meeting with Goethe, starting from 1803 one of the body physicians of Goethe, also to 15. August 1803 in the diary to R.s. psychopathologisch psychotherapeutischem Hauptwerk Rhapsodieen… noted:„Mountain advice Reil Danck for its Werck. ” A review of Goethe sent to this to 25. November 1804 at Reil. Out more psychologicallyView impresses its astute, bold, farsighted, humanity and humanity obligated fundamental 1803 published work Rhapsodieen over the application of the psychological Curmethode. It already contains the cure main clause, in that the quantitative relativity, which already formulated Paracelsus - the dose makes the poison - qualitatively generalizedbecame.

It created several psychological magazines, 1805 together with the philosopher Kayssler „the magazine for the psychological medicine”. In this magazine it already develops 1805 the fundamental Jung' self development and the modern human self implementation idea. 1808 and 1812 he gave together with at medicine interestedPhilosopher hoping farmer the two volumes „Beyträge for the transport of a cure method” out. And in the first volume 1808 - year in which it receives to which the honour doctor for philosophy - Reil the term of the Psychiaterie, that invents itself very fast interspersed and within a short time to the psychiatrybecomes. As its book of the vitality its bold and fantastisch seeming ideas of a theatrical and quasi hollywood perfect illusion therapy in completely specific psychopathologischen exceptional cases became just as often vitalistic misunderstood. Source all these bold ideas were always experience, observation and Kasuistik. 1809 opening of the Reil' public swimming poolin resounds. 1810 appointment to ord. Professor to Berlin. 1813 transmission of the supervision over the military hospitals on the left of the Elbe. In evenly this infected it with its activity on the battleground with Leipzig at the typhus fever and it died itself to 22. November 1813 in resounds, lastProfessor of the medical hospital in Berlin.

Ernest Harms appreciates 1960 in the American Psychiatric Association journal Reils conception of the mental disorders as “greatest psychological-biological philosophy” it ever meets is. (after: Ellenberger, H. 1973, Bd. I, S. 300 - see below).

important one theoreticalContributions and orientations

main achievement: General, integrative and interdisciplinary foundation of the Psychotherapie. In connection with Pawlow and the behavior therapy it may interest that Reil already 1795 in its occasionally as romantic or vitalistic misunderstood work over „the vitality” in § 21 (S. 141 FF) the ideathe conditioned reflex as principle of the associative concatenation after time and frequency formulates. Its work over the vitality begins completely unromantisch as follows:„§ 1 the features of animated bodies have excellently in the subject their reason”. Vitality after Reil is only a name forthe laws of nature and rules, which bring lives out from dead subject. The principle of conditioning and associative concatenation formulates Reil 1795 in „§ 21 third law: If several animal organs, which are located with one another in community, in a certain order, i.e. at the same time, or in onedirect consequence cooperate; and these united effects in the same order to be often repeated: thus thereby the organs are so interconnected that, if one from the connected quantity are set by a coincidental cause in activity, the others an inclination to have again to participate. Their activityaccompanied or follows gladly after the activity of the provoked organ. By the way it is einerlei, whether the activities become visible by movements by conceptions or, only must the organs, whose activities are to excite themselves mutually, a certain community with one another have. ”

In § 17 the Rhapsodieen (S.218-19)formulates Reil a empirical-creative concept for the study of the psychological Curmethode:„Therefore it one should for the time being good heads, which genius, sense of sharp, invention spirit and philosophy to have, by exercise as ring ores an experience train. These would use acquaintance with carefulness in the occurring cases, would see her Irrthum soon,thus for opposite methods to be led and gradually of their made experiences general ideas separate, those as future regulation in the type of treatment of the erring serve could.” Modern psychosomatische view of the psychological cure with Reil: „Psychological Curmethoden is thus methodical applications of such means uphumans, who first on the soul the same and these with the intention affect, so that by it the healing of an illness may come. It unimportant therefore in consideration of its term whether they heal an illness of the soul or the body; ” ('4, S. 27/28).

term of the unconscious one already with Reil

also the term of the unconscious one [first denomination: Goethe in its poem 1777 to the moon] was Reil already admits (Rhapsodieen 1803, S. 127): „, Helmont notices some mad ones [demens idea; Opera p. 174], was itself, afterthe accumulation, which symptoms consciously, which had suffered it during the same. Their soul, they stated on their part, sey in the everyday life of the same bey a term stand remained, of that it them occurred sey, as if they would have seen it in the mirror before itself. But seyit them not clearly been that they would have thought the same. Also it several days long confessed seyn, without knowing it, if the accumulation had attacked it in standing. ”

basic axioms of the welfare barness

„it giebt only zwey ways to heal diseases eitherwe erase it directly, or remove the causes, by which them entstehn. We destroy the product, or the forces, produced by which it and in the consequence will originally maintain, and which vegetation destroys the product. A bent tree becomes straight, if it ona bar is bound, or bricked the gust of wind, which curves it, the entrance. All other Curregeln is understood, under these.” And the Primat of the psychological welfare principle „the direct Cur of the insanity, or the medical effect directly on the Theil of the organism, in which the phenomenathe Verrücktheit are first and to-calibrating created, must most probably only by means of the psychological Curmethode take place.” (§. 7. , S. 45). Unit of theory and practice. „Of the difference of the physicians into scientific, in whom knowledge and acting one are, and into empirical, as psychologicalAutomats according to rules act, but are not aware of the reason the same, I at another Ort1 talked.” (1808, S. 173). The relativity principle of the cures: „Cures are things, by whose application to thierische bodies we seek to remove the diseases the same. It is equal much whether these things of physical or immaterial nature, substances of the earth, or ethereal materials are, which belong to the whole universe whether they work by mechanical, chemical or other forces. Their reality is based thus on a relationship, that between them and the purposefinds, which they are to reach. To heal it giebt therefore in the world, which as a Mannichfaltiges exists after the laws of the Causalität, no things, which would be exclusively present to that, diseases. Their appropriateness is conditioned, and so mannichfaltig as the articles, on which itare used. The nemliche thing, which the physician uses for the healing of the diseases, can also different purposes, z. B. for the destruction of the organization to be used, and, in this other relationship, a poison is. The cure teachings do not have thus in the number of the nature things certainArea (dominium), it as Eigenthum controlled, but selects such, which are suited Behufs of the purpose of the healing on the human body from the epitome of all. Their in that areas the same only a place of residence (domicilium) was entitled, to its extent not absolutely limitedis, but after the progress of the art, narrowing ore changes, extends. The nemliche thing is a food, if it replaces the loss at substance in a healthy body; a Arzney, if it repairs the verlohrne health; and a poison, if it destroys the same. Dabeyit remains, actually always the nemliche thing. Therefore each attempt must have an accident, by the Diätetik, pharmaceutics, toxicology etc. determined divorce lines in the nature realm draw, and it as it were into special provinces abzutheilen. ” (Rhapsodieen § 3, S. 23f). Reil recognized numerous psychological cures (- classes). To the organizationa mental hospital:„The physician and psychologist are the next forces, by which the cure of the erring must be managed. They are only different both welfare artists, by the means, which they use, if that one works by pharmaceutische, this by psychological means.” (Rhapsodieen S. 476).

Work on []

Substantial publications of Reil (psychopathologisch, psychologically and psychotherapeutisch)

  • 1794: Over the crises, which are own to the true nervous diseases. Journal
  • 1795: Of the vitality.Archives for the physiology, 8-162. Again presented in the row classical author of the medicine, hsrg. By Karl southhope. Barth, Leipzig 1910. More invariablyReproduction central second-hand bookshop of the GDR, Leipzig 1968.
  • 1799-1815: Over the realization and cure that fever. 5 Bde. Curt' bookshop, resounds
  • 1803: Rapsodieen over the application of the psychological Curmethode to spirit disorders. Curt' Buchhandlungm resounds; Reproduction Bonset Amsterdam.[2]

1808-1812: Contributions for the transport of the psychological Curmethode.Magazine, hrsg.together with the Kantianer J. C. Hoping farmer

1805-1806: Magazine for psychological medicine, magazine, hrsg. together with the nature philosopher Kayssler.

  • Medicin and Pädagogik. Magazine for psychological Heildkunde 1805/1806, S. 411-446.
  • Over the term of the Medicin and their bypasses particularly into relationship on the correctionthe Topik of the Psychiaterie. Contributions for the transport of the psychological Curmethode 1808, S. 161-279
  • the determination of the vegetative pole of the Lebensprocesses by the animalisch sensoriellen, or the reaction of the soul to the body, by a pair Beyspiele describes. Contributions for the transport of the psychological Curmethode 1812, S. 60-69.
  • Over the inability of the soul, too received, by a pair Beyspiele describes the direction. Contributions for the transport of the psychological Curmethode 1812, S. 70-77.
  • Over the interdependence of the entire and self-feelings from each other, and the mutual influence of the entire nervous system on its Theile, visible therein, andthis on that one. Contributions for the transport of the psychological Curmethode 1812, S. 94-112.

literature to Reils of historical role for the Psychotherapie

literature to the Biografie

Boruck, Hans Joachim (1960). GenealogiTables (geneological table La Veaux, geneological table Johann Christian Reil, family tree Johann Christian Reil). In: Mothes, short (1960, Hrsg.), S. 153-159

Eulner, Hans Heinz (1960). (1960). Johann Christian Reil, life and work. In: Mothes, short (1960, Hrsg.), S. 7-50

Gregor, Adalbert (1921). Johann Christian Reil. In: Kirchhoff, Theodor(1921, Hrsg.). German mad physicians. Frames of its life and working, S. 28-42. Berlin: Springer.
Emperor, tungsten & Mocek, Reinhardt (1979). Johann Christian Reil. Leipzig: Teubner.
Emperor, tungsten & peoples, Anna (1989). Johann Christian Reil and its time. Halle Symposion. Resounds: Martin Luther University of resounding joke mountain. Scientific contributions1989/43 (T 73).
Mothes, short (1960, Hrsg.). Johann Christian Reil 1759-1813. New facts Acta Leopoldiana, new one consequence 114, Bd. 22. Leipzig: Barth. [with numerous illustrations and facsimile]
Piechocki, Werner (1960). Johann Christian Reil as Stadtphysikus in resounds. In: Mothes, short (1960, Hrsg.), S. 103-124.
Pönitz, Karl(1960). Johann Christian Reil and the psychiatry. In: Mothes, short (1960, Hrsg.), S. 99-102.

sources of portrait

in Mothes (1960); Emperor, tungsten & Mocek, Reinhardt (1979). Haven advice: Shade tear of unknown of 1791. Copper pass by Hans Veit Friedrich Schnor of Carolsfeld 1799. Painting of JohannFriedrich August table-leg (after 1802). Painting - Reil as knights of the red eagle medal - of Heinrich Anton Dähling 1812. Lithography Leon Noël 1812. Reil Büste of Ernst Rietschel 1852. Haven-guesses/advises Reils on intending medal of J.L. Yacht man 1813. Further illustrations and facsimiles to Reils life, workand environment in Mothes (1960, Hrsg.).

Web on the left of

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| | * Literature of and over Johann Christian Reil in the catalog of the DDB


II.Reil as the medical profession strictly speaking

(a treatment requires by a medicine-historically well-informed one)


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