John Adam

of these articles treats the second US-American president. For further meanings see John Adam (term clarifying).

John Adam (* 30. October 1735 in Braintree, Suffolk County, Massachusetts; † 4. July 1826 in Quincy) was the first (1789 - 1797) vice-presidentthe USA and the second (1797 - 1801) president. John Quincy Adam, the sixth president of the USA, was its son.


John of Adam

Adam became 1735 in the northern municipality of Braintree, since 1792 Quincy, in the Federal StateMassachusetts born. His father John was Farmer and in the fourth generation descendant of the immigrant Henry Adam, who had moved from Devonian , England to Massachusetts around 1636, its nut/mother was Susanna Boylston Adam. It was married with Abigail Smith.

John Adam completed the Harvard College 1755, taught at the school of Worcester and practiced as an attorney in the Kanzlei of Rufus Putnam. 1758 it joined the bar. Adam worked already early as a writer and held the emergence of the American colonies.

Adam, who since its respectedLebensjahr smoked strong, suffered just like George Washington under the loss of all teeth. Differently than these it refused carrying dentures, so that listeners often weighted, it articulates itself perfectly incomprehensibly. It broke down in its term of office several times and left its depressionswith the help of a milk - toast - treat Diät.

John Adam was not popular Volkstribun like its cousin of second degree of Samuel Adam; it exerted rather by its characteristic as a constitutionalist influence on the fate of the state. It was purposefully, vehement and courageous with the defenseits ideas. This proved at the same time as hindrance for its political career.

It used its influence first in the background of the Whigs during the discussions around the stamp act of 1765. At that time it wrote the messages after Braintree the representative in the Lower House of Massachusetts. In August 1765 wrote Adam's anonymous four noteworthy articles in the bad clay/tone Gazette (also in London the 1768 as a thesis over the canonical and feudale right were published), in which he stated the conflicts between the individualism and the rule. In December 1765 it wrotea speech for the governor, in which it the stamp act as illegally designated, because the area of Massachusetts would not have a representative in the English parliament.

1768 pulled Adam after bad clay/tone. it defended 1770 with the assistance of Josiah Quincy, Jr., the British soldiers, after that Bad clay/tone massacres of four inhabitants of the colony had killed. The process ended with acquietal for the officer, to that the employment instruction had given and for most soldiers, only two soldiers the homicide for guilty was at the same time found.

John Adam was member of the congress of continental from 1774 to 1778. In June 1775 it supported the appointment of Washington with the intention of causing the combination of the 12 colonies as a commander in chief of the army. Its influence on the colonies was large and it advanced the independence of the colonies from Great Britain impatiently. To 7. June 1776it helped Henry Lee with the famous resolution of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations that” these colonies - and nature-legally they should this - were free and independent states “, and nobody defended these resolutions as eloquent and effectively before the congress as Adam.

To 8. June 1776 it becametogether with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman into a committee appoint, in order to prepare the declaration of independence; although the explanation was written by Thomas Jefferson, had Adam of the debates around the development the largest portion.

1778 segelte Adam to France, around Silas Deaneto replace in the American commission there. Already soon it turned after Massachusetts back around the condition of the state of 1780 to prepare, which is valid this very day.

Before it could lock this, it segelte again to Europe as a Minister with all authority around a peace treaty andto lock a commercial pact with Great Britain. However the conditions were bad; the French government did not wish this connection. Distrusted to John Jay and Adam to the French government. Against the voice Franklins decided it to change their order and negotiate now directly with the British government, withoutthat the Frenchmen would have been informed of it.

1796 defeated Adam's, after Washington of a re-election had for his part not agreed, in the elections Thomas Jefferson. It could outdo his competitor Thomas Pinckney against the resistance of Alexander Hamilton and other Föderalisten.

Adams' four years as headthe executive (1797 - 1801) by numerous plots were coined/shaped; the party of the Föderalisten brought itself by different laws in discredit. The party threatened to break due to the quarrels apart. Adam and Hamilton became avowed opponents, several members of the Adam cabinet heard moreon Hamilton as on the presidents. Besides the USA were entangled into European confusions.

1800 should appear Adam again as a candidate of the Föderalisten for the office for president, but he distrusted to his own party, so that the popularity of his opponent, meant Thomas Jefferson, finally his defeat.He withdrew himself into his private life. It died on the same day as Jefferson, to 4. July 1826, the American national holiday.

Religiously to the unitaryism [ work on

] literature professed itself


  • Truslow Adam of Adam: The Adam Family. Bad clay/tone: Little Brown, 1930
  • Gilbert Chinard: HoneJohn Adam. Bad clay/tone: Little Brown, 1933
  • John E. Ferling: John Adam: A would run. Knoxville: University OF threshing floor lake press, 1992
  • Joseph J. Ellis: Passionate legend: The character and Legacy OF John Adam. New York: Norton, 1993
  • David McCullough: John Adam.New York: Simon & shoemaker, 2001
  • John P. Diggins: John Adam. New York: Time Books, 2003
  • Ralph Adam Brown: The Presidency OF John Adam. Lawrence: University press OF Kansas, 1975

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