John Curtin

John Joseph Ambrose Curtin (* 8. January 1885 in Creswick, Victoria; † 5. July 1945 in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory) was the 14. Prime minister of Australia. Its term of office lasted from 7. October 1941 up to 5. July 1945. He deceased in the office. Of the 1. October 1935 up to 7. October 1941 he was the opposition leader.

the time before he prime ministers became (until October 1941)

John Curtin became in Creswick as oldest vierer brothers and sisters of John senior and Kate Curtin born. Its father had to give its occupation up as a policeman for health reasons as John Curtin was 5 years old. It was therefore in a forced manner, in the early age of 14 years to work goes, in order to secure the maintenance of the family. It needed 4 years to it finally a fixed employment as an accountant in a Melbourner factory found.

John Curtins interest in politics released by its nut/mother and in such a way joined it 1901 a committee, which as one can be regarded the forerunner of the Australian laboratory party ( ALP) in Victoria. Besides it engaged itself starting from 1905 also in the Victorian Socialist party (VSP), which was created briefly before by an acquaintance.

In the year 1911 it quit its past working premises in the factory, in order to become established secretary of the Victorian Timber Workers union, a trade union for wood and forest workers. Thus it could intensify also its commitment for the ALP further.

During the First World War it occurred vehement against the military service and was one of the prominent heads of the campaign, which was directed against it. Letting register at the end of of 1916 it even briefly arrested, there it itself refused for a possible military service.

After it had already stopped 1914 around the hand of Elsie Needham, it could do it to 21. April 1917 finally conjugal. Together the two had a daughter (1917) and a son (1921).

In March 1917, two months before its marriage, he drew to west Australia, in order to accept there the place as publishers of the Westralian Worker, a trade union newspaper. It successfully exercised this position up to the year 1928 .

it , now in the third approach after 1919 and 1925 , could win 1928 a mandate in the house of representatives for the constituency Fremantle. After the ALP won with the elections in October 1929 with a large majority, he could defend thereby its seat in parlament successfully, figured he chances out on a ministerial position in the cabinet James Scullins . It was not considered however from disapproving its alcohol problems, which had since always 1916 again. With new elections in the year 1931, which stood strongly under the influence of the world economic crisis, it lost its mandate, could it however 1934 recover.

As Jim Scullin at the 1. October 1935 of the party presidency of the ALP withdrew, surprisingly John Curtin with the projection/lead of a voice before its competitor and safe favorite franc Forde was selected. It became thus also the opposition leader. In relation to the government Joseph Lyons it could hardly form itself with its politics. This changed only after its death in the year 1939. Thus the ALP attained the government majority with the elections 1940 nearly, while he could maintain its own constituency Fremantle as party chairmen only with a very limited projection/lead of 600 votes.

the time as a prime minister (starting from October 1941)

the two independent parliamentarians in the house of representatives, who had carried the government Robert Menzies after the choice 1940 first, supported starting from autumn 1941 now the policy of the ALP. Therefore John Curtin could do to 7. October 1941 the prime minister of Australia to be appointed and a government formed.

Its entire reign was certain of the Second World War, which in December 1941, exactly two months after its assumption of office, now also in the Pacific took its beginning. Already to 19. Japanese airplanes the city Darwin in the north of Australia could attack February 1942, so that a Japanese invasion became a material like serious threat.

In view of this situation John Curtin met three important and much controversy decisions:

  1. Redeployment of the Australian armed forces to Australia, which intervened so far in the middle east in the war, so that these could the motherland defend and crucially in the Pacific war intervene.
  2. Calling the USA around direct military support. In this connection it transferred the US-American general Douglas MacArthur, which was assigned starting from March 1942 the defensive war of the allied ones in the Pacific to organize, the supreme command over the Australian troops.
  3. Although he was during the First World War a decided opponent of the military service, he did not come now also against the will of his party to introduce these.

Until 1943 knew the direct threat of Australia are however turned away, so that he could win the parliamentary elections in the August of the same yearly decisively for the ALP.

John Curtins health was always not the strongest and in such a way left the Querelen, which were connected with its decisions clear traces with him. Also he was a strong smoker.

After a journey overseas to London in May 1944, where he participated in a conference of the prime ministers of the Commonwealth, in order to make the switch positions for the post-war period, he could not recover from the loads of his office any longer. The end of the war in Europe to 8. May 1945 he experienced still, had however the public proclamation over it to its deputy and successor Ben Chifley to already leave. It was it last any longer does not vergönnt the end of war in the Pacific to 2. To see September 1945. It died to 5. July 1945 in Canberra.


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