Johann God-dear spruce

Johann God-dear spruce

Johann God-dear spruce (* 19. May 1762 in Rammenau with Bischofswerda; † 29. January 1814 in Berlin) was a German educator and philosopher. It applies beside Schelling, Kant and Hegelas founders and most important representatives of the German idealism.

Table of contents


youth time

Fichtes father was a poor weber in Rammenau with Bischofswerda. By a strange history spruce arrives at school training. A daily comes the property gentleman baron von Miltitz, that thoseLecture of the Sundays missed, after Rammenau. Spruce notices this property gentleman and insures it all lectures to repeat to be able. Thereupon spruce imitates the minister so perfectly that the property gentleman in its Entzückung it its training at the prince school Schulpforta Naumburg finances.

After its school time spruce pulls to Jena to the study, which makes its financial situation to it more difficult however. Thus a scholarship is refused to it, which good-natured property gentleman deceased. It pierces itself laboriously with private instruction.

Saving offer from Zurichcomes, where spruce is to become house teachers. After not long time the paedagogue however the house is referred, since spruce had the view that one, before one educates children had to educate all only parents to. With Zurich and gets engaged spruce falls in loveitself. After longer consideration whether a marriage cuts off to it not the “wings”, comes it to the marriage ceremony.

After end of the house teacher activity it drives spruce to Leipzig. Fichtes plan to become prince teachers fails. Its second idea, a “magazine for female education”,is too delicate each publisher. Tragedies and novellas bring it no money likewise.

transition to philosophy

anno 1790 becomes acquainted with spruce the philosophy of Kant, which begins to immediately exert a large influence on it. Kant inspired it tooits at the term I aligned science teachings. Spruce saw a radical and systematic organization between „the things appearing like it is “and „like the things “(phenomena) as an invitation to the Skeptizismus.

spruce king mountain visits 1791, where Kanta publisher for its writing attempt of a criticism of all revealing ( 1792) for it provides, which is anonymous published; the book is considered first as a religion-philosophical work of Kant, expected for a long time. When Kant gets the mistake straight is spruce famous, and receivesa chair for philosophy at the university of Jena, which it 1794 start.

Erlangen, Fichtes Wohnhaus 1805
Attain, Fichtes house 1805

during its Jenaer Professur (1794 - 1799) became it the target in the so-called “Atheismusstreit”. 1799 had a first anonymous disputationFichtes this released: Spruce is sued because of spreading of atheistischer ideas , Gottlosigkeit and spreading of atheistischer ideas and forced to the resignation. 1805 receive spruce the chair for philosophy in attaining, 1810 become it Dekan of the philosophical faculty and for shortTime the first selected rector of the citizens of Berlin university.

Spruce was at the latest since 1794 member of a Freimaurerloge in Rudolstadt, stepped however after some years. Also with the emergence of the society of the free men it had an importantPortion. In Berlin it became member of the German Tischgesellschaft, starting from summer 1811 of them “speaker” (chairman). That in former times as trailers of the French revolution characteristic spruce formed itself now in particular by those flaming patriotic speeches to the German nation (asText publishes Napoleons until 1808) as an opponent.

A utopian society model - a kind socialist society on nationalnational basis - is in the work the closed commercial state (1800).

It died to 29. January 1814 in Berlin.


Although spruce accepts and admires the critical philosophy large Kant, it actually rejects the theory of the thing as well as the separation between theoretical and practical reason. Methodical starting point and basic idea of the science teachings are which I, which itself by oneoriginal act sets and thus at the same time the object world as its article and its product produced. Existence and acting are identical to it, recognizing are a derived aspect in this process. Which I opposite is Nicht-Ich. The relationshipSubject and object understands spruce as dialectic unit of contrasts. This relationship represents an activity. Fichtes science teachings leaves itself to on the right of and/or. State philosophy and to historical philosophy extend. Because it sees which I by another I limited; thoseLiberty one means the restriction of the liberty of the other one. Spruce locates here thus a legal relation, which already due to the existence Nicht-Ich develops. Spruce seizes the state as general will, whose purpose is it, the liberty, the rights of itsTo protect citizen. National acting is supplemented by moral acting of the particular. The liberty I expresses itself in moral acting; Reason and obligation are spruce one. Liberty in history is the more or less moral organizationsocial conditions of the different peoples. Fichtes philosophy can be called ethical idealism, if one only the state of legal relations between itself and the citizens assumes and/or. among the citizens creates and on it restrictions of his citizens in favor of own more materialPurposes makes. Fichtes thoughts did not only exert a large influence on Schelling and Hegel , them affected likewise Proudhon, Karl Marx and Ferdinand let-letting let-leaving. Max of webers and Jean Paul Sartre took up its interpersonnel teachings .

works (selection)

  • Some lectures on the determination of the scholar (1794)
  • basis of the gesammten science teachings (1794/1795)
  • basis of the nature right (1796)
  • system of the Sittenlehre (1798)
  • Appellation to the public over by Churf. Sächs. Confiscationsrescript it attached atheistischen expressions. A writing, which one tooread asks, before one confsicirt it (1799)
  • the geschlossne commercial state. A philosophical draft as appendix to the legal doctrine and sample of a policy (1800 ), in the future which can be supplied
  • , the determination of humans (1800)
  • Friedrich Nicolai 's life and strange opinions (1801)
  • the fundamentalsthe present age (1806)
  • the instruction for the blessed life, or also the religion teachings (1806)
  • speeches to the German nation (1807/1808)
  • the system of the legal doctrine (1812)
  • pure hard Lauth among other things (Hgg.): Total expenditure of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.Stuttgart bath CAN place: Frommann Holzboog 1961- Today ISBN 3-7728-0138-2

the fundamentals of the present age (1806)

in the fundamentals of the present age develops spruce opinions to a historical philosophy. A partitioning of history is the center of attention in five epochs, whereby spruce itsown epoch as the “age of the completed Sündhaftigkeit” understood, while the fundamentals should introduce the future epochs. This epoch development carries out itself in the following stages: 1. Instinktive reason; 2. Outwardly forced, however convincing authority; 3. Emancipation of everyoneoutside authority (“Sündhaftigkeit” completed); 4. Return of the free, internal reason and 5. Implementation of the free, internal reason in all outside areas of life.

speeches to the German nation (1808)

the speeches to the German nation understand themselves as continuationthe fundamentals of the present age. In the speeches spruce within the range of the education calls to a national drawing after Pestalozzi model, which is to embody the human relationship to the liberty in the reason and worth drawing.

In the context of the First World Warboth the fundamentals and the speeches Fichtes gained significance again, by being placed into the service of the national pathos.

See also: New spruce anise mash.


  • spruce, Johann God-dear, in: Meyers encyclopedia, 4. Edition1888-90, volume 6, S. 234
  • Wolfgang Janke: Spruce, Johann God-dear. In: Theological material encyclopedia 11 (1983), S. 157-171
  • Hans Michael tree gardner, William G. Yak-generic terms: J. - G. - spruce bibliography. Frommann, Stuttgart 1968
  • Erich fox (Hrsg.): J. G. Spruce in the discussion. Reports of the contemporaries. 6 volumes. Fromann Holzboog, Stuttgart 1978-1991, ISBN 3-7728-0707-0
  • William G. Yak-generic terms: Johann God-dear spruce. 3. Edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1998, ISBN 3-499-50336-0
  • Hans Schulz: Spruce and beasts. Given change on the occasion of the two-hundred-anniversary of the German society for the study of patriotic language andAltertümer. Limited edition, Leipzig 1927
  • Helmut Seidel: Johann God-dear spruce for introduction. Junius, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3885069571
  • Hansjürgen Verweyen: Introduction too: J.G. Spruce: The determination of humans. On the basis of the expenditure of F. Medicus rev. ofH. D. Brandt. Hamburg: My 2000.ISBN 3-7873-1449-0
  • Hans Joachim Becker: Fichtes idea of the nation and the Judentum, Rodopi, Amsterdam 2000. ISBN 9042015020.

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