Johann Josef Loschmidt

Johann Josef Loschmidt
Johann Josef Loschmidt

Johann Josef Loschmidt (* 15. March 1821 in Putschirn (today Počerny, Tschechien) with Karl bath (Karlovy Vary); † 8. July 1895 in Vienna) was a Austrian physicist and chemist.

It belonged to that largePersonalities, who in 19. Century much to the basic research within the field of chemistry and physics contributed and today outside by experts are almost forgotten.

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Loschmidt became poorer as a childFarmer born. On recommending the priest Adalbert Czech it received training, which led it 1837 to Prague, where he went to 1839 also on the German-language university. it went to 1841 then to Vienna, where it graduated to 1846 in physics and chemistry of poly-technical Institut. Afterit it did not succeed to find a scientific place worked it first in a paper factory, before it created its own company for the production of Kaliumnitrat in Vienna. This company went however to bankruptcy, on which it worked starting from 1856 as a teacher at Viennese a six-form high school. 1866 receivedit an employment at the University of Vienna, where it became already 1868 Assistenzprofessor, before he was from 1872 to 1891 a professor for physical chemistry.

At the age of 66 years Loschmidt married its lady housekeeper. Short time on it was born Loschmidts only child, however still inInfancy deceased.


it researched in the areas of thermodynamics, electrodynamics and optics and over crystalline forms. 1856 it determined for the first time the size of the air molecules, 1861 the constitution of the benzene. 1865 was it able, for the first time on gas-kineticTo compute basis late Loschmidt number designated after it, which is called above all internationally also Avogadrozahl. He determined the composition of ozone. Loschmidt assumed also for the first time that it gives circular arrangements in carbon compounds, and developed the representation of double and triple bonds throughappropriate Verbindungsstriche.

Because of its achievements the membership of the Viennese Academy of Sciences was lent to it.

1995 gave the Austrian postal administration on the occasion of 100. Day of death of Josef Loschmidt a special post office mark with nominal value ATS 20. - out.


  • for the size of the air molecules
  • chemical studies, Constitutions formulasorganic chemistry in diagram, 1861


  • Peter M. Shoemaker: From Curiosity ton of passion. Loschmidt's route from Philosophy ton of Natural Science. In: William meat hacker, T. Beautiful field (Hrsg.): Pioneering Ideas for the Physical and Chemical Sciences. Proceedings OF the Josef Loschmidtsymposium, hero June 25 - 27, 1995, in Vienna, Austria. Plenum press, New York 1997, ISBN 0-306-45684-2
  • Peter M. Shoemaker: Creation week day two - Joseph Loschmidt to the Huldigung. Living edition, pole leaves suppl. 2004, ISBN 3-901585-04-4 (Poem, with feather/spring designs of Helmut Krumpel, as well as time board, list of the publishedPapers Loschmidts and bibliography)

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