Friedrich Johannes Kepler (also: Ioannes Keplerus; * 27. December 1571 in because the city; † 15. November 1630 in Regensburg) was a German nature philosopher, mathematician, an astronomer, a Astrologe and a Optiker.
He discovered the laws of the planetary motion, which are called after him Kepler laws. In mathematics the approximate computation was designated from numeric integrals to it Kepler barrel rule. Also it made the optics the the subject of scientific investigation.
Table of contents
Keplers nut/mother Katharina aroused its interest in astronomy: It showed it the comet of 1577 and the lunar eclipse of 1580. Johannes Kepler lived from 1579 to 1584 with its parents in Ellmendingen, where its father the hotel „sun “had leased. Starting from 1584 (16. Octobers) it visited the monastery school in aristocracy mountain, of 1586 (26. November) to the higher seminar in the former monastery Maulbronn and knew a theology study despite modest family conditions and a kränklichen nature 1589 to Evangelist pin in Tübingen begin. Here it studied Michael Mästlin with the mathematician and astronomer and became acquainted with the heliozentrische system of the planetary motions of the Nikolaus Kopernikus . During the study make friends himself he with the lawyer Christoph Besold .
Kepler wantedoriginally Protestant clergyman become; it accepted however due to its mathematical gift in the year 1594 a training order for mathematics at the University of Graz . 1597 he married Barbara striving leakage, a Mueller daughter.
In the course of the Gegenreformation the family 1600 Graz hadleft; it established itself as an assistant of Tycho Brahe in Prague, whose successor became he 1601. 1611 deceased a son and its wife, them left to it two children. At the University of Tübingen one thought few from its antiaristotelischen opinionsand did not permit it as a professor. One year later it took a place than mathematicians in Linz on (until 1626). In the year 1613 he married Susanna Reuttinger; from the six children, whom she bore it, only one survived.
Ofon 1615 it had to worry about the defense of its nut/mother Katharina, which was eingekerkert under the suspicion of the Hexerei. (In a novel figure in Keplers writing Somnium („the dream “), which a magic journey to the moon describes, meant the accusation KeplersNut/mother to recognize.) in October 1620 it could implement their release. Came it a legal appraisal of the University of Tübingen zuhilfe, which probably decreases/goes back to its study friend Besold. Keplers nut/mother deceased already one year later at the consequences of the torture.
In Linz the problems accumulated themselves up: it had difficulties to drive its pecuniary claims its library was occasionally seized and its children to the participation in the catholic fair forced. The family fled after Ulm. A Professur in Rostock did not come off.
In the year 1627 he found a new promoter however in Albrecht of boiling stone. The expected Horoskope reliable of Kepler and made in response in Schlesien printering available. When however boiling stone lost its post in August 1630 as Generalissimus,Kepler traveled to Regensburg. Few months later he deceased there at the age of 59 years; its grave went in confusions of the dreissigjährigen war soon under (its house of the deceased is a much visited memorial place).
a life forthe science
in its 1596 published book Mysterium Cosmographicum (the world secret) tried Kepler, the courses that at that time admitted five planets (Merkur, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn)to set with the surface of the five Platonic bodies in relationship. The orbit of the Saturns it placed itself thereby as great circle on a ball forwards (not yet as ellipse), which encloses a cube (Hexaeder). The cube enclosesagain a ball, which is to describe the Jupiterbahn (see illustration). This ball again includes tetrahedron, which coats the Mars ball etc. This work was after Keplers discovery first after it designated law - at the latest however after the discovery of more removedPlanet - only of historical interest.
Already into the 1590er years was located Kepler with Galileo Galilei in brieflichem contact. 1600 it accepted a position as an assistant of Tycho Brahe . Co-operation in Prague became however complicated. Bothit was conscious that their different gifts complemented each other: Brahe was a exzellenter observer, its mathematical abilities was however limited. The outstanding mathematician Kepler however could accomplish precise observations because of its myopia hardly. Brahe was afraid however, with its extensive life's work, thatRecordings of astronomical observations of the planets and hundreds of stars to justify however Keplers fame. In addition it came that Brahe divided the astronomical opinions of Kopernikus and Kepler only ansatzweise.
Fundamentis Astrologiae Certioribus („over more reliable bases of the Astrologie “, 1601) indicates stated Kepler in its first publication in the new position, how the astronomy on safe basis can be exercised, by one it on new scientific bases inConnection with the Pythagorean thought of the world harmony places. Also this was an affront against the conservative contemporaries, who gave preference to the ptolemäischen astronomy.
As a successor Brahes received full entrance to its recordings to Kepler. In the year 1600 was the innovativeWork of the English physician William Gilbert De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno magnets Tellure („over the magnet, magnetic bodies and the large magnet earth “) published, its theories for magnetic attraction Kepler accepted immediately. In this way it arrived toothe view, which exercises sun a Kraft working into the distance, which decreases with increasing distance and which planets hold on their orbits. This was just as speculative at its time as the assumption, between the courses of the heavenly bodies andthe Platonic bodies exist an internal connection. The thought of the action at a distance strength as well as the evaluation of the Brahe observations led Kepler to the discovery that the course Mars a circle, but an ellipse is not. This is not obviously, there the coursesthe large planets run nearly in a circle. Kepler noticed also that the ellipse is arranged like that in the area that one of its focuses always coincides with the sun (first Kepler law). Second of it discovered law mentioned that one of thatSun to a planet drawn straight line in same periods same surfaces re-paints over. That means: the further a planet is distant from the sun, all the more slowly it moves. It published these two laws in 1609 the work Astronomia new facts appeared (New astronomy).
1604 observed Kepler the supernew facts 1604 and published its observations in the year 1606 in the book De Stella new facts into pede Serpentarii („of the new star in the foot of the queue carrier “). Emerging this „new “star was entitled in the contradictionthe prevailing opinion, the fixed stellar vault is on eternally constant, and released violent discussions among nature-philosophical experts.
One of the most important work Keplers was its Dioptrice. With this published work Kepler put 1611 the bases for the entire optics asScience. Had preceded its writing Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena, Quibus Astronomiae Pars Optica Traditur („additions of Witelo, in which the optical part of the astronomy is continued “, 1604), in which it earlier conceptions over the propagation and effect of rays of lightfundamentally changed: not of the eye a cone goes out, whose basis covers the view article, but of each point of the object jets go into all directions - some of it the eye inside reaches by the pupil. Just like rays of light on the wayfrom the Gestirnen to us by the mantle of air to be diverted (atmospheric refraction), they are broken also in the still closer medium of the eyepiece and bundled thereby. Thus Kepler had an explanation for myopia and also for the effect of a magnifying glassor eyeglasses given. The invention of the Kepler telescope appears nearly as a waste product of its profound realizations for the refraction of the light and the optical illustration.
The publication of the Dioptrice was the middle in a series of three papers, which it asAnswer to Galileis Sidereus Nuncius had written. In first Kepler speculated whether the courses of the Galilei moons would also fit into Platonic bodies. A third paper concerned its own observations of the Jupitermonde and supported Galileis conclusions. This wrote on itback: „I thank you… because you are the only one, which gives me faith. “It is hardly amazing that it did not have a success with its attempt to seize as a professor in its study homeland Tübingen foot - Kepler was too progressive.
In Linz (starting from 1612) Kepler concerned itself with a purely mathematical problem: the volume of wine barrels. Wine merchants determined this according to rules of thumb; Kepler developed a method further common in the antique one and set thereby the bases for the large considerations of Bonaventura Cavalieri and Evangelista Torricelli. Late Kepler barrel rule so mentioned announced he 1615 under the title Stereometria Doliorum Vinariorum („geometry of solids of the wine barrels “).
After intensive study of the data for the orbit Kepler discovered Mars to 15. May 1618third of the laws designated after it, which it described V („five books to the Harmonik of the world “) in in the year 1619 the described work Harmonices Mundi libri: Afterwards is the relationship of the third power of the average distance of a planet ofthe sun, <math> D< /math>, for the square of its scan time always constantly: <math> d^3/T^2 </math> is alike for all planets.
|Planet||T||D||<math> T^2< /math>||<math> d^3< /math>||<math> T^2/d^3< /math>|
T = siderische scan time in trop. YearsD = large shaft section in astronomical units (distance earth sun)
Kepler spoke inthis work of a harmonious law, since he believed that it reveals a musical harmony, which the creator in the solar system perpetuated. I feel moved by an inexpressible twitching whether the göttlichen play of the himmlischen harmony. Because see wehere, like God equal a human building master, who came closer in accordance with order and rule, to the foundation of the world. Keplers opinions corresponded what one calls today anthropisches principle. In a further manuscript it described a composition of agreementsbetween the Bible and scientific circumstances. Due to the pressure on the part of the church this essay could not be published. Such arguments accompanied Keplers family frequently.
Contrary to the harmony of the heavenly bodies, which Kepler studied, this epoch of hate was, fearand intolerance coined/shaped. Kepler was deeply religious humans:I believe that the causes for most things in the world from the love of God for humans can be deduced. In this time the dreissigjährige war raved between catholicand Protestant parties. Since Kepler agreed with none of the two sides, both Protestanten even took the liberty and catholics among its friends to rank, he had to flee with his family several times, in order to escape from pursuits.
In the years 1618-1621 wroteit Epitome Astronomiae Copernicae („outline of the kopernikanischen astronomy “), which summarized its discoveries in a volume and which first text book of the heliozentrischen conception of the world represented.
A further important milestone of science history was Keplers forecast of a Venustransits by the sun disk for the year1631. It was this the first (and correct) computation of such an event. For this it could use its astronomical laws discovered before. The passage computed by him could not he however any longer observe (eight years later Jeremiah of hearing skirt was successful).
Apart from the astronomical investigations Kepler wrote an essay to the symmetry of flakes. He discovered the fact that natural forces - not only in flakes - which causes growth of regular geometrical structures. He noticed concretely that each flake is a singular thing,on the other hand flakes with a turn around in each case 60 degrees their appearance kept (symmetry six-tough-lies).
This led Kepler to computations of the maximum density of circle arrangements and Kugelpackungen. These early work applied in that in the modern times among other things Crystallography as well as in the coding theory, a subsection of the communications technology. Kepler assumed that the closest kind consists of stacking balls of arranging her pyramid-shaped one above the other. This mathematically to prove was tried 400 years long in vain by mathematicians. (To 8. August1998 announced the mathematician Thomas Hales a proof for Keplers assumption . Due to the complexity of the computer proof a final examination still stands despite efforts for many years of outstanding consultants.)
of Johannes Kepler comes also thoseDefinition of the anti-prism.
toward end of its turbulent life published Johannes Kepler in the year 1627 in Ulm its last large work, the Tabulae Rudolfinae (Rudolfini boards). It evaluated the recordings Tycho Brahesand described the positions of the planets with up to then unequalled accuracy (the middle errors were reduced to approximately 1/30 of the past values). These planet boards as well as its in the Epitome… stated sky-mechanical laws educated the most convincing argumentation assistance of the contemporary Heliozentriker and servedlate Isaac Newton as basis for the derivation of the Gravitationstheorie.
Kepler ranks among the founders of the modern natural sciences. Its life was coined/shaped of deep faith conviction and its conception of the world was based upthe hermetic tradition, which from Pythagoras (harmonies in the universe) over Platon (mathematics is everything) up to from Dionysios the quoted Hermes Trismegistos extended. In this tradition there were to actions at a distance and harmonies, which may appear okkult to us medieval - forKepler was logically, simple and clear its world view. Before this background however Kepler marks the transition from a qualitative nature philosophy to quantitative natural sciences.
Its discovery of the three planet laws made from the medieval conception of the world (in that bodyless natures the planets inclusivelySun in constant motion held) a dynamic system, in which the sun affects the planets actively by action at a distance. It however never called it „laws “; they were in its eyes rather expression of the world harmony, those the creator its work givenhad. And from its view it was also göttliche planning, which led the theology student to the study of the Gestirne. There the natural world was it a mirror, in which the göttlichen ideas could become visible, the God-created human spirit in addition, itto recognize and praise.
In this sense it wanted the assumptions, which Kopernikus had expressed, when proved correctly; this was Keplers kind of „service “. This meant however that he went off the thought, the kopernikanische system is only in(hypothetical) model for the simpler computation of the planet positions, but a physical fact. Thus Kepler did not only push with the catholic church, but also with Protestant superiors on embittered resistance. Because on both sides the theories of Aristoteles applied and Ptolemäus as inviolable.
At the beginning of its considerations however „illuminating stood “, the distances of the five (!) Planets of the sun would correspond exactly in and to rewritten balls to the five (!) Platonic bodies. When he found computationally large agreement, was hesurely by means of mathematics and observation the building („architecture “) of the universe to have revealed.
When Kepler observed the supernew facts in the year 1604 1604, he saw also therein planning at the work: it did not only place it in connection with that Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (1603) and assumed, the new star had been released by these. Separate it stated, same occurred with the appearance of the star of Betlehem: also this became visible in consequence of a large planet conjunction (firstscientific star of Betlehem theory). In the same way now (1604) the Wiederkunft of the Mr. no more is far.
already its work De fundamentis… from 1601 its exact knowledge of the Astrologie shows. This remained to to its end of life more substantiallyPart its nature-philosophical occupation. (It would have perhaps satisfied it, if it had still experienced, how „“its forecast was reliable to boiling stone fate in the late winter 1634.)
a researcher, who darkens such „“teachings the basis of its scientific investigations made, had a rationalists as Galilei appear zwielichtig. With Galilei it changed repeatedly letters, of these however held not much of Keplers „for working forces “and esoterischen „harmonies “. Like that the relationship between the two - some technical agreements to the defiance - was rather strained.
Keplerbut was in 17. Century in best society: still Isaac Newton showed from its study time interest in qualitative nature philosophy (including Alchemie), strong in the high age, and arrived in such a way at its crucial considerations at the force of gravity effect of the masses.
Kepler some time in Linz were there, the there University of it was called in honours Johannes Kepler university. Kept further the observatories in because the city, Graz and Linz the name Kepler observatory. Over itoutside a prominent Mondkrater and the Asteroid ( 1134) carry Kepler its name.
in its place of residence because the city became in in honours 1870 a monument established, on which different scenes from its life are represented.
[Notefrom the preface to „the text book of mathematical physics - volume 1 - classical dynamic systems “of walter Thirring: „Even these Kepler laws, which determine the radii of the planet courses and which one concealed as mystischen nonsense gladly, seem towardto interpret truth, which locks for superficial view: Nestings perfect Platonic body lead to conditions of radii, which are irrational, but algebraic equations of low order are sufficient. Straight such irrational numbers can courses be approximated most badly by rational, and alsothis radius relationship are in relation to mutual disturbances at the robustesten, since they suffer to few from resonance effects. “]
- Mysterium Cosmographicum. (German: The world secret) (reproduction available under: Johannes Kepler - which holds the world together in the internal one. Answersfrom writings of Johannes Kepler. (Mysterium cosmographicum, Tertius interveniens, Harmonice mundi) in German translation with an introduction, explanations and a glossary given change of Fritz Krafft. MARIXVERLAG 2005)
- Harmonice Mundi. (German: Weltharmonik) (reproduction available under: Johannes Kepler - which thoseWorld in the internal one holds together. Answers from writings of Johannes Kepler. (Mysterium cosmographicum, Tertius interveniens, Harmonice mundi) in German translation with an introduction, explanations and a glossary given change of Fritz Krafft. MARIXVERLAG 2005)
- Dioptrice. (German: Dioptrik or description of the consequences, thosefrom the recently made invention of the telescopes for seeing and the visible articles to result. Over. and. hrsg. of F. Plehn. 2. Aufl. Thun; Frankfurt/Main: German 1997 (of Ostwald classical author of the accurate sciences; Bd. 144) ISBN 3-8171-3144-5)
- Tabulae Rudolfinae. (German: The Rudolfini boards)
- Astronomia new facts. (German: New astronomy) (reproduction available under: Johannes Kepler: Astronomia new facts: New one, causally justified astronomy. Hrsg. and. in gel. v. Fritz Krafft (lost library gone knowledge) 2005. LVIII, 576 S.,MARIXVERLAG.ISBN 3865390145)
- Somnium. (German: The dream)
- new facts stereometria doliorum vinariorum. (German: New geometry of solids of the wine barrels)
- of the secured bases of the Astrologie (reproduction available under ISBN 3-925100-38-5)
- „who however is live in those worlds, if they should be inhabited? Are we or they the masters of the universe? And is all of this made for humans? “
- „Me the ways, on which humans arrive at the realization of the himmlischen things, come nearly likewiseadmiration with dignity forwards, like the nature of the things themselves. “(Quippe mihi non multo deveniunt minus admirandae videntur occasiones, quibus homines in cognationem rerum coelestium; quam ipsa Natura rerum coelestium. Argumenta singulorum capitum, “Astronomia new facts”, 1609. In: Kepler collecting works, volumeIII, S.47, line 19-21.)
- „geometry is only and eternal, a Widerschein from the spirit of God. Dass die Menschen an ihr teilhaben, ist mit eine Ursache dafür, dass der Mensch ein Ebenbild Gottes ist.“ (Dissertatio cum Nuntio Siderio,zit. n.M. Caspar: J. K. (1995), S. 106)
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- Bibliographia Kepleriana. A leader by the printed bibliography of (andover) Johannes Kepler. In the Auftr. the Bavarian. Akad. D. Wiss. hrsg. of max of Caspar, Munich 1936. 2. Aufl. bes. v. Martha cunning, Munich 1968. ISBN 3-406-01685-5 and. ISBN 3-4060-1684-7
- Max Caspar: Johannes Kepler, hrsg. of the Kepler society, because the city. 4. Aufl., suppl. around a complete. Quellenverz. Stuttgart, GNT publishing house 1995 (Nachdr. D. 3. Aufl. v. 1958). ISBN 3-928186-28-0
- Jürgen Helfricht: Astronomy history of Dresden. Hellerau, Dresden 2001. ISBN 3-910184-76-6
- Johannes Hoppe: Johannes Kepler. Leipzig: Teubner 1976
- Arthur Koestler: The sleep transducers. Berne 1959
- Mechthild Lemcke: Johannes Kepler. 2. Aufl. Reinbek: Rowohlt 2002. ISBN 3-499-50529-0
- Anna Maria Lombardi: JohannesKepler - insights into the himmlische harmony. Weinheim: Spectrum of D. Science 2000
- Rosemarie Schuder: The son of the witch - in the mill of the devil. Berlin: Rütten & Loening 1968
- William and Helga Strube: Kepler and the general. Berlin: New life 1985
- Berthold Sutter: The witch process against Katharina Kepler, 1979
- Johannes Tralow: Kepler and the emperor. Berlin: Publishing house of the nation 1961
work and bibliography
- Gerhard thin head: “Johannes Kepler”, in: Personnel bibliographiesto the pressures of the baroque, Bd. 3. Stuttgart: Hiersemann 1991, S. 2269-2308.
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- Keplers mathematical proof that the monarchy of the democracy is superior
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German mathematician, astronomer, Astrologe and Optiker|
|DATE OF BIRTH||27. December 1571|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||because the city|
|DYING DATE||15. November 1630|