Johann VI. (Portugal)
Johann VI. (* 13. May 1767; † 10. March 1826) was king of Portugal and Brazil from the house Braganza. He was from 1792 to 1816 prince regent of Portugal, 1815 to 1816 also a prince regent of Brazil, from 1816 toto his death king of Portugal and from 1816 to 1822 king of Brazil.
Johann VI. the third son of Peter was III. by Portugal and its wife Maria I.After the death of itsFather 1786 its nut/mother purged to 1792 increasingly into an irrational Frömmigkeit and had therefore to be incapacitated. Since then Johann already led the government of the country as a prince regent.
During its rule meaning circulations in Europe, which had dramatic effects also on Portugal, occurred. 1789 began those French revolution, to 21. January 1793 died the French king Ludwig XVI. on the Guillotine. Portugal stepped thereupon for the anti-French coalition with (in an educated manner from England, Spain and most German and Italian states), stood however starting from 1795 alone. With support of the napoleonischenFrance used Spain this weakness and conquered 1801 under favourite of the Spanish queen, Manuel Godoy, parts of Portugal (Spanish ultimatum, Spanish occupation of the Alentejo, transfer of the city Olivença the appointed the Generalissimus among other things Areas at Spain in peacetime of Badajoz).
Since 1796 were Napoleon in France come out from confusions of the revolution as a new strong man. Its struggle for the supremacy in Europe held from now by the peoples of the continent in breath. Portugal was thereby in a particularly awkward situation, there the country since old timea faithful of allied England, the sworn mortal enemy of Napoleon, was (the oldest Portuguese-English assistance contract originated from the year 1385). At the latest since the Methuenvertrag 1703 the country depended also economically on the trade with England.
1806 imposed the continental barrier to Napoleon in Berlin against England; thatTrade from European ports with England was forbidden thereafter. Portugal did not know napoleonischem urge to lock its ports opposite British ships and the continental blockade follow, giving way, since it was dependent on the British trade too much. The French urge became after Napoleons' defeat inthe sea-battle of Trafalgar (1805) ever more strongly. 1806 place Napoleon Portugal an ultimatum. Either the country explains the war to the Englishmen, or France would explain the war to Portugal. 1807 must grant the Frenchman Durchmarschrechte to Spain in the contract of Fontainebleau. Napoléon succeeds it in such a way,To occupy Portugal and set the house off Braganza. General Junot conquers Lisbon and the governor is appointed. The royal family flees to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro becomes new seat of the government.
Three times tried the Frenchmen, the country to occupied. The first invasion of Junot 1807-1808 was firstsuccessfully, until a British Expeditionscorps of 13.000 men under the instruction British of the general Arthur Wellesley, the later Viscount Wellington, to 01. August 1808 in Portugal landed. It succeeded to the Britisher fast to teach to the Frenchmen a set of defeats (battles of Roliça to(17. August 1808) and Vimeiro to (21. August 1808). General Junot and its men must from Portugal withdraw themselves, in the contract from Sintra must the British them however free departure grant. 1809 tried it again the Frenchmen - this time was itMarshal de Dieu Soult, which invaded from Galicien coming to Portugal. The British-Portuguese troops stand first under the instruction of William Carr Beresford, later again under the instruction of Wellington, for that, when he heard of the new invasion, in April 1809 to Portugalhad returned. With the victory of Talavera de la Reina over the Frenchmen (July 1809) was terminated the second invasion.
In August 1810 the Frenchmen tried it for the third time. This time the marshals Masséna , Ney and Junot occupied the province Beira. Wellingtondefeated it to 27. September 1810 in the battle of Buçaco, close Coimbra. The Englishmen and Portuguese had used the time, in order to put on with Torres Vedras, north of Lisbon, a fastened line of defense. The French invasion is stopped at this line, the Frenchmensuffer large losses. After the defeat of Sabugal (3. ) They must withdraw themselves April 1811 finally from Portugal. The country was released thereby. Officially the war ends however only with the French defeat in the battle of Toulouse, 1814.
Prince regent Johann was however during this whole time in the far Rio de Janeiro. The result of the war was a disaster for Portugal. The structure of the industrialization was stopped. The country by the tactics of the burned earth, which had used both the Frenchmen and the Englishmen, devastates. Constitutionallyif Portugal was governed from Brazil, in the year 1815 received to Brazil a new status, was not now any longer Portuguese colony, but resembled independent kingdom right as Portugal, connected with this by personnel union. Portugal was strongly indebted, its commercial dependence on England grew. Since 1810 England hadalso the right to float under evasion of Portugal, directly with Brazil trade. Portugal became in fact Brazilian colony and British protectorate, power in the country lay in the hands of the British commander William Carr Beresford.
After death Maria I. 1816 became a prince regent Johannin Rio de Janeiro as Johann VI. to the king crowned by Brazil and Portugal.
Relating to domestic affairs, particularly in the Portuguese army, the call grew after a condition. The liberals political ideas, brought by Napoleon and the troops of the revolutionary France to Portugal, fell in thatbadly paid army on fruitful soil. The absence of the royal family, the presence of foreign commanders (Bereshford) and the events in neighbouring Spain, where the liberalism successes celebrated, led to additional unrest in Portugal.1817 let a set of conspirators execute to Bereshford, among them the leader that Freimaurer and liberal general Gomes Freire de Andrade. 1820 finally begin, while Bereshford in Brazil is, the liberal revolution with a rebellion of officers (24. August 1820) in postage. The leader of the insurgent ones, the lawyer Manuel Fernandes Tomás, requiresa liberal condition, after the model of the Spanish condition of 1812. In Lisbon a provisional government is educated (junta), that becomes English officers far away from the Portuguese army, when Bereshford returns from Brazil to Lisbon, it entering the city refused. The insurgent onescalls up a condition-giving meeting (Cortes), the 1821 the first Portuguese condition discharged. In the condition the regency of the king is confirmed, who is requested to return from Brazil which Inquisition and special rights of the catholic church becomes, exactly the same as the Feudalherrschaft, abolished, an a chamber parliamentone furnishes, come out from general elections, in which all Portuguese with exception of women, illiterates and clerics could participate. A provisional government (Portuguese: Junta Provisional DO Supremo Governo DO Reino) was furnished. The king vacated the new condition a right of veto against those, It however the right did not receive law collecting mains of the parliament to dissolve the parliament.
The ever more urgent requests of the condition-giving meeting to return to Portugal Johann VI. followed. finally rather against-willingly in the year 1821. With it a 14jährige ended period, in that the Portuguese yard in Riode Janeiro had resided. The king left his oldest son Peter as a regent in Brazil. Johann VI. if loyalty swears the queen Charlotte Johanna and the secondaryoldest son , Michael , which should likewise carry the oath out on the condition of 1821, refused however. Thereupon itshould leave the queen and the prince the country and go into the exile, what then however did not happen nevertheless. When the Portuguese Cortes tried to limit the autonomy of Brazil and to induce also still the Crown Prince to the return to Portugal, this explains to 7. September 1822 Brazilian independence and appoints itself the emperor Peter I. of Brazil. Portugal recognizes Brazilian independence not on however first.
1824 come it to a rebellion of the conservative forces against the new liberal condition. The insurgent ones become of queen Charlotte Johanna andthe Infanten Michael led. Michael stands in this time completely under the influence of its nut/mother, that dreams to eliminate the liberal condition and to introduce to Portugal the absolutism again. France and the holy alliance support the countering revolution in Portugal. France sent an army afterTo eliminate Spain, which had the order, there the liberal condition and then, if it would become necessary to march to Portugal further and to try the same there. Johann VI., which was not ready to break its oath on the liberal condition became ofits wife and its son in the palace of Bemposta practically as a prisoner held, the queen tried to induce its man to the resignation. With British assistance the king succeeds in however escaping from the palace. The king goes on the British ship Windsor Castle,there Michael of its supreme command relieves the country over the Portuguese army and forces it to finally leave. Also the queen must begin the journey in the exile. Michael goes at the Viennese emperor yard, belonged there to the circle around Metternich, which him in its reactionaryOpinions encourages again. In Portugal the liberal will recall condition of 1821.
1826 die Johann VI. His oldest son, emperor Peter I. from Brazil, IV. becomes of a regency council as Peter. to the king proclaimed. Again Portugal and Brazil are briefly united under the same ruler.
- Maria Theresa (* 1793; † 1874) ∞ 1) 1810 Peter Karl von Bourbon and Braganza, a son of the sister of their father; ∞ 2) 1838 princeKarl of Spain, widower of her younger sister Maria Franziska
- Franz Anton Pio, fourth prince of Beira
- Maria Elisabeth (Isabel) (* 19. May 1797; † 26. December 1818), ∞ 1816 king Ferdinand VII. of Spain
- Peter IV. (* 12. October 1798; † 24. September 1834)
- Maria Franziska (* 22. April 1800; † 4. September 1834), ∞ 1816 prince Karl of Spain, a son of the Spanish king Karl IV.
- Elizabeth (Isabel) Maria (* 4. July 1801; † 22. April 1876), the later Regentinof Portugal
- Michael I. (* 26. October 1802; † 14. November 1866)
- Maria Assunção (* 25. July 1805; † 7. January 1834),
- Anna there Jesus (* 23. December 1806; † 22. June 1857), ∞ 1827 the first duke ofLoulé
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||João VI|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||king of Portugal and Brazil from the house Braganza|
|DATE OF BIRTH||13. May 1767|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||10. March 1826|