John Wayne

John Wayne

John Wayne (actually Marion Michael Morrison, * 26. May 1907 in winter set, Iowa, the USA; † 11. June 1979 in Los Angeles) was an US-American actor, who acted mainly as Westerndarsteller and in war films. Its pointed name was „The Duke “(dt.: The duke), after a Airedale Terrier, which it possessed as a pupil.

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1913 drew the family up Waynes because of the bad health of the father, a pharmacist,a Ranch in Lancaster, California. The father got along with the agriculture badly - its son with the horses all the better. It mastered the 10 kilometers long way to school usually in the saddle. Already after two years the father gave the farm andopened in Glendale, to a suburb of Los Angeles, a pharmacy, which threw however so little off that its son Marion Michael and its younger brother Robert E. Morrison along-earn had. Marion Michael began with newspaper delivering and messenger courses. In the building of the pharmacy also was inCinema accommodated, and for the Austeilen of handbills he was allowed to regard free of charge or other film.

In Glendale were in addition grounds „of the Triangle Filmstudios “, where Marion Michael by-looked from time to time and first film air schnupperte. In the Glendale High School it broughtmore badly than quite instruction behind itself (Wayne said late dryings: „I went even to the school. “), however a star was in the football crew. After the school Marion Michael pierced itself a time long as Aprikosenpflücker, truck driver and a Eisverkäufer, to itan admission at the University OF Southern California found. Also here he had to to it-earn however. He got a first employment as Requisiteur with the film by switching of the west seriousness acre Tom mixes.

Occasionally its task consisted also of supervising the connections of the individual scenes (those Continuity). If two scenes are turned on different days, which follow directly one behind the other in the film, someone must pay attention to it, which clothes the actors to carry whether the make-up, the camera position, the position of the actors etc. agree. Wayne made itself these experiences later with the turning workto the Western El Dorado . There it played a friend of the Sheriffs Robert Mitchum, which was hurt at the leg and constantly with a sprag ran around. Mitchum changed the side, on which he limbed and which used sprag, as desired, and Wayne fell thatdue to its previous knowledge particularly up. It made then - in its role - an appropriate remark Mitchum, which countered with a impactfinished answer. The scene was not located so in the film script, but director Howard Hawks pleased it so well that he it into thatFilm inserted.

Wayne played its first visible role in the silent movie „the house of the Henkers “(Hangman's House, 1928). He was to be seen in four scenes as spectators with a horse running. Possibly he was also in the predecessor film „nut/mother Machree “(MON ago Machree, 1928)by John Ford already as Komparse also thereby. This cannot be occupied however any longer, since there are no more copies from the film. Anyhow it was active with this strip also as Requisiteur.

1930 changed Marion Michael Morrison for its name in „John Wayne “andplayed its first main role in „the large Treck “(to The bend Trail) from Raoul Walsh. The film is regarded as one the best Western of the early clay/tone film time, was however financially a complete failure. Jungstar Wayne got Fox at this time of the film companyweekly wages of 75 dollar. Soon however the company lost the interest in Wayne and dismissed it from the contract.

Wayne received already soon a new chance by Harry Cohn, the boss of the Columbia Pictures, which looked for a young actor for society comedies. Cohnit was the opinion that Wayne in the tuxedo looks good, and occupied it in several small films. Then he began to chicane it however, because he believed that Wayne would have thrown an eye on a Starlet, in which he was interested. The contract ran out,and Wayne was long unemployed a few months. Wayne wanted to later never turn a film for the Columbia again. At another production company, „the Mascot “, found new work to Wayne and learned the actor and Stuntman Yakima Canutt to know (later among other things the spectacular car running in Ben Hur produced). Canutt taught the high school of the Filmprügelei to Wayne. From him it cribbed itself from also its late so characteristic course. Wayne played main roles now several times and was the star some Serials. It stepped also as singing actors in thatRole „of the Singing Sandy Saunders “up, had thereby however not as much success as the colleagues Roy Rogers or genes Autry.

After many small films and a further Serial „The Three Mesquitieers “, in which Wayne played their leader „Stony Brook “, got Wayne 1939with John Ford the main role of its life for the film Ringo (Stagecoach), which made it final the star.

Altogether the 1.93 meters large Wayne in 142 films played the male main role. It nevertheless only won the OSCAR for the best male leading actor inTimes for „the Marshal “(True Grit, 1969). Since center of the 1950er years led Wayne several times direction in its films. It stepped however only into Alamo (The Alamo, 1960) (with its production it 1960 financially nearly ruined itself anddespite solid advertisement with seven nominating, among other things John Wayne with The Alamo for the best film, only a OSCAR for the best sound won) and the green devil (The Green Berets) officially as a director in feature. For the cult film Dirty Harry was original itlate main role played of Clint Eastwood offered. Wayne leaned off an error, which he wanted to adjust after the spectacular success of the strip with appearances in far less successful police films. Thus at the end of its career any longer the change of the cowboy did not succeed to it to the copilot, of the hero old America new to that.

It in the Selbstbildnis unparalleled in film history the last sniper (The Shootist) of Don seal played his last Filmrolle, an cancer-ill gun hero , who looks for a worthy death.

1964 supportedWayne the presidency campaign of the racistic republican Barry Goldwater. Waynes strongly conservative, militaryistic opinions made him particularly at present the Viet Nam war for many the attraction figure. In order to support the Viet Nam war, it turned the film the green devil as director and a leading actor. Wayne was howeveronly on the canvas during the wars soldier led from the USA. Because of its age and the consequences of a shoulder injury, which he had tightened himself as young football players, it had been freed in the Second World War from the military service.

John Waynes Grab
John Waynes grave

John Wayne died after fifteen-yearPatient history - 1964 had been already removed for it a lung - 1979 at cancer of lung and stomach. When for a cause the circumstances of the turning work apply for its cancer illness to the conquerers (1956), who took place in a nuclear weapon test area in Utah. Except Wayne got sick andalso numerous crew members as well as director died thickly Powell († 1963) and the actors Pedro Armendáriz († 1963), Agnes Moorehead († 1974), Susan Hayward († 1975) and John Hoyt († 1991). John Wayne lies on the cemetery Pacific View Memorial park bury in Corona del Mar , Orange County , California. The airport of orange County was designated after Wayne. Waynes desire, a gravestone with the label “Feo to formally get fuerte y” (it was ugly, strong and had became) was not fulfilled until today.Instead the plain Ruhestätte got 20 years because of the fear of grave robbers only after Waynes death a gravestone with a relief of the actor, let in into the soil, to horses before Alamo and another, erbaulicheren text.


  • 1926 Great K&A TrainRobbery s/w
  • 1926 Brown OF Harvard s/w
  • 1926 Bardelys the Magnificent s/w
  • 1927 The drop Kick (J.W. as Komparse)
  • 1927 Annie Laurie s/w
  • 1928 (MON ago Machree, Hangman's House)
  • 1928 Four Sons s/w
  • 1928 Hangman´s House s/w
  • 1929 The Black Watch s/w
  • 1929 Speakeasy s/w
  • 1929The forward passport s/w
  • 1929 Noah´s Ark
  • 1929 as Duke Morrison (Words and music)
  • 1929 Salute
  • 1930 the large Treck (to The bend Trail)
  • 1930 the fall of the U.S. 13 (one Without Women)
  • 1930 murder in Alaska (Rough Romance)
  • 1930 Cheer UP and Smile
  • 1931 Serial(Hurricane express)
  • 1931 Shadow OF The Eagle)
  • 1931 Girls and Excitement
  • 1931: (Three Girls draws)
  • 1931: (Men of acres Like That)
  • 1931: (Rank Feud)
  • 1931: (Haunted gold)
  • 1931: (Maker OF one)
  • 1931: (Texas Cyclone)
  • 1931: (Two Fisted Law)
  • 1931: Who is here right? /The manfrom steel (lady and Gent)
  • 1931: (Ride Him)
  • 1931: (Cowboy)
  • 1931: (To The bend Stampede)
  • 1933: (The telegraph Trail)
  • 1933: The three Musketiere (The Three Musketeers)
  • 1933: (Somewhere in Sonora)
  • 1933: (His private Secretary)
  • 1933: (OF Jimmy Dolan would run)
  • 1933: (Baby Face)
  • 1933: (The one FromMonterey)
  • 1933: The water laws of Creek (Riders OF Destiny) draws
  • to 1933: Its friend, the Desperado (Sagebrush Trail)
  • 1934: Lucky Texan/Lucky Texan in danger (The Lucky Texan)
  • 1934: (West OF The Divide)
  • 1934: Showdown at the eagle passport (Blue Steel)
  • 1934: Rodeo (The one FromUtah)
  • 1934: Greed for gold (The Trail Beyond)
  • 1934: (Randy Rides alone)
  • 1934: The shade (The star packman)
  • 1934: Country without law (Lawless Frontier)
  • 1934: ('Neath the Arizona Skies)
  • 1935: Adventure in Texas (Texas terror)
  • 1935: In the valley of the rainbow (Rainbow Valley)
  • 1935: The Rodeo robbery(The ore Trail)
  • 1935: Rider in the dawn (The Dawn Rider)
  • 1935: Fire water and blows blooms (Paradise Canyon)
  • 1935: Westward! (Westward Ho)
  • 1935: Flaming border (new Frontier)
  • 1935: Valley of the fear (Lawless rank)
  • 1936: (The Oregon Trail)
  • 1936: Country of the future (The Lawless Nineties)
  • 1936: ThatKing of Pecos (King OF The Pecos)
  • 1936: As of hoist blows (The Lonely Trail)
  • 1936: The hoist of the wilderness (wind OF The Wasteland)
  • 1936: (The Sea of spoiler)
  • 1936: (Conflict)
  • 1937: (California Straight Ahead)
  • 1937: (I Cover The was)
  • 1937: (Idol OF The Crowds)
  • 1937:Night of having a horror/the treasure at the sea-bottom (to Adventure's end)
  • 1937: The gambling den of Wyoming (fount ton of The west)
  • 1938: Friends in the saddle (Pals OF The Saddle)
  • 1938: Gold in the clouds (Overland of steam turbine and gas turbine systems Raiders)
  • 1938: Rebellion in Santa Fé (Santa Fe Stampede)
  • 1938: (TalkRiver rank)
  • 1939: Rider at the night (The Night Riders)
  • 1939: (Three Texas Steers)
  • 1939: The bandit of Wyoming (Wyoming Outlaw)
  • 1939: Water for Arizona (new Frontier)
  • 1939: Black River (Allegheny Uprising)
  • 1939: Hell travel after Santa Fe/Ringo (Stagecoach)
  • 1940: The long way afterCardiff (The Long Voyage Home)
  • 1940: Black command (Dark COMMAND)
  • 1940: (Three Faces west/The Refugee)
  • 1940: The house of the seven sins (Seven Sinners)
  • 1941: (A one Betrayed)
  • 1941: (Lady From Louis IANA)
  • 1941: (The Shepherd OF The Hills)
  • 1942: (Lady For A Night)
  • 1942:Piraten in the Caribbean sea (Reap The game wind)
  • 1942: The Freibeuterin/Stahlharte of fists (The Speulers)
  • 1942: The Draufgänger by bad clay/tone (old California)
  • 1942: Enterprise tiger jump (Flying of tiger)
  • 1942: (Reunion/Reunion in France, Pittsburgh)
  • 1943: Hard Bur - steep teeth (A lady Takes AChance)
  • 1943: The hell of Oklahoma (in old Oklahoma)
  • 1944: Alarm in the Pacific (The Fighting Seabees)
  • 1944: With can and leaving/in Arizona hell is the matter (Tall in The Saddle)
  • 1945: San Francisco Lilly (Fleming OF The Barbary Coast)
  • 1945: Steel thunderstorm (bake tons of Bataan)
  • 1945: Love in the wilderness (Dakota)
  • 1945: Speedboats before Bataan (They Were Expandable)
  • 1946: (Without reservation)
  • 1946: The black rider (fishing rod and The Badman)
  • 1947: Tycoon (Tycoon)
  • 1948: Up to the last man (away Apache)
  • 1948: Talk River
  • 1948: Traces in the sand (Three Godfathers)
  • 1949: InSpell of the red witches (Wake OF The talk Witch)
  • 1949: The devil captain (She Wore A Yellow Ribbon)
  • 1949 in last second (The Fighting Kentuckian)
  • 1949 you was our comrade (sand OF Iwo Jima)
  • 1950 Rio Grande (Rio Grande)
  • 1951: Enterprise sea-eagle (operation Pacific)
  • 1951: Steel one Rockers/fighter wing game cat (Flying Leathernecks)
  • 1952: The winner/the cat with the red hair (The Quiet one)
  • 1952: Marijuana (bend Jim McLain)
  • 1953: One calls me Honshu (Honshu) (3D-Film)
  • 1953: The last signal (Trouble Along The Way, Iceland in The Sky)
John Wayne in the black falcon
  • 1954: It becomes again and again day (The High and The Mighty)
  • 1955. The sea-fox (The Sea Chase)
  • 1955: The yellow river (Blood Alley)
  • 1955: The conquerer (The Conqueror)
  • 1956: The black falcon (The Searchers)
  • 1957: Jet military plane (jet pilot)
  • 1957:The eagle equal (The Wings OF Eagle)
  • 1957: The city of the losing (putting OF The draws)
  • 1958: On the left and on the right of the marriage bed, Cameo (I Married A Woman)
  • 1958: The barbarian and the Geisha (The Barbarian and The Geisha)
  • 1959: Rio Bravo
  • 1959: The last instruction(The Horse Soldiers)
  • 1960: Alamo (The Alamo) (actor, director, producer)
  • 1960: Country of the thousand adventures (North ton Alaska)
  • 1961: The Comancheros (The Comancheros)
  • 1962: The man, the Liberty Valance shot (The one Who of SHOT Liberty Valance)
  • 1962: Having air! (Having air!)
  • 1962: The longest day (The LongestDay)
  • 1963: That was the savage the west (How The west which Won)
  • 1963: The port tavern of Tahiti (Donovan's Reef)
  • 1963: Mac Lintock (McLintock!)
  • 1964: Circus world/hero of the arena (Circus World)
  • 1965: The largest history of all times (The Greatest story Ever Told)
  • 1965: First victory(In Harm's Way)
  • 1965: The four sons of the Katie Elder (The Sons OF Katie Elder)
  • 1966: The shade of the giant/COMM other Stones: Its best man (Cast A Giant Shadow)
  • 1967: The enormous ones (The was Wagon)
  • 1967: El Dorado (El Dorado)
  • 1968: The green devil, Actor, CO director (The Green Berets)
  • 1968: The Unbesiegten (The Undefeated)
  • 1968: The Unerschrockenen (Hellfighters)
  • 1969: The Marshal (True Grit)
  • 1970: Chisum (Chisum)
  • 1970 Rio Lobo (Rio Lobo)
  • 1971 bend to Jake (bend Jake)
  • 1971 the cowboys (The cowboy)
  • 1972 dirty gold (The Train Robbers)
  • 1972 Cameo (cancel My reservation)
  • of 1973 vultures do not know pitying (Cahill, United States Marshal)
  • 1973 McQ strike to (McQ)
  • 1975 Brannigan - a man from steel (Brannigan)
  • 1975 with dynamite and pious sayings (Rooster Cogburn)
  • 1976 the last sniper (The Shootist)


  • inits first Western films tried John Wayne also as a singer. However not with as large success as the “yodelling cowboy” of genes Autry.
  • 1953 turned also John Wayne a 3D-Film: One calls me Honshu (Honshu), later than collecting main for a TV serialserved (in which it did not participate however).
  • John Wayne received largest placement error of all times for his role as Dschingis Khan in the film The Conqueror (1956) golden the door key Award in the category.
  • A large number of the actors and participations in the film The Conqueror died at cancer. The film was turned in the proximity of a nuclear bomb test area in Utah.


  • George Carpozi: John Wayne. Its films - its life (The John Wayne story). Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-86071-3
  • Marks of Ricci, Boris Zmijewsky and SteveZmijewsky:John Wayne and its films (The of film OF John Wayne). Goldmann, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-442-10202-2
  • Uwe Nettelbeck, “the Western and the American rights. John Wayne as example " in: Film criticism, 5 65, S. 250-258, 298-299, Reprint of the class 1965, Munich. Film critic cooperative one 1976

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