John Montagu, 4. Earl OF sand-yielded

John Montagu, 4. Earl OF sand-yielded (* 3. November 1718; † 30. April 1792) was a British diplomat and statesman. It is today above all admits by after him designated occupied bread, which sand-yielded.

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Sandwich
The blank. Hone. the Earl OF sand-yielded

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origin and family

John Montagu originated from a family, which belonged to the Stuarts to the Gentry of Northamptonshire and owed its ascent. Its move admiral forward Montagu (1625-1672) fleet commander of the English republic had been, however the restoration had supported, king Karl II. from the Netherlands to England returned and was for it to the Earl OF sand-yielded raised.

John's grandfather, Edward Montagu, the 3. Earl, had through-brought anyway not the large fortune, before he had been incapacitated because of mental disorder and placed under supervision. His wife, Elizabeth Wilmot († 1757), daughter 2. Earl OF smelling ester, went to Paris to the Stuarthof and carried the remainder forward of the fortune.

John's father, Edward smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Montagu († 1722), Viscount Hinchinbrooke, died before John was four years old. His nut/mother, Elizabeth Popham, married 1728 a second time. Before it had already two years their children gotten rid of and John after Eton given, although it was still too young actually with seven years, in order be officially taken up (at that time a not uncommon practice). John and its younger brother were now practically become an orphan. They became therefore 1730 Mündel of the Court OF Chancery, which administered its affairs on trust. In the immense number of the left letters lord Sandwichs not one letter of the Earl to its nut/mother or one is to the nut/mother to her son. She is mentioned as well as never, although she only 1761 died.


John Montague was born 1718 as a son Edward smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Montagu († 1722), Viscount Hinchinbroke, and Elizabeth of the Popham and followed 1729 his grandfather Edward Montagu, that 3. Earl in. Trained in Eton and at the Trinity college in Cambridge, he spent some time on journeys, before he returned 1739 to England and took - as trailers of the duke of Bedford - its seat in the upper house.

Fast he was appointed the member of the admiralty under Bedford and the Colonel of the army. 1746 he was authorized person representative on the congress of Breda and participated up to the Aachener peace 1748 in the peace negotiations, which terminated the Austrian succession war. In February 1748 he became first lord of the admiralty (naval Minister), which it remained up to its dismissal by the king in June 1751.

In August 1753 it became one of the first Ministers and played as such a prominent role in the prosecution of John Wilkes. It was common with Wilkes member in the notorious brother shank of Medmenham, turned however now against its former companion. This convicition change made it very unpopular, it - in allusion on a line in the beggar opera - for “Jemmy Twitcher” was called.

It became 1768 postmaster general (post office Minister), 1770 Ministers of State and was from 1771 to 1782 again first lord of the admiralty. The office guidance of the Earl OF sand-yielded is singular because of its corruption and inability in the history of the Royal Navy. Posts were bought, sent to depots suppressed and - and that was the worst - non-seaworthy and badly equipped ships into the fight. Was therefore very unpopular, its dismissal sand-yielded 1782 was jubilant welcomed.

Sand-yielded was with Dorothy Fane (1726-1797), a daughter of Charles Fane 1. Viscount Fane (1710-1744), marries, with which he had a son John (1743-1814), who followed as a fifth Earl. In addition it had several illegitimate children with the singer Margaret or Martha Ray, from which Basil Montagu (1770-1851) admits as writer, lawyer and a philanthropist became. The murder measure Ray on by a rejected Verehrer in April 1779 increased the unpopularity of the lord, which was anyway already large, still. The stigma of the affair Wilkes and its corrupt office guidance adhered to it up to the conclusion. It died to 30. April 1792.


still during lifetimes Sandwichs designated James Cook a Inselgruppe in the south Atlantic after sand-yielded: the southern sand yielding islands. In addition Hawaii became as if sand-yielded Iceland designation, later however renamed from it. The moreover one the south sand yielding islands are designated in the proximity of the Antilleses after it, as well as a deep sea ditch with 8.400 m depth. The city sand-yielded in Kent is designated however not after John Montagu but after one of its relatives.

Most well-known is however occupied bread, with which it is to have had the following Bewandtnis: It sand-yielded was in such a way deepened with friends into the pack of cards that no time remained to the meal. It white its Butler on to arrange a few occupied bread with ham and cheese: that sand-yielded, a meal, which one could eat with a hand, without having to put the maps from the hand.

For this rumor it gives however - how its bio graph Rodger points - only one source out, a travel book of Grosley. That he sand-yielded invented, in order to be able to eat during the work, there it is more probable in the infragestehenden period (1765) was very busy.


  • Voyage round the Mediterranean into the Years 1738 and 1739. - London: Cadell & Davies, 1799 (postum) with a very flatterful memorandum of Rev. John Cooke


  • The would run, Adventures, Intrigues and Amours OF the celebrated Jemmy Twitcher. - New York : Garland, 1975 <Repr. d. Ausg. London 1770>; obtain completely different view of the things
  • George Martelli: Jemmy Twitcher. - London: Cape, 1962
  • N. A. M. Rodger, The Insatiable Earl: A would run OF John Montagu, Fourth Earl OF sand-yielded. - London: Harper Collins, 1993


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