Johannes Brahms

of these articles is concerned with the composer Brahms, for the Asteroiden sees Brahms (Asteroid).
Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (* 7. May 1833 in Hamburg; † 3. April 1897 in Vienna) was a German composer, Pianist and conductor, whose compositions one assigns to the romance.

Table of contents

1833 to 1856

early years

Johannes Brahms was branch of a widely distributed of Lower Saxony north German family. Its father, who understood a making music as handicraft to the Broterwerb, played horn and Retort bass and arose with small ensembles in dance restaurants in Hamburg. Brahms received first piano instruction with seven years. Brahms' talent for composing showed up already in its youth. Its 1849 wrote „fantasies over a popular tome “is certification onevirtuosen piano play.

Brahms developed a characteristic as a young man: It published its early works frequently under aliases (G. W. Marcks, Karl Würth) and assigned them higher Opus numbers. At first there was excluding piano works, which Brahms wrote - to possibilities and bordersthe orchestra were it too little trusts, and even in later years it availed itself when composing its first orchestra works of the assistance of experienced composers from its friend circle.

1853 obtained the Violinist Eduard Reményi gotten used to with it the acquaintance inComposers Joseph Joachim because-end to Hanover. This noted directly over Brahms:

“In its play the intensive fire, that one, I is whole would like to say, fatalistic energy and precision of the rhythm, which prophesy the artist, and his compositions show already in such a waymuch meaning, like I it up to now still with no art-younger of its age met. “

Joachim recommended Brahms to turn to Franz Liszt which was at the time Hofkapellmeister in Weimar. This promised it, it in a letter to thatTo mention music publishing house broad head & Härtel. Brahms expected not much of it and wrote to Joachim immediately a letter with the desire, this may it to the artistic life introduce. Thereupon persuaded Joachim it, that in Duesseldorf because-ends composer Robert Schumann to visit.

new one courses

„new courses “ - under this heading appeared to 25. October 1853 in and in Leipzig the appearing „new magazine for music “the first article over Johannes Brahms, the Schumann, created by Robert Schumann, personallywrote:

“(…) And it came, young blood, by whose cradle Grazien and hero guard held. It is called Johannes Brahms, came from Hamburg, there in dark silence creating, but from a trefflichen and inspires zutragenden teachers in an educated manner in difficultSetting the art, me a short while before recommended by an admired well-known master. It actually carried, also in the exterior, all signs, which announce us: That is an appointing. (…).

Schumann used for Brahms also with broad head & Härtel alsothe request, the publishing house may publish nevertheless some from Brahms' works. Its personal commitment for Brahms made the 20-year old in Germany as it were over night famous. Many music-interested wanted to hear of it, see its notes, to know more about the talent. Brahmsthis fear made. In letters at Schumann it expressed its fear not to be able to be sufficient the yardstick the public. It even burned in an accumulation of covered self criticism some its works.

most expensive friend

Johannes Brahms around 1853
Johannes Brahms
variations over a topic of Robert Schumann op.9
variation X, clocks 30-32
Clara Schumann around 1853

Brahms had made in Duesseldorf meanwhile not only Robert Schumanns acquaintance, but naturally also those for his Mrs. Clara. Them were 14Years older than Brahms, had with Robert at the time six children and than Pianistin European-wide large fame had acquired itself. Brahms was fascinated of it. Already following a first publication of a piano work advanced by Robert Schumann wroteBrahms its Mentor:„I might put the name of her Mrs. Gemahlin to my second work in front? “

Intensified itself after Robert Schumanns briefing into an institute for nerve with Bonn the contact between Clara Schumann and Brahms. It lived temporarily in the same house in Duesseldorf.Its intimate mental entwinement with Clara and Robert Schumann comes to the expression in its piano variations op.9 over a topic of Robert Schumann, which learned to know these in Endenich and found wonderful. In the clocks 30-32 of the 10. Variation appears asCentral voice a topic Claras, Robert the Schumann its op.5 had at the basis put. Between 1854 and 1858 Clara Schumann and Brahms maintained an extensive exchange of letters, whose certifications destroyed them in agreement later however nearly completely. From Brahms letters remained;they reflect an increasing passion. At first it remained “for Innigst loved friend” with „you “, wrote “dear woman”, then “most expensive friend”, finally, last “loved Mrs. Clara”. In the letter of 25. November 1854 is called it suddenly:

“Most expensive friend, as affectionately looks me thattrauliche “you” on! Thousand thanks for it, I kann's enough regard and do not read, heard I it nevertheless only; I missed the word in such a way rarely, as during the reading of your last letter. “

He, the younger one, had not dared it, “you”to offer, one confronts with it suddenly, and finds only slow into this intimate address. In the letter of 31. It writes May 1856 in all clarity:

„My loved Clara, I would like, I could write you so tenderly, how I love you, anddo so much dear and property, how I wish you' s. You like so infinitely to me that I cannot at all say it. In one away I would like to call you favourite and all possible, without becoming fullly, you tooflatter. (...) Your letters are me like kisses “.

This letter was the latter before the foreseeable and nevertheless unexpectedly sudden event, which should change the relationship: Robert Schumanns death to 29. July 1856. Brahms had itself still in Octoberthe same yearly hopes made, „its “Clara in the phase of the mourning trösten to be allowed, occurred with the time disillusionment. Concerned it registered one of it outgoing increasing dissociationness. The exchanged letters became more material. To 17. October 1857 summarizedBrahms finally in a letter:

“Passions do not belong to humans as something natural. They are always exception or excrescences. With whom they exceed the measure, that must itself regard as patients and by medicine for its life and its healthensure. (…) Passions must offense soon, or one must drive them out. “

Time life remained Brahms however in friendly contact to Clara and wrote its still 1896 briefly before their death:

„If you believe to be allowed to expect the worst gönnen you to mea few words, so that I can come to see the dear eyes still open with which for me - like much - closes. “

1857 to 1875

between Detmold and Hamburg

1857 settled Brahmsafter Detmold over. It led there a choir and gave piano instruction. In the time it was concerned with a new, large project: the first piano concert OI. 15 in D-Moll. Regarding the Orchestrierung Joseph Joachim stood for it advice-giving to the side. Oftenit is interpreted as Widerschein of the futile passion for Clara Schumann; the phase was only final straight. Uraufgeführt became it to 22. January 1859 in Hanover. Its repetition in Leipzig to 27. the same monthly did not obtain thoseexpected enthusiasm. Brahms hid its disappointment concerning this not, planned however firmly that a second work „completely differently read “should. And it adhered to its resolution: A second piano concert OI. 83 in B major (it 22 years appeared afterfirst) from the D-Moll-concert would be charakterlich completely different.

In Detmolder time - apart from the piano concert - Orchesterserenaden developed and songs, and. A. „under blooms of May' s spielt' I with their hand “. Brahms left hereby onenew meeting are reminiscent: with Agathe of filter old. It gave a summer its falling in loveness, so obviously that Clara Schumann determined insulted, it quite fast probably GET-roasted itself. Its second Streichsextett plays in the 1. Sentence with a topicon Agathe from filter old, it contains the clay/tone succession nevertheless:A-G-A-h-e. But the engagement rings were exchanged hardly with Agathe, made for Brahms a retreat. He saw himself unable to commit itself at this time - he did it in addition,later not. Brahms remained unmarried time life. In May 1859 it moved to Hamburg. There developed among other things „the Magelonen singing “ (it completed it however only 1869, chamber music and numerous piano variations („… over an own topic “, „… overHungarian song “, „… over a topic of trade “, „… over a topic of Schumann “ (four-handle)).

1860 made the acquaintance of the publisher Fritz Simrock for Brahms. This help this as a publisher of the Brahms work to relevant admittingness, because Brahms had it inthe 1860er years not always easily to publish its compositions. The publishers were careful - the first piano concert did not have a success; in addition Brahms of pieces of piano were considered as with difficulty playable. In addition, Brahms put with its perfection urge of stones into thatAway. Often it put off its publishers with the transmittal of the manuscript, since seemed to it, it can still improvements at the composition attach.

A reason to turn Hamburg the backs was Brahms' detuning over the fact that it its promoter and paternal friend Theodor Avé Lallemant 1862/63 did not succeed to provide for it the director post of the Philharmoni concerts to intersperse at least however Brahms as choir masters of the singing academy. Although Brahms had never openly applied for these places, he was deeply hurt that him Julius stick living preferredbecame. The procedure loaded the friendly relationship to Avé Lallemant sensitively for many years.

in Vienna

a first stay in Vienna 1862 brought acknowledgment and praise. Brahms played its quartet in g-Moll with Joseph Hellmesberger during a private evening meeting,on which this proclaimed enthusiastically:„That is the inheritance Beethovens. With the Bonmot Brahms had trouble; it requested to be regarded nevertheless to comparisons, with which it feared, not as equal. But although Vienna a pleasant surrounding fieldgave, strove Brahms for higher one: It wanted to become directors/conductors of the Hamburgi Philharmonic Concert Halls. The message that instead of its singer Julius had been for this selected the stick living, met Brahms deeply.

1863 accepted Brahms the offer to become choir masters of the Viennese singing academy.But 1864 it already delivered this office again, since the discipline of the choir had diminished in such a way that the performances resembled more improvisations than rehearsed presentations. Brahms was afraid for its call and was besides frustrated. Under in the futuredeveloped works are also „the German Requiem “ as well as “the Hungarian dances”. While contains the Requiem, which does not follow that traditionally latin texts, but Bible texts in German language, during its premiere in Bremen 1868, turned out the publication was enthusiastisch celebratedthe “Hungarian dances”, with which Brahms had fallen back to gypsy ways belonging to the common property/knowledge, nearly to the scandal: Reached Brahms with them a clearly broader public than with its other works, but announced itself suddenly different musicians to word (and. A.its old friend Reményi), which spent itself as authors of the music.

As a pianist Brahms was so successful in those years that he could deny its living costs also without firm employment. Nevertheless he took over 1873 the line of the Viennese of singing association, thoseit however already 1875 again delivered. Also earned it and its publishers with its compositions already appeared as much that Simrock it afterwards-ran formally with the request to give it something new nevertheless for publication.

1876 to 1897

Johannes Brahms honour grave on the Viennese central cemetery

time of the sinfonischen works

Brahms wrote its four symphonies during one period of scarcely nine years. Compared with the two piano concerts, which lie 22 years apart, thus in record time,particularly since the symphonies did not remain its only orchestra works from this time. To 4. November 1876 took place the premiere of the first symphony in C-Moll OI. 68 in Karlsruhe, to 30. December 1877 those the second symphony in D major OI.73.1880 worked Brahms on two Ouvertüren OI. 80 and OI. 81, of which he said: „The one cries, which laughs others “. 1883, with a summer stay in Wiesbaden, he terminated the third symphony in F major OI. 90. Itin December in Vienna one uraufgeführt. And with a stay in Mürzzuschlag in the Steiermark began it in the summer finally 1884 with work on the fourth symphony in e-Moll OI. 98. Their premiere found to 25. October 1885 in Meiningeninstead of.

In the future Brahms composed primarily chamber music (Violin and Cellosonaten). 1886 he became honorary president of the Viennese of clay/tone artist association. The last two decades of its life was Brahms a prominent personality of the international music scene and as pianist, conductor and a composer was admiredand admires. Numerous honors and honorary memberships were lent to him, which commentated Brahms with the words:“Occurs if to me a pretty melody, likes to me than a Leopoldsorden.” 1879 received Brahms by the University of Breslau. 1889 becamethe honour citizenry of Hamburg to it lent. Brahms died at the 3. April 1897 at the age of 63 years in Vienna, according to data of some Biografien at liver cancer. As turned out however, a Pankreas was causal - Karzinom for its death.It was bestattet on the Viennese central cemetery.

Brahms in the criticism of its contemporaries

Brahms as a successor Beethovens?

Brahms is called this very day often „the legitimate successors Ludwig van Beethovens “. This designation, the Brahmsalready to lifetimes sceptically opposite stood, has its origin first of all in the music controversy 19. Century, which was inflamed between the trailers of the conservative, absolute music and as progressively regarding „new German “.

the music controversy

already 1860it came to open differences between that the tradition connected advocates of the absolute music and the trailers „ of the newGerman music created under Franz Liszt “ (also: NewGerman school mentioned). The controversy was based on in principle a different understanding of the music. Liszt and Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner the “future music” on their flags had been written. They wanted to absolutely advance the development of the music with the Sinfoni seal and the music drama. And at the same time third a keyword new in the context formed the so-called program music. Language pipethe new Germans was „the new magazine for music, taken over by Franz Brendel, “. To the Traditionalisten again belonged and. A. Joseph Joachim, Brahms and the music critic Eduard Hanslick, its basis of one for the music of Brahms at the same timeintensive friendship between both was. Their goal was, which described Brahms with its favourite expression “durable music ”, i.e. that music the historical change by its specific quality is extracted.

With a communist manifesto, which also Joachim and Brahms had signed, those protestedRepresentatives of the conservative camp against those their conceptions contrary-running developments of musical currents and heimsten promptly a Verhöhnung. The text arrived by an indiscretion still before its publication into the hands of the attacking and was thus corrupted. The new Germans answeredwith a Persiflage on the communist manifesto, certified thereby its authors, one „brother federation for unaufregende and boring art to schmieden and set among other things „a J.Geiger “ (for Joseph Joachim), „Hans's new course “(for Johannes Brahms - allusion on the article „new courses “)and „a Krethi and a Plethi “ under it.

Thus the tendency between the zerstrittenen parties was finally spoiled. Brahms and Wagner remained time life on coolly distance to each other. While Brahms held back itself carefully, Wagner could not leave it in some expressions, its adversenessto express over Brahms' music. Eduard Hanslicks for Brahms might considerably to the estimate have contributed, he is Beethovens successors, because Hanslick was at its time one of the most influential music critics of Vienna and placed its lifting outness completely inthe service of the conservative ones. And still another person revealed itself as glowing Verehrer of this direction:Hans's von Bülow. It, that had been originally convinced Wagnerianer, carried out the consciousness change, after it Wagner had stretched his Mrs. Cosima. Bülows attitude tooBrahms manifested itself particularly in famous the utterance become, the first Symphonie von Brahms is tenth of Beethoven.

Brahms' work

with all discussion over it, whether Brahms is as Beethovens successors to be regarded, is certain: Its workstands in an entire European music tradition. Beethoven, also Johann Sebastian brook, George Friedrich trade and Giovanni Pierluigi there Palestrina did not only have influence on its music. Brahms fell back to medieval kinds of church clay/tone and also to the Netherlands canon technology. Itfelt obligated the passing. The deviations for tradition, made by it, were carried out in inconspicuous steps. And although Brahms took over essentially tradierte forms, he scooped an independent and thus at the same time new work.

Music-scientific work speaks with it ofthree creative periods: First reaches second up to the second piano concert and third up to „the German Requiem “, begins with the third symphony. For the first period the romantic basic adjustment is significant, second is by a strongly classicalImpact coined/shaped, and third is a fusion of these basic adjustments with one another.

With its symphonies Brahms put not only the general public, but also its friends to a hard test, since they do not offer a light entrance. Already over its first symphonynoted he:„Now I would like to make still the probably very surprising report that my symphony is not straight love worth long and “. Also with the further worked Brahms with harmonies, which the public might not have reconstructed.

evaluations

  • Friedrich Nietz:… which is still because of Johannes Brahms! ... Its luck was a German measure-amplifier-change-eats: one took it as an antagonist Wagner's, - one needed an antagonist! - No nothwendige music makes, makes above all too much music!- If one is not rich, should one enough be proud to the Armuth! ... The sympathy, which Brahms undeniably here and there flowed, completely apart from that interest of party, party misunderstandings, was me for a long time a Räthsel: to I finally, by a coincidencealmost, behind it it came that he affects a certain type of humans. It has the melancholy of the inability; it does not create from the abundance, it durstet after the abundance. One accounts for, what he copies, which he large old orexotic-modern style forms takes - he is master in the Copie -, then remains as its self-width unit the longing… The errathen longing ones, the unsatisfied ones of all kinds. He is too little person, too little center… The “impersonal ones” the peripheral ones understand that,- they love it for it. In particular he is a musician of a kind of unsatisfied women. Fifty step further: and one has the Wagnerianerin - completely like one fifty step beyond Brahms Wagner finds -, the Wagnerianerin, a more pronounced, more interesting,above all anmuthigeren type. Brahms is agitating, so long it secretly schwärmt or over itself mourns - in it it is “modern” -; it becomes cold, it concerns us nothing more, as soon as it beerbt the classical authors… Fasslicher, for “armsin the spirit " expressed: Brahms - or Wagner… Brahms is not an actor… (The case Wagner, second postscript)
  • William Furtwängler: Its works become with higher age ever more scarcely, more closely, more pushed, in the feeling thereby ever more simply. And it shows upstraight at it that there is not only a development and a development after the side of the variety, but also after the simplicity (...). (From a speech of 1931)
  • Arnold beautiful mountain: From Brahms I learned:
Much of that,which course-flew me by Mozart unconsciously was, in particular Ungradtaktigkeit, extension and Verkürzung of the cliches
plastics of the organization: Do not save, not knausern, if clarity requires larger area; each shape to end lead
systematics of the sentence picture
economics and nevertheless: Wealth..(Into “national music, 1931)
  • Carl Dahlhaus: Brahms was neither a Schumann still another Beethoven Epigone and nevertheless a musical curator. And its Konservatismus was to that extent aesthetically legitimate, when Brahms tradition existence did not take over blindly, but it into a process of the far thinkingpulled in, without extinguishing on the other hand their substance. (“Brahms and the idea of the chamber music”, 1990)

works

see also for this the category: Johannes Brahms of works

of orchestra works

piano music

  • Sonate No. 1 C major, OI. 1 (1853)
  • Sonate No. 2 fis Moll, OI. 2 (1854)
  • Scherzo in it-Moll, OI.4 (1854)
  • Sonate No. 3 f-Moll, OI. 5 (1854)
  • variations over a topic of Schumann, OI. 9 (1854)
  • Gavotte WoO posth. 3 (1854-55)
  • 2 Gigues WoO posth. 4 (1855)
  • 2 Sarabanden WoO posth. 5 (1854-55)
  • four Balladen OI. 10 (1856)
  • Variations over an own topic OI. 21/1 (1861)
  • variations over a Hungarian song OI. 21/2 (1861)
  • variations over a topic of trade OI. 24 (1862)
  • variations over a topic of Paganini OI. 35 (1866)
  • 16 tomes OI. 39 (1865)
  • Hungarian ones Dances WoO 1 (1872 treatment of the four-handled original, see below)
  • of eight pieces of piano of OI. 76 (1879)
  • two rhapsodies OI. 79 (1880)
  • seven Fantasien OI. 116 (1892)
  • three Intermezzi OI. 117 (1892)
  • six pieces of piano of OI. 118 (1893)
  • four pieces of piano of OI. 119 (1893)
  • 51 piano exercises (1893)

to four hands

  • variations over a topic of Schumann in E flat major, OI. 23 (1863)
  • Hungarian dances (1869 and 1880)

chamber music with piano

  • quartet No. 1 in g-Moll, OI. 25 (1863)
  • quartet No. 2 inA major, OI. 26 (1863)
  • Quintett f-Moll, OI. 34 (1865)
  • Sonate for Violoncello and piano in e-Moll OI. 38 (1865)
  • Sonate for Violoncello and piano in F major OI. 99 (1886)
  • Trio for horn, violin and piano in E flat major OI. 40 (1865)
  • Quartet No. 3 in C-Moll, OI. 60 (1875)
  • Sonate for violin and piano in G major OI. 78 (1880)
  • Sonate for violin and piano in A major OI. 100 (1887)
  • Sonate for violin and piano in D-Moll OI. 108 (1889)
  • several Trios
  • 2 Klarinettensonaten f-Moll, E flat major OI. 120
  • 1 Klarinettentrio OI. 114

chamber music without piano

  • Sextett No. 1 in B major OI. 18 (1862)
  • Sextett No. 2 in G major, OI. 36 (1866)
  • Quintett No. 1 in F major, OI. 88 (1866)
  • Quintett No. 2 in G major, OI. 111 (1891)
  • several caper quartets
  • Klarinettenquintett h-Moll OI. 115

organ works

  • joint as-Moll WoO 8
  • Präludium and joint A-Moll WoO 9
  • Präludium and joint g-Moll WoO 10
  • Choralvorspiel and joint over „O sadness,o heart wrong “WoO 7
  • eleven Choralvorspiele OI. posth. 122

choir works

  • Missa Canonica OI. posth. (1856, fragment) of late reworked to the Motette OI. 74,1
  • Ave Maria OI. 12 (1860)
  • funeral singing OI. 13 for choir and Bläser (1860) organ version ofK.M.Komma
  • two Motetten OI. 29 (1857-1860): “Create in me God purely a heart” OI. 29,2 (Psalm 51.12-14)
  • a German Requiem OI. 45 (1866/67 and 68 (sentence 5))
  • Rinaldo OI. 50 (1869)
  • fate song OI. 54 (1871)
  • triumph song OI. 55 (1871)
  • twoMotetten OI. 74 (1878): “Why the light is given the toilsome one” OI. 74,1 and “O welfare and, tear the skies up”
  • firm and intending sayings A cappella OI. 109 (1888)
  • three Motetten OI. 110 (1889)
  • singing of the Parzen OI. 89

approximately 330Songs for Singstimme

see also

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