Johann Sebastian brook
God praise house man of brook (* 21. March 1685 (JK) in iron oh; † 28. July 1750 in Leipzig)a German composer of the baroque was and also at its time of famous organist and Cembalist. It is considered today as one of the largest clay/tone creators at all, to that the later music substantially affected and its works in the original and incountless working on are world-wide present.
during his lifetimes found brook kompositorisches work no large attention, compared for instance with that of his contemporaries George Friedrich trade or GeorgePhilipp Telemann. European-wide was brook admits Cembalovirtuose to lifetimes particularly as organ - and as well as master of the improvisation (see also musical victim). Furthermore it had an excellent call as an organ consultant. Besides brook controlled, like many at that timeMusician, also the violin and led performances of his works frequently from the viola .
Brook today's celebrity has its roots on the one hand in the fact that its works (together with those of Heinrich contactor and George Friedrich of trade operas andOratorien) the only one were, those at the beginning 20. Century to large extent were delivered by a baroque composer. On the other hand its consistent application of the counterpoint, connected with the affect effect of its Melodik and the bold Harmonik , practiced on laterComposer a large effect out. Since that 19. Church circles of brook of religious music estimate century particularly because of their strong Religiosität.
The far spreading and Rezeption of brook works took its beginning in the reperformance of the matte house passion by FelixMendelssohn Bartholdy in the year 1829 and promoted by the first total expenditure of its works (1851-1899), in which Johannes Brahms participated. Both Mendelssohn and Brahms spoke besides Bach' piano works publicly. Philipp Spittas two-restrains Biografie (1873-1879) made only in19. Century so correctly developing concert public for the first time extensively with J. S. Brook life and working admit. In the course late 19. and 20. Century became brook for pianists and piano pupils again, which it already for Ludwig van Beethoven and Robert Schumann had been: a constant musical Lebenselixier. The care of J. S. Brook church music was gotten going particularly by its successors in the office of the Thomaskantors in Leipzig. In 20. The large symphony orchestras and their famous conductors took themselves centuryas well as considerable soloists ever more of the instrument valley work on.
|of residences of J. S. Brook:|
childhood in iron oh
Johann Sebastian brook was that youngest of eight children of the house man (Stadtpfeifers) and Hoftrompeters Johann Ambrosius brook and its Mrs. Elisabeth brook,born Lämmerhirt.
For the birth of brook still the Julian calendar applied at its place of birth iron oh. Thus its date of birth becomes usually with the locally valid date, that 21. March 1685, indicated, its death date however after in Leipzig the valid Gregorian calendar. If one wants to compare brook date of birth with other data of this time, it is to be considered that he after at that time in other areas already usually used Gregorian calendar only to 31. March 1685 was born.
Brook became on Monday,that 23. March, in the George church baptized. He spent its early childhood in iron oh, where he by the cousin of his father, who organists arrived to that also for the first time ice NAK ago George church Johann Christoph brook, with church and organ music in contact. InOlder of eight years brook came on the latin school ice NAK ago of the Dominikanerklosters.
Its nut/mother died at the 3. May 1694. To 27. November 1694 married its father the widow Barbara Margaretha Bartholomäi, born Keul, died however only few months after,to 20. February 1695. Johann Sebastian pulled with its brother Johann Jacob to its older brother Johann Christoph brook (1671-1721) after Ohrdruf.
with the brother in Ohrdruf
in Ohrdruf visited Johann Sebastian the Lyzeum up to great and got thereby better education, than its Vorväter could show. In the Secunda were its cousin Johann Ernst Bach and its lifelong friend George earthling its schoolmates.
The fourteen its further education and musical training took over years older brother Johann Christoph, which was in Ohrdruf organist. From it brook learned a playing on the key instruments. To its living costs its activity carried asChoir singer.
To 19. January 1700 left George earthling Ohrdruf and traveled to Lueneburg. Briefly after it, to 15. March, followed it Johann Sebastian.
Metz choir meadows in Lueneburg
brook and earthling became in Lueneburg free pupils of the Michaelis monastery.They sang as these Kantists in the Metz choir. George Böhm was at this time organist to the Johanniskirche. Its influence on brook early organ works and Klaviersuiten can be assumed style-critically, but not occupied. Also that brook as accepted in Celle musicin the French style to become acquainted with could, is not not proven. Against it its foot migration is occupied to Hamburg to the famous organists Johann Adam Reincken, with which it trained itself further in the organ play.
Between Easter 1702, when brook terminates its school time in Lueneburghad, and 1703 cannot be pursued brook traces any longer exactly. From a later letter it results that he applied in July for the vakante Organistenstelle in singer living and was at the there advice preferential candidate that however the dukefrom Saxonia white rock over its vote jumped over itself.
Lakai and Violinist in Weimar
at the latest starting from March 1703 brook as a Lakai and Violinist were in the private chapel of the Mitregenten JohannErnst von Sachsen-Weimar employed. With an organ sample to 17. March 1703 attached brook of contacts to the advice in Arnstadt.
organist in Arnstadt
a city with brook tradition
to 9. August 1703 received easily sample play its Bestallung to brook as organist of the new church in Arnstadt.
Here before him members of the brook family had been active already as musicians. JohannSebastians grandfather Christoph brook (1613-1661) was yard and Stadtmusikus and its brother Heinrich brook (1615-1692) organist at the dear woman church and the upper church had been. The latter was the grandfather of J. S. Brook of first wife Maria Barbara brook. In Arnstadtalso the widow of its uncle Johann Christoph brook ( 1645-1695) and their son, Johann Ernst Bach lived (1683-1739). Johann Ernst represented brook during its journey to Luebeck and received brook office after its removal after Mühlhausen.
For an unusually high salaryfrom 50 guldens and 30 guldens for food and Logis brook at the new church was responsible officially only for the organ play, not for the Figuralmusik. Starting from a not exactly assignable time it became nevertheless co-operation with the choirthe Lyzeums obligates.
in October 1705 he received
first delivered organ and piano works for a journey to Luebeck to Dietrich Buxtehude one vacation over four weeks, which he expanded however arbitrarily since over three months. Although itfor a representative, became he had provided to 21. February 1706 therefore and because of „carelessness in the service “by the Konsistorium of the municipality reprimanded.
This journey to Buxtehude gave valuable musical impressions to brook. Buxtehudes Abendmusiken, organ and piano works as well as its incomparable organ playformed a stimulus for the young organists and composer.
The first received organ and piano works of brook show the influence Buxtehudes. In addition Choralvorspiele belong as for example as shine beautifully the morning star (BWV 739) and Präludien, Toccaten, Partiten and fantasies.
Up1706 are dated brook Capriccio sopra la lontananza del fratello dilettissimo, it to the parting from its brother the Johann Jacob brook composed, which had hired itself as a field musician in the Swedish army.
in all biographies is reported on the fact that brook had several times conflicts with the Arnstädter Konsistorium. This concerned its behavior opposite the choir members, its vacation infringement and its kind of playing organ. Thus he was admonished, with the companythe Choräle in the service the municipality not by befremdliche intermediate plays to entangle ornaments and modulations. The Choralbearbeitung to Mr. Jesu Christian, you to us turn (BWV 726) with their surprising avoiding, their particularly in at that time centraltonus towardsOrgan tendency much sharpened sounding Chromatik and the up-rushing intermediate plays makes the confusion of the municipality understandable.
Another time came the complaint that he one „frembde Jungfer “(its cousin of second degree Maria Barbara brook) carried forward on the choir lofthas.
The tightness of these conditions brook in Mühlhausen hoped to escape.
organist in the free realm city Mühlhausen
after brook to 24. April 1707 in Mühlhausen had played, stepped it there at the church Divi Blasii at the 1. July its service as organist on. Its content amounted to 85 guldens, in addition material assets and an income came from the Nebenkirchen. Like already in Arnstadt it is noticeable that it a substantially higher payment than its predecessor and itsSuccessor obtained. These conditions made it possible to it now to create a family. To 17. He married October 1707 in thorn home with Arnstadt Maria Barbara brook.
Quodlibet: a musical fun of the brook family
repeated becomes of meetings thatwidely distributed brook family reports. With such meetings, for example with wedding celebrations, one sang common and made music, often mehrstimmig from the bar hoar frost. In the so-called Quodlibet (BWV 524) brook noted probably 1707, at the latest to 1708 such a disorder of songs, with which oneError in purchase did not only take, but it also gladly provoked and over it amused themselves. The title Quodlibet is not original. It is received only one fragment from it and exhibits a text, which full allusions is. Not everythingin it is as understandable as „large wedding, large joys, large swords, large sheaths “. Possibly this Quodlibet rang out with brook wedding with Maria Barbara.
Ratswechselkantaten and sample play in Weimar
order in accordance with composed brook to the advice change to 4. February 1708 the festive Kantate God is my king (BWV 71), as only from thisTime as pressure is received. Shortly thereafter it could implement an expensive extension and repair of the organ.
In June 1708 brook traveled in connection with the conclusion of the renovation work on the there organ after Weimar and played before the duke William Ernst. This offered the place to it as yard organist and a chamber musician with a content of 150 guldens plus material assets. Besides a large city fire had led in Mühlhausen to a raising the price of of the cost of living. The prospect of a substantially betterfinancial situation was obviously decisive for the fact that brook already to 25. June 1708 - hardly one year after its assumption of office - in Mühlhausen around its dismissal asked. Its successor became Johann Friedrich brook. The city Mühlhausen Johann Sebastian remainedBrook however further connected. In each case for February 1709 and 1710 he received orders for Ratswechselkantaten, which were likewise printed at expense of the there advice, but verschollen is.
yard organist and chamber musicians in Weimar
brook moved in the first July half of 1708 with its pregnant women to wife Weimar. To 29. December of the same yearly was baptized the first child , Catharina Dorothea. During that still five children followed Weimar time: William peace man (* 22. November 1710), the twins Maria Sophia and Johann Christoph (* 23. February 1713, both soon thereafter), Carl Philipp Emanuel died (* 8. March 1714) and Johann Gottfried Bernhard (* 11. May 1715).
free ones and liturgically bound organ works
a majority of brook organ work developed during that Weimar time, among them its Passacaglia and numerous Toccaten, Präludien and joints. Here it began its organ booklet, which was put on by 164 Choralvorspielen as collection, ofwhich it however only 44 completed.
Apart from its service in the William castle of the duke William Ernst brook stood for nephews also in close connection with its Ernst August, which lived in the red lock and had become 1709 Mitregent. Its brotherJohann Ernst was pupil Johann Gottfried Walthers. From it collecting mains for brook piano and Orgeltranskriprionen BWV 592, 595, 982, 984 and 987 come.
first delivered lay Kantate
to 21. and 22. February 1713 was brookin white rock on the occasion of the ceremonies for the birthday of the duke Christian von Sachsen-Weissenfels. Possibly the Jagdkantate BWV 208 was specified there, brook earliest well-known lay Kantate. Kirchenkantaten are delivered from the earlier Weimar time only few.
Toward end of theYearly 1713 brook offered after the performance of a Probekantate the Organistenstelle at the dear woman church in resounds. The reason for brook interest in the place is not well-known. It received to 14. December its Bestallung of the Kirchenkollegium, hesitated however alsoto the signing of the agreement and sent only to 19. March 1714 a final refusal with the reason that paying would not correspond to its expectation.
concert masters in Weimar
To 2. March 1714 became brook inWeimar appointed the concert master. Although it stood in the hierarchy still under the Kapell and the Vizekapellmeister, it got with 250 guldens a substantially higher salary than both.
new one tasks
with the new office was thoseObligation connected to compose every four weeks a Kirchenkantate on respective Sunday. As the first rang out to 25. March (Palmsonntag and at the same time Maria Verkündigung) the Kantate sky king, is welcome (BWV 182). You followed in regular intervals still at least20 further works, which formed the basic stick of the later Leipziger Kantatenjahrgänge.
Finally brook looked around for a new place and found it at the yard of the prince Leopold of notion Köthen, its sister his service gentleman Ernst August to 24. January1716 had married. The reason for this step can be only mind-measured. At the 1. December 1716 had died the first Kapellmeister Johann Samuel Drese. A follow-up regulation was first not met, but Dreses son Johann William had a certain primacy, thereit as Vizekapellmeister already longer time the office business of its father had provided. Thus for brook an ascent would have been on a long-term basis blocked to the Kapellmeister.
Brook signed to 5. August 1717 the contract for its new place in Köthen, without before overits dismissal in Weimar to have asked. When it wanted to retrieve this, it received its resignation not, but became to 6. November because of its „Halssstarrigen testifying “in the land judge tube locks. To 2. December it from detention and service relationship became inDisgrace dismisses.
Into the autumn 1717 1739 become for the first time mentioned and represented in detail by Forkel Occurence dated, after the brook to the yard to Dresden traveled, where a contest with the famous Orgelvirtuosen Louis Mark hand should take place. In addition cameit not, because Mark hand had left on the fixed day in the early one, allegedly, because it shrank from the comparison. This occurence is a typical example for it that after brook death it glorifizierende anecdotes were maintained already briefly, often released throughinaccurate memories of its sons and pupils. Brook does not estimate the verbal and written passing on of such anecdotes after Carl Philipp Emanuel of brook certification by any means.
relations with Johann George Pisendel
of important as meeting with Mark hand, its works it, was for brook its relations with the Dresden estimates director of music Johann George Pisendel (1687-1755). Style-critical comparisons of brook and Pisendels solo works for violin suggest, Pisendel have brook for the composition of the 6 Sonaten and Partiten lively. Already 1709 had both someTime with one another in Weimar spent and since that time compositions exchanged. Vivaldis compositions could have been arranged by Pisendel for brook. Pisendel turned to 27. September 1717 from Italy, where it had been briefly Vivaldis pupil, to Dresden back, and brook leftthe city at the beginning of of Octobers. Meeting and an artistic exchange are to be accepted thus.
Fürstlicher Kapellmeister in Köthen
starting from December 1717 was brook Kapellmeister in Köthen. Brook estimated the young, musical duke Leopold of notion Köthen and was close to it obviously also personally, which one e.g. to it it sees that both Leopold and its brothers and sisters August Ludwig and Eleonora Wilhelmine godfather of brook to 15. November 1718 born son Leopold August were. ThatChild hardly died one year later.
a chapel „Avec of plusieures instrument “
brook could compose in Köthen for a outstanding chapel. Prince Leopold had employed musicians up to 17, partially from the 1713 dissolvedChapel of the Prussian king Friedrich William I. came. Eight instrument valleyists had Solistenqualitäten and the rank „of the Cammermusicus “. The duke equipped his chapel with good instruments and sent brook for the purchase of a new Cembalos 1719 to Berlin. There brook could the Mark count Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg to know learn. For him it provided 1721 older and newer instrument-when-corrodes to the Six Concerts Avec of plusieures instrument “ together, which were called later „Brandenburgi concerts “(BWV 1046-1051).
deaththe wife and new marriage
as brook 1720 after a two-month journey of the yard from Karl bath, had he returnedexperienced that his wife Maria Barbara after short illness died and already to 7. July bestattet was. At the 3. December 1721 he married Anna Magdalena, the youngest daughter of the fürstlichen yard and Feldtrompeters to Saxonia white rock Johann Kaspar Wilcke, which had come 1720 as Sopranistin at the Köthener yard.
Also from this marriage numerous children come of, from whom most however already died in the infancy: Christian IANA Sophia Henrietta (* spring 1723; † 29. June 1726), Gottfried Heinrich (*26. February 1724), Christian God-dear (baptized 14. April 1725; † 21. September 1728), Elizabeth July IANA Friederica (baptized 5. April 1726), Ernestus Andreas (* 30. October 1727; † 1. November 1727), Regina Johanna (10. October 1728; † 25. April 1733), Christian IANABenedicta (* 1. January 1730; † 4. January), Christian IANA Dorothea (* 18. March 1731; † 1732), Johann Christoph Friedrich (* 21. June 1732), Johann August Abraham (* 5. November 1733; † 6. November 1733), Johann Christian (* 5. September 1735),Johanna Carolina (baptized 30. October 1737), Regina Susanna (baptized 22. February 1742).
brook had instruction works, virtuose instrument valley compositions
and Kantaten as contribution for the musical education of its children to 22. January 1720 the Clavierbüchlein for the oldest son WilliamPeace man begun, which contains among other things the zweistimmigen Inventionen and dreistimmigen symphonies. The early versions Suiten contains 1722 Clavierbüchlein put on before Anna the Magdalena Bachin of the French. Beside the piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature and the six Violin partiten and - is this sonaten thosesurely on the Köthener time datable autocount Instrumentalkompositionen.
Besides still some birthday and Neujahrskantaten are delivered, however not for all which are applicable holidays. It is considered as safe that brook for the yard a considerable number at concerts and othersInstrument valley compositions to have written must, which however to a large extent verschollen or however in later working on than Cembalokonzerte or Kantatensätze are received.
search for a new place
in September 1720 became the Organistenstelle pc. Jakob in Hamburg freely, for which brook applied. It became certified also of Hamburg advice the sample play, called off however then nevertheless, probably, because the assumption of the place was linked with a considerable purchase sum.
possibly is the dedication „of the Brandenburgi concerts “of 24. To see March 1721 for the Mark count Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg in connection with brook search for a new place.
For unknown reasons prince Leopold seemed itself in the future of brook ensemble musicto turn away ever more. Perhaps the famous place refers in brook letter of 20. October 1730 to his youth friend George earthling on this change in the music taste of the prince house, whereby it unfair-proves the principal debt to the wife of the prince gives: „Daselbst[in Köthen] had a benevolent and a music so probably loving as a knowing prince; also with which [I] my lifetime meant to decide. It had to add itself however that erwehnter Serenissimus vermählete itself with a Berenburgi Princessin, there it thatRegard to win wanted, as if the musicalische Inclination [= inclination] wanted to be laulicht bey mentioned prince in something to be zumahln the new princess would seem one there amusa.“This is confirmed by the fact that after brook way course of Köthen itsPost was not again occupied.
by death Johann cow from to 5. June 1722 became in Leipzig the place of the Thomaskantors freely. After a first sample play to 14. July became of the applicants, to those JohannFriedrich Fasch (Kapellmeister to yards to notion Zerbst) and Christian role (director of music in Magdeburg) counted, George Philipp Telemann selected. Since Telemann remained due to a salary increase in Hamburg, a second Kantoratsprobe was fixed, with beside brook George Friedrich Kauffmann from Merseburg, which withdrew voluntarily, Johann Christoph Graupner (Kapellmeister in Darmstadt) and Balthasar bulkhead (organist at the new church to Leipzig) stood as a candidate.
Brook led to 7. February 1723 as test specimen the Kantaten Jesus took the Zwölfe to itself, BWV 22, and „you true God and David's son “, BWV 23, up. Was selected Graupner, which had to reject however, because by the hessian land count the dismissal was refused to him. Thus brook became „as the third choice “Thomaskantor, an office, which itup to his death kept.
Brook was allowed to lead the title of a Fürstlich of Kötheni Kapellmeisters further, and it still supplied up to the death of the prince 1728 music to the holidays of the prince house.
Thomaskantor and urban director of music in Leipzig
at the end of of May 1723 took up brook its service to Leipzig. As Kantor and a director of music he was responsible for the music in the four main churches of the city. In additionthe preparation of a Kantatenaufführung counted on each Sunday and at the holidays. In addition music instruction in the Thomas school was subject to it. The boarding school pupils were obligated to along-arrange as choir singers the services. Its payment in kind as latin teachers, which was traditionally connected with its place,it against a cash payment a teacher of the school transferred.
music for the church
Its arrival began right after brook to compose or revise Kantaten for the performances lining up in each case. With this systematic work must inthe first two years on average approximately a work per week developed its, afterwards the speed slowed down. Altogether two complete classes are delivered, which reports Nekrolog of three further (see Bachkantate). Altogether are in this time approx. 300Kantaten developed its.
For Christmas 1723 brook wrote the second version of the Magnificat in E flat major with the Christmas insert sets (the first version already rang out without late provided insert sets to 2. July 1723 to Mariae afflicting), for the Karfreitag 1724its up to then most comprehensive work, the Johannespassion, for Christmas 1724 a Sanctus. Probably at the beginning of of 1725 met brook the text poet Christian Friedrich Henrici alias spades other, which finally supplied the text for the matte house passion, which was uraufgeführt 1727 or 1729.
ThosePerformance conditions had altogether worsened in this first Leipziger years. Brook saw itself forced therefore, in an input to the advice of the city Leipzig of 23. August 1730 its conceptions of the vocal and instrumentalen equipment of one „churches wohlbestalltenTo document music “. This „höchstnöthige Entwurff “is today an important source for the historical performance practice of its works.
Brook strove in this time to get the title of a Hofkompositeurs in Dresden awarded there it was dissatisfied with thatPayment, the high cost of living and the Leipziger authority, brook the work not in brook sense promoted, as can be inferred to a letter of 1730: „There however now (1) it finds that this service bey far not so erklecklich as a man me, (2) many described it accidentia this station escaped, (3) a very theurer Orth and. (4) a wunderliche and the music little devoted authority is, therefore nearly in constant annoyance, envy and pursuit to live must, as if one will genöthiget with of theTo search highest Beystand my Fortun otherwise. “.
1729 took over brook the line of the 1701 of Telemann based Collegium musicum, which it kept until 1741, perhaps even until 1746. With this student instrument valley chapel - there were still further in Leipzig - it specified German and Italian instrument aluminum and vowel music, in addition it wrote for it some to its layKantaten, like z. B.Hercules to crossroads, which it called „Dramma by la Musica “or „Dramma by Musica “and which are close structurally to the opera. In the Bauernkantate and the Kaffeekantate shows up that he also in the humoristic category writecould. The latter was specified most likely in „room one niches the Caffee Hauss “, in which it with the Collegium musicum concentrated. Weekly once, during the Leipziger fair even twice, here or in the pertinent Kaffehausgarten in the evening such became „musical Concerten, or Zusammenkünffte “held. They are considered as proof of the awaking, civil demand for high-standing musical maintenance in Leipzig.
Also the many Cembalokonzerte for up to four soloists, whom mostly as new arrangements usually own Violin or oboe concerts instrument-when-corrodes and, served thatfrom Kantaten, in addition, from strange collecting mains (z. B. Vivaldi) developed. As soloists were available beside brook its sons and pupils.
piano and organ works for pupils, connoisseurs and lovers
in his entire Leipziger time was Brook a looked for teacher. Often the pupils in its household lived. A goal of instruction was to educate musicians near who as instrument valleyists and a composer the various tasks with yard, in which and in the civil music life beginning had been up to to church. BrookInstruction carried particularly with its sons rich fruits.
For this instruction brook used older and newer own compositions. It summarized and published many of it it as Clavierübung I, II, III and IV.
in Weimar and in Köthen had already composed brook Huldigungskantaten for the prince houses in Weimar, white rock and Köthen as well as Festmusiken in the form of Kantaten to different causes. In Leipzigdeveloped further such works, whereby brook processed frequently older collecting mains. The Festmusiken and Huldigungskantaten applied for example for the periphery of the university and the Thomas school as well as the dukes Friedrich August I. and II of Saxonia, those at the same time as August II. and III.Kings from Poland were. Also further noble ones and rich citizens were endowed with such musical honours.
This Kantaten was usually specified in the free one and had to be strongly occupied therefore in choir and instrument valley chapel. That was above all ensured, after brookthe Collegium had taken over musicum. For reinforcement the musicians of the musicalischen city Compagnie stood for it for order.
Over the performance of a such work, i.e. the Kantate „prices your Glücke, gesegnetes Saxonia “(BWV 215) to August III. Coronation/culmination anniversary to, there are 5.10.1734 extensive recordings in the urban chronicle. Since the royal family in Leipzig did not possess an own residence, it was accommodated in the civil Apeli city palace.
From the chronicle:
- Against 9 Ihro Majt brought o'clock of evening. the all-local studyingone allerunterthänigst evening music with trumpets and bass drums, thus Mr. Capell master Joh. Sebastian brook edge. to pc. Thom. componieret. Wobey 600. Students loud wax torches/flares carried, and 4. Counts as marshals the music specified.
In the further the way becomesup to the king Logis described. Continuation in on the right of shown document. On the day after the 1 died. Trompeter, Gottfried realms the senior of the musical city Compagnie, „because it before… because of blowing large Strapazzen had, and alsothe torch/flare smoke it very cumbersomely been “
also into these Kantate used brook older Kantatensätze. One of the sentences found entrance in late completed fair into h-Moll.
Parodien: Re-writings of lay Kantaten for church purposes
someits Huldigungskantaten reworked brook briefly after its emergence into religious works. The Weihnachtsoratorium from 1734/1735 is to be owed to this Parodieverfahren to, the Himmelfahrtsoratorium of 1735 and the Osteroratorium. From Parodierung of religious Kantaten the so-called Lutheri fairs resulted, likewisethe original version of the h-Moll-fair of 1733 (the so-called Missa), which covered only the Kyrie and the Gloria. After submission of this work with the kurfürstlichen yard in Dresden brook received to 19. November 1736 the desired message, itself Compositeur bey Dero hoping chapelcall to be allowed, however not the hoped for call to live and not work from now on in the Residenzstadt Dresden.
the last years
the large kontrapunktischen instrument valley works and the final version of the h-Moll-fair
Into the 1740er years seems itself brook to a large extent from new compositionsfor the church and for the Collegium musicum withdrew.
In May 1747 it visited potsdam and Berlin on invitation Friedrichs of the large one, in whose yard chapel Carl Philipp Emanuel brook was employed, and improvised on the there Pianoforti andOrgans. It promised to implement and sting in copper it by the king given a topic in a joint. From this promise the musical victim became, a collection of two joints (three and sechsstimmig), ten of canon and a Triosonate, everythingover the same topic.
„Some canonische Verænderungen over the Weynacht song: From the sky I come ago highly there before the organ with 2. Clavieren and the pedal “the title of a variation work reads, brook to its entrance the 1747 in„the Correspondierende Societæt of the musical sciences created by the Lorenz Christoph Mizler “submitted. It is considered as important, kontrapunktisches late work of brook.
A further kontrapunktischer work cycle is the art of the joint, whose first recopy brook locked 1742, which it howeverafterwards until 1749 comprehensively supplemented and revised. The collection of simple joints, Gegenfugen, mirror joints, joints with several topics and canon represents a manual of the techniques of the joint composition.
Likewise into brook last years the completion of the h-Moll-fair falls usingthe Missa of 1733, the Sanctus of 1724 and other older compositions.
illness and death
in its last years suffered brook at an eye disease. Also over motor disturbances in the right arm and thus inone reports to the write hand. Starting from 1749 at all no documents are received to more from it. The last well-known signature comes from 6. May 1749. His Mrs. Anna Magdalena or its son Johann Christian signed all documents for him since then. OfNature from bad vision left so strongly that brook of that could be operated already at that time disputed Okulisten (Starstecher) John Taylor, of 4. up to 7. April 1750 in Leipzig stayed. Complications required a Nachoperation. Briefly brook could again, met however some days before its death an impact accumulation see it. Brook died to 28. July 1750.
In mainly of Carl the Philipp Emanuel brook and Johann Friedrich Agricola wrote, 1751 finished and 1754 published Nekrolog is called it to brookIllness and death:
- „Its somewhat face, which by its outrageous eagerness in its studying [...] still more brought weakened, blödes of nature, it, in its last years, an eye disease to way. It wanted to lift the same [...] by an operationleave. But this [...] ran off very badly. It could not only need its face not again; separate its, in the rest of healthy Cörper, thereby, and by added Medicamente, and Nebendinge, gäntzlich over the heap one threw also at the same time: so thatit on it a complete half year was long, nearly always kränklich. It seemed to improve ten days before its death gähling with its eyes: so that it one times the morning completely well again see, and also the light againstood could. However few hours after, he was attacked by an impact river; after these a heated fever followed, at which it [...] to 28. Julius 1750, the evening after a quarter on 9 o'clock, in six and sixtieth years of itsTo age, on the merit/service of his Erlösers gently and sea-lie separated. “
The newer brook research holds it however also for possible that an increasing sugar illness was the cause for brook diminishing vision and the impact accumulation.
After twice Umbettung is its gravetoday in the Leipziger Thomas church.
problems of bio graphics
statements of brook about itself, its life way and its works are very meager. It did not lie in the self understanding of a musician of its generation to make over it many words. MostDocuments of its hand let only suspect us today interesting personality. Remained letters, inputs, requests and recommendation letters, certifications and examination reports, organ appraisals, documents, receipts, dedications and title pages as well as notes, reports and lists of most diverse kind.
Only letters from thatLeipziger time give an idea of brook intimate life districts, so for instance the letter of to 28.10.1730 to its youth friend George earthling, the dictated letters of 24. and 26.5.1738 to the family wedge and the letters of 6.10.1748 and 2.11.1748 to his large cousinJohann Elias brook.
The foreignwritten and printed documents have a in terms of figures substantially larger extent to the life history from 1685 to 1750 and the documents for having a lasting effect from 1750 to 1800.
All these documents are accessible in Supplement volumes to „the new expenditure allWorks of “brook.
Brook in its outside biography to seize particularly in its activities succeeds with these documents substantially more easily than in its internal biography. Therefore anecdotes during brook lifetimes, which sought to adjust and are still effective already, developed.
A large assistance for coming brook close are „the picture documents commentated published by Werner Neumann and to life history Johann Sebastian of brook “ as Supplement to Johann Sebastian brook, new expenditure of all works. Therein also all seizable variants of brook portraits becomepresented and critically discussed.
After brook death its shape continued to live in the painted, drawn and stung Portraits and in the verbal and written Tradierung by its sons, pupils, friends and opponents.
Very soon brook for music-theoretical and aesthetic became,music-historical and political requests takes in. Often the view on brook stated more over the intentions of the writing than over brook.
Also the brook biographies of Forkel and Spitta over Schweitzer and Wolff up to that popular-scientifically and novelfulWriting ones our days must thereupon to be critically examined.
That happens among other things in scientific investigations at specifics question published by brook lives and its historical and music-historical surrounding field, often in Periodika, research reports and essay collections, which are no longer possible to grasp.
brook - an autodidact in composing
one believes brook son Carl Philipp Emanuel brook, then brook in composing regarded itself as an autodidact. There was no guaranteed composition instruction.The instruction with his brother in Ohrdruf „may probably have had an organists to the reproach and. nothing more “(C. PH. E. Brook 1775). Brook stay would have been later with Buxtehude a mehrmonatige opportunity to be informed but gives it in additionno vouchers.
The fact that brook matured as an autodidact to the important composer was possible, because he through-studied and from them learned from youth on the works of the most different composers. That took place by means of hearing, vintages, copying, transliterating, working on and copying of the music as well asby the assumption of kompositorischen means, forms and kinds. C. PH. E. Brook in addition (1775):
- „Sea-lies by own additives his taste formed. [...] Blos own reflecting has it already in its youth to the pure and. starcken Fughisten made.[...] By the performance of very many starcken Musiken, [...] without systematic study of the Phonurgie he learned the arrangement of the orchestra. “
In brook various work influences from the music of central, north and South Germany meet and/or. Austria as well as France andItaly. To note it participates that the regional traditions affected each other mutually. Thus in the German traditions also Italian and French kinds and style means are passed on. Therefore it is heavy with some composers to assign it.
Knowledge of the musical influenceon brook one has from different sources:
- from brook copies and acquisitions of works of other composers
- out brook Transskriptionen and working on
- from written and verbal mentions by brook and its periphery
- from reports and reviews 18. Century
- by style-criticalInvestigations of the music science at the works of brook and its pupil
Central German influences through:
- Johann Christoph brook I, Johann Pachelbel, Johann Kuhnau, Johann Ludwig brook, Johann Gottfried roll ago, Johann George Pisendel, Silvius Leopold white, Johann Friedrich Fasch
north German of influences through:
South German-Austrian influences through:
Italian of influences through:
- Giovanni Pierluigi there Palestrina, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Arcangelo Corelli, Giovanni Legrenzi, Giovanni Bassani, Giuseppe Torelli, Alessandro Marcello, Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Benedetto Marcello, Nicola Antonio Porpora, Francesco Durante, Giovanni Alberto Ristori, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi
French of influences through:
some famous musicians, the brook partly personally knew, is difficult to assign. They hadmost different music finished and brook with their works affects, so for instance January Dismas Zelenka, Johann Mattheson, George Philipp Telemann, pure hard Keiser and George Friedrich trade.
Whether brook also suggestions of his sons William peace man and Carl PhilippEmanuel took up, is not not secured to assume but. The fact that some compositions of the two oldest brook sons were considered as works of the father and in reverse, points on it.
the musical kinds
brook knew itself in the context of his offices to thatdifferent effect places under the influence of the composers specified above gradually the most different kinds, composition styles and making music ways acquire. Few journeys applied for this goal also brook.
- of clergyman Kantate and lay Kantate (Concerto, Cantata, Serenata, Dramma by Musica)
- Motette, fair, Magnificat, passion, Oratorium
- Choral, religious song
- of vowels chamber music
instrument valley music
- free organ works (Sonate; Präludium, Fantasie, Toccata, Passacaglia - individualand with joint; Concerto, Trio)
- Choralgebundene of organ works (Orgelchoral, Choralvorspiel, Choralbearbeitung, Choralpartita, Canoni changes)
- piano music (Invention, Duett, symphony, Suite, Partita, Concerto, Fantasie, Ouverture, variation, Präludium and joint, Fantasie and joint, Toccata, Sonate)
- Sound music (Suite, Präludium, joint)
- chamber music (Solosonate and Triosonate with Basso Continuo, Sonate and Partita senza Basso for violin, Suite for Violoncello solo, canon)
- music for chorisch occupied instrument valley chapel (Concerto grosso, Concertowith up to 4 solo voices, Ouvertüre)
- without firm instrumentale occupation (canon, joint)
„the Clavier “- composer, „Harmonist “, Kontrapunktiker and composer of functional music
of brook of works are mostly functionally bound, for example as Kantoren and Organistenmusik forthe church, instrument valley music for the yard and the middle class or training works for instruction. The quality of the execution however in most cases exceeds at that time usual.
Some works cross the tradierten form canon far. That is above all the casewith the organ and piano works and with the large kontrapunktischen compilations, coined/shaped by the own, outstanding instrumentalen ability.
Brook was considered to the contemporaries by right as more importantly „Harmonist “, which exhausted the possibilities of the kinds of clay/tone and their characteristics by the entire Quintenzirkel like forwardsit none. Criticism it experienced because of the proximity of its vocal church music to the opera and - only apparently in the contradiction in addition - because of the text treatment and instrumentalen being correct guidance of the solo portions.
the abundance of the vocal church music
of brook church worksare coined/shaped of its deep Protestant lutherischen Religiosität. From it approximately 250 Kantaten are delivered, of it approx. 200 Kirchenkantaten. In its Kantaten and passions brook fell back frequently to popular Choräle of the Evangelist church singing book. A larger number of its works, above allfrom the early work time, is considered as verschollen.
Brook wrote probably five passions. The Johannes and matte house passion are the only received authentic passions. It is to be accepted that under the three other missing person works was the Lukaspassion and the Markuspassion. With thatfifth missing person passion assumes researcher a reworked einchörige variant of the matte house passion.
particularly admitted works
|out brook piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature|
of listings of the Bach' works
The following Wikipedia articles are concerned likewise with overviews over brook Complete work:
influence on music theory, play technology and instrument making
apart from its effect as musicians and a composer had brook also influence on the practical music theory, the late particularly in the writings JohannPhilipp Kirnbergers was seized. Probably lively by the different keeping at a moderate temperature of Andreas Werckmeister composed brook his piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature, whose popularity help the tendency probably-kept at a moderate temperature later to the break-through. Brook went it into it - how it described Kirnberger - underother one to represent and teach the variety of clay-kind-referred Affekte dependent on keeping at a moderate temperature.
beside it become brook frequently as a joint founder of the play technology with the thumb as adequate play fingerwith the key instruments mentioned. In addition, this technology extended the expression ability of the compositions into the virtuosen range inside, made possible an elegant, polyphonic Legatospiel. „It had out-reflected itself its own finger order that it did not fall it heavily, the largestDifficulties with the fliessensten ease to bring out… one… it knows that it depends dabey mainly on the use of the thumb,… “ (from Johann Adam Hiller: My life)
- see also: Carl Philipp Emanuel brook, „attempt over the true kind thatClavier to play “
besides used itself brook for the far and new development of music instruments. Also that was aligned to an extension of the kompositorischen means. The Viola pomposa is its invention. With the key instruments particularly klangliche new developments interested it. Itconcerned itself for example with their keeping at a moderate temperature, with the organs with their sound arrangement and mechanical qualities. An example is brook „arrangement of the new repair of the Orgelwercks ad D: Blasii “(Mühlhausen 1708).
Brook was estimated and well more paidOrgan supervisor, who did not take a sheet in its appraisals before the mouth. It co-operated also with Gottfried silver man . He demanded and promoted it in the development of the Pianofortes, in brook late years after a report of its pupil Johann Friedrich Agricola „of it complete approving attained “.
aftereffect and Rezeption
Tradierung by sons and pupil
after brook deatha demand first hardly existed to specify its works further. The memory to it mainly its maintained from it informed sons, who had become even composers:
- William peace man brook, the Dresdener or resounding ash brook (1710 - 1784)
- CarlPhilipp Emanuel brook, the citizen of Berlin or Hamburg brook (1714 - 1788)
- Johann Christoph Friedrich brook, the bending citizen brook (1732 - 1795)
- Johann Christian brook, the citizen of Milan or Londoner brook (1735 - 1782)
During its entire work time brook was active as instrument aluminum and composition teachers. The pupils lived, often over long time, in the household of the family and took later important kapellmeister and Kantorenposten. They were it, those beside its sons of brook nameand musical deduction also in the second half 18. Century kept alive. Well-known pupils of brook were Johann Ludwig cancer and (after Ernst Ludwig Gerber and Friedrich William Marpurg, but doubtfuly) Johann Philipp Kirnberger, the brook composition teachings and Tendency well-being-kept at a moderate temperature passed on. Thus some compositions of brook became training works for later composers (z. B. the juvenile Ludwig van Beethoven), in the first eighty years after brook death were hardly publicly specified however nevertheless. That is also a reasonbecause many of its works did not remain.
effect on the Viennese classical author
Haydn and Mozart meant Carl Philipp Emanuel brook, if they spoke of brook. Them, above all Joseph Haydn, was these crucial activators upthe way to an own style. Johann Sebastian brook stepped only late into its consciousness.
Starting from April 1782 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the house Gottfried van Swietens beside works of trade became acquainted with also works of brook. Mozart studied above allBrook piano joints through and was suitable systematically their composition techniques on.
1789 heard Mozart with an attendance in the Thomas church of brook Motette „sing to the gentleman a new song “. Unusually, deepened he impresses into these and other scores of brook. The tracesthis meeting is a spontaneously composed Gigue and increased polyp-hone setting ways in the Mozarts' later work.
Ludwig van Beethoven studied already as a child piano works J. S. Brook. His Bonn teacher Christian God praise Neefe wrote 1783 in Cramers magazine of the music over it: „It plays very finished and with Kraft the Clavier, left very good by the sheet to say and in order everything in one: It plays grösstentheils the Clavier probably-kept at a moderate temperature of Sebastian brook… “
Beethoven particularly sat down in its lateWorks also on brook which are based polyp-hone techniques, particularly with the joint apart, so z. B. in the Klaviersonate OI. 110 and in the Diabelli variations as well as in its caper quartets OI. 127, OI. 130, OI. 131, OI. 132 and op.133 („Large joint “). Particularly with „the large joint “ Beethoven struck a far elbow into the future.
revival in 19. Century
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy is entitled the merit/service, with the reperformance to the matte house passion in a shortened version to 11. March 1829 J. S. Brook nearly eighty years after its death again a broad public in consciousness to have moved. It gave thereby an enormous impact for the publicity to the Bach' music.
The generation of romantic composers born around 1810experienced Bach' compositions as poetic music and took themselves it variously to the model. For Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847), Robert Schumann (1810-1856) and Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849), even for Franz Liszt (1811-1886) were brook of works an important condition for the ownCreate.
F. Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Fr. Chopin, and Fr. Liszt were it beside Adolf Henselt, Ferdinand Hiller, Ignaz Moscheles, Clara Schumann and Sigismund Thalberg and many Lisztschülern, which took up piano works of brook to their concert programs. Particularly the concert forthree pianos D-Moll (BWV 1063) and the solo concert D-Moll (BWV 1054) were specified frequently and announced the civil concert public with the Instrumantalwerk of brook. All that was certainly far from a historical performance practice. The musical of Time writes in January1848 in a ring-back signal on Mendelssohn:
- “Never sound incoming goods forget the triumphant cadence with which he concluded BROOK' s concerto for three harpsichord' s, following MOSCHELES and THALBERG. He alone knew the style: it which the pedal solo OF at organ fuguein doubles of octaves. What gigantic power he PUT into thesis things! “
- („we are never forgotten the triumphale cadence, with which it terminated brook concert for three Cembali following MOSCHELES and THALBERG. It alone controlled this style: itthat was pedal-solo from an organ fugue in Doppeloktaven. Which gigantic Kraft it was there inside! “)
Ferdinand David and Joseph Joachim brillierten in their concerts with the Chaconne D-Moll from the Partita D-Moll for violin senza Basso (BWV 1004). RobertSchumann in a discussion of a concert of 21. January 1840:
- „David did not play the Chaconne less masterfully and with the fine company Mendelssohns. “
Finally the public was starting from the center 19. Century with brook instrument valley music better trusts than alsothe religious works, including the passions.
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), its musical historicism itself on J. S. Brook based, was considerably involved in the first total expenditure by brook works. To Brahms as „progressive ones “Arnold beautiful mountain (1874-1951) appointed itself, around itself asTo characterize Traditionalist in the follow-up of brook and Beethovens.
in the public music life and in the music science 20. and 21. Century
brook compositions nevertheless experienced actually only in 20. Century a systematic care in the public music life andin the research.
The works of brook became in the last 30 years increasingly the subject of historical performance practice. It made many interpreters and listeners possible a new entrance to its music.
Already 1903 Wanda Landowska had a beginning in addition alsotheir first public Cembalo Recital made and with first Schallplattenaufnahmen 1923 and the establishment of the “École de Musique Ancienne” in the year 1925 the way to the “original sound” smoothed.
popular Adaptionen of brook
in 20. Century experienced the work of brook alsoa number of popular Adaptionen. Many of it are trivial and without larger value, but there were also more serious approximations. So of Jacques Loussier with its project Play brook and of walter Carlo, the klangliche completely new with its Moog SynthesizerPerspective on brook work opened.
fixed images and thinking marks
- sandstone column of Hermann Knauer in the promenade plants at the Leipziger Dittrichring, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdys establishes, to that with Benefizkonzerten of the garb house orchestra also the majority of the construction costses on initiativecollected; inaugurated to 23. April 1843
- Büste in the Walhalla
- bronze casting for iron oh, reveals to 28. September 1884, draft implemented by Adolf of Donndorf, inaugurated by Hermann
- Howaldt monument in Köthen (notion ) of Heinrich Pohlmann, 1885
- Bronze statue of Karl Seffner on the Thomaskirchhof at the south side of the Leipziger Thomas church, reveals to 17. May 1908
- the brook monument in Weimar was set up for the first time 1950, removed after two years and revealed 1995 at the place of the democracy again
- To brook monument in Arnstadt, created 1985 sketched by Bernd
- Göbel brook monument in Ansbach, set up by Jürgen Goertz, in July 2003
for one around completeness endeavored bibliography see Yo Tomitas „brook Bibliography “
- Wolfgang Schmieder: Brook list of works (BWV). Thematic-systematic listing of the musical works of Johann Sebastian brook, broad head & Härtel, Wiesbaden, 1990, ISBN 3-7651-0255-5
- Hans Heinrich harrow-break: Secret brook, Nötzel, Wilhelmshaven 2001 ISBN 3-7959-0790-X
- Klaus Eidam: The true life of the Johann SebastianBrook, Piper, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-492-04079-9
- Arno Forchert: Johann Sebastian brook and its time, Laaber publishing house, Neuaufl. 2005, ISBN 3890075312
- Johann Nikolaus Forkel: Over Johann Sebastian of brook life, art and works of art, bear rider publishing house, Kassel 2004, ISBN 3-7618-1472-0 <Repr. D. Expenditure. Leipzig 1802>
- James R. Gaines: Evening into the Palace OF Reason. Fourth Estate, 2005, ISBN 0007156588 (Johann Sebastian brook meets Frederick the Great)
- Martin Geck: Johann Sebastian brook, Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002, ISBN 3-499-50637-8
- Friedrich of Hausegger, Johann Sebastian brook - in the context of music history, ABOD 2006, hearing book ISBN 3-8341-0171-0
- Michael Heinemann (Herausg.) the brook encyclopedia Laaber publishing house 2000 volume 6 brook manual of the ISBN 3890074561
- Konrad Küster (Hrsg.): Brook manual, bear rider publishing house, Kassel 1999 ISBN 3-7618-2000-3
- Ludwig Prautzsch: The hidden Symbolsprache Johann Sebastian of brook, Merseburger publishing house, Kassel
- 1. - Indication and number alphabet of the church-musical works, 2004 ISBN 3-87537-298-0
- Gottfried Scholz: Brook passions. A musical Werkführer, Beck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-43305-7
- Albert Schweitzer: Johann Sebastian brook, broad head & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1990, ISBN 3-7651-0034-X
- Christoph Wolff: Johann Sebastian brook, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. to 2000, ISBN 3-10-092584-X
- list of German composers
- list of the church song composers
- Family brook
- Werner Neumann, Bachforscher
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Buchmayer, music historian and brook researcher
- brook house
- new brook company
- brook week Ansbach
Web on the left of
|Commons: Johann Sebastian brook - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Johann Sebastian brook - quotations|
|Wikisource: Johann Sebastian brook - Source texts|
| | * Literature of and over Johann Sebastian brook in the catalog of the DDB
- Johann Sebastian brook - a life album visual Kantate with remarkable quotations
- „the brook Bibliography “ extensive Bibliografie about brook (in English)
- jsbach.org - international side with information about interpretations
- brook archives Leipzig
- brook house iron oh
- brook digital - a-scanned autocounts and more
- Greatjsbach.net - liveStream and piano excerpts of numerous brook works for hearing and reputation
- Diskografie of the works of brook and the brook family with many furtherInformation
- brook archives Leipzig
- brook Cantata PAGE - the texts of all vowel works of brook
- jsba.ch: Brook portal, brook forum, brook Community
- Piano Society - brook - free one photographs
- Classic Cat - brook - listing with free photographs
- bach.de - German-language sides over J. S. Brook
- Over brook Spiritualität
freely available notes of works J.S. Brook:
- Mutopiaproject.org - freely available brook scores
- freely available brook scores on www.free-sheetmusic.org
- Bachkantaten (Kantoreiarchiv)
- Violinkonzerte BWV 1043 and 1041 (Kantoreiarchiv)
- Brandenburgi concert No. 4 (Kantoreiarchiv)
|NAME||brook, Johann Sebastian|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German composer of the baroque, organist and Cembalist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||21. March 1685|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||iron oh|
|DYING DATE||28. July 1750|
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|