Jom Kippur war

the Jom Kippur war was 1973 after the Israeli war of independence (1948), the Sueskrise (1956) and the six-day war of 1967 the fourth Arab-Israeli war. On Arab side the war also Ramadan war is called, there it into thatIslamic chamfering month Ramadan fell. At the same time it is called also October war (in Egypt Harb Uktūbar, in Syria Harb Tischrīn).

The war began with a surprise attack of Egypt and Syria at the highest Jewish holiday Jom Kippur on the Sinai and the Golan heights, which had been conquered six years before by Israel in the course of the six-day war.

During the first 24-48 hours the Egyptian and Syrian army advanced, afterwards the war luck turned in favor of the Israelis. After the second war week were thoseSyrier completely pushed aside from the Golanhöhen. In the Sinai the Israelis between two invading Egyptian armies were pierced, the Suez channel (the old armistice line) had crossed and a whole Egyptian army off had cut, before the UN-armistice stepped into effect.

The war hadextensive consequences for many states. The Arab world, which was humiliated with the complete defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance of the six-day war, could draw psychological advantages from initial successes of the war.

This psychological confirmation was the condition for the peace negotiations thoseto follow should. It made also possible like the Egyptian Infitah - politics for liberalisation. The Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty, which followed relatively time near after the war, led to normal relations between Egypt and Israel - for the first time an Arab state recognized Israelon.

Table of contents

background

reasons

this war was part of the Middle East conflict, a conflict, that to several collisionsand wars had led. During the six-day war the Israelis had conquered the Sinai up to the Suez channel, which became the armistice line. The Israelis had conquered also about half of the Golanhöhen of Syria.

In the postwar years Israel established both in the Sinai,and in the Golanhöhen military attachment plants. In the year 1971 Israel gave to US Dollar for the attachment plants at the Suez channel out an attachment chain with enormous earth barriers, which admits as the bar Lew line 500 million became (designated after the Israeli general Chaim bar Lew). After the overwhelming victory in the six-day war and a at least not lost war of attrition the Israeli government was however too strongly convinced of the own possibilities.

The two Arab states aimed at a recuperation of the 1967 lost areas. The Israeli sidesaw occurring due to the good military initial position after the six-day war no direct reason negotiations over the areas. In September 1970 the Egyptian president Gamal Abdel of wet died. Its successor became Anwar Sadat, decided Israel toofight around the areas to back-get. After the failure of the Jarring mission Sadat hoped to be able to change even by a minimum defeat of Israel the status quo and reach thus negotiations. The Syrian president Hafiz aluminium-Assad had however different motives andwas only interested in military recovering of the Golan heights. Since the six-day war Assad had to make enormous efforts undertaken for Syria dominant factors a military power in the Arab world. Assad was convinced of it, together with Egypt the Israeli army defeatsto be able to secure and with it the Syrian role in the region. Assad considered if necessary negotiations if the Golan were already conquered; these should then led across a task of the West Jordan territory and the Gaza Strip by the Israelisbecome.

Sadat had also important reasons relating to domestic affairs for a war. As the American historian Abraham Rabinovich means, the three years of the reign Sadat of a strong demoralization of the Egyptian population were coined/shaped. A down-lying Egyptian economy was only one thatReasons for the hopelesness of the nation and the war the desperate way out seemed. In its biography over Sadat Raphael Israeli that Sadat meant, writes the roots of the problem in the large dishonor of the six-day war would have lain, and before any reformwould have accomplished to become to be able, first the dishonor to be overcome would have had. The Egyptian economy was destroyed, Sadat knew however around immense resistances in parts of the Egyptian society in relation to the necessary reforms. A military victory became it the necessary popularityprovide to be able to accomplish reforms. Besides there were strong forces (particularly under the studentses, which organized mass protests) in the Egyptian society the required to recover the Sinai and with Sadats' restraint in this affair in the first three years itsTerm of office were extremely dissatisfied.

The other Arab states showed a more reserved position regarding a renewed war against Israel. The Jordanian king Hussein feared a further large loss of Jordanian territory, after the six-day war had halved the Jordanian population. In additionsupported Sadat the claim to power of the PLO on the areas and promised Jassir Arafat control of the West Jordan territory and the Gaza Strip. Hussein saw the West Jordan territory still as part of Jordan and wanted it shut to its kingdom to slam. In addition the events hadblack September, a almost civil war between the PLO and the Jordanian government, to a strong refusal Husseins in relation to the Syrian leadership led, which had intervened militarily on sides of the Palestinian terrorist organization.

Also the Iraq and Syria had loaded relationsand the Iraqis refused taking part in the initial offensive. It was not expected by Lebanon that he took part in the Arab war efforts, since he was not because of internal instability and a small army able a warto lead.

Before the war Sadat on diplomatic way support for the war tried to win. In the course of the yearly 1973 Sadat maintained, more than hundred states supported it. To the supporter states most states of the Arab league belonged, the movement of the non-aligned states and the organization for African unit. Also Sadat's political efforts in Europe were accompanied of successes. Great Britain and France collected themselves for the first time in the camp of the Arab states and were correct in the UN security councilagainst Israel. The Federal Republic of Germany supported the Egyptian war efforts against Israel in the direct apron of the war indirectly by large-scale deliveries of material, forbade however on the other hand the American allied one after beginning of war their bases for supplies to Israel to use.

Vorgeschehen

Anwar Sadat meant public in the year 1972 the fact that Egypt the war had committed itself against Israel and is ready “one million Egyptian soldier to sacrifice”. Since the end of the same yearly the country with concentrated efforts began to develop its troops. ThoseSoviet Union particularly supplied MiG-23s , SA-6s , RPG-7s and the anti-armored force AT-3 Sagger. Also military tactics was improved, political generals, who were responsible for the defeat in the six-day war, were replaced by competent officers.

Also the role of the superpowerswas of crucial importance for the exit of the two wars. The reserved policy of the Soviet Union was made responsible for the Egyptian failure. While the USA and other states of the west had supplied Israel with most modern weapons, the Egyptians became onlywith defensive weapons supplies. Wetter could his air defense screen about only develop after it Moscow visited and the Soviet government ansuchte heftigst not to leave it in the pass. It threatened to follow in the future the Americans. Also the war of attrition becameunerklärtermassen for the reason led to convince the Soviet Union to supply modern weapons. It could be shown by this war that the Soviet weapons had been subject to the American.

The Soviet Union had strong interests in a cooling contrary to wet of theConflict, in order to avoid dangerous frictions with the USA. Therefore the superpowers decided to maintain the status Quo after a meeting in Oslo - a resolution for the Egyptian guidance was unacceptable. After Egyptian plans of attack had oozed, it became necessarythe Russians from Egypt out urge. This happened in July 1972: Almost all 20,000 Soviet military advisers had to leave the country. Egypt began with it with a gradual approximation to the USA.

The CSU regarded Sadats' war chances as small. It warned,each attempt the strong-fastened Sueskanal to exceed, would lead to heavy losses. She pursued a policy of the December duck and had therefore no interests in a destabilization of the Near East. After a meeting with Richard Nixon in June 1973 said Leonid Brezhnev, Israel is to withdraw itself to the borders before the six-day war, otherwise the Soviet Union cannot prevent an escalation. This as indicator for lost gone Soviet influence on Sadat interpreted.

In an interview published in Newsweekof 9. April 1973 threatened Sadat again with war. In the course of the yearly 1973 the Egyptian army accomplished different exercises, which brought Israel each time on the highest uncertainty phase, it however of it to convince at the same time left, each attack with the IsraeliAir forces strike back to be able.

Almost exactly one year before the war, to 24. October 1972 meant Sadat with a meeting of the highest military advice, it wants even during Soviet support not into the war to pull. Planning for this became even highestCommand levels not in former times as one week before beginning of war admits made. Lower ranks did not know still few hours before the attack anything. The concentrated plan of attack was finally called operation Badr (Arab for full moon).

outbreak of war

to 6. October 1973, Syria and Egypt opened a new war ( 4 to the Jewish reconciliation celebration Jom Kippur. Israeli-Arab war, October war).

war happening

Jom Kippur war
the attack surprised the unprepared Israelis and brought to the aggressors first military initial successes; from Israeli view workedthe surprise attack on the summoning, differently than the Arab strategists had imagined, not negatively out.

On the contrary the summoning of the reservists ran however unusually fast, and despite the initial surprise and some confusion in the mobilization depots. During of thehighest Jewish holiday Jom Kippur rested the public life nearly completely, whereby no traffic the military transportation handicapped and the reservists in their houses and synagogs could be made fast. Less than 24 hours after beginning of the fighting reached thosefirst parts of two reserve divisions under Avraham Adan and Sharon the places Baluza and Tassa, in each case 250 kilometers from its Heimatbasen removes.

The Syrians penetrated also over 1400 tanks into the Golanhöhen, which broke through Egyptians the Israeli defense positions and crossedthe Sueskanal. With exception of a small area around haven Said at the Mediterranean coast the income of the bar Lev line and the occupation of a strip succeeded to the Egyptians parallel to the Sueskanal. In this critical phase is the Israeli government even the employmentfrom nuclear weapons considered.

It succeeded to the Israelis however relatively soon to strike back the aggressors. In the north the Gegenoffensive led those to a defeat for the Syrian army, in few days - up to 10. October - was already defeated and870 tanks as well as thousand vehicles and cannons to leave had. The Syrians were back-pushed to 32km before Damascus, which bombards Syrian capital with many civilian victims substantial. A break-through by the Syrian front did not succeed however.

On the Sinai - peninsula knewIsraeli troops the Egyptians likewise back urge and to 16. October the Sueskanal cross. South the bitter lake succeeded it to the Israelis under guidance of general Ariel Scharon, on the east bank the remained 3. To encircle Egyptian army. The Israeli army stoodnow beyond the Sueskanals, 220km before Cairo.

result

Die Golanhöhen
the Golanhöhen
to 22. October called the security council of the United Nations in the resolution 338 on pressure of the USA all parties to adjust the fire. Upon the entry into force of the armisticeto 22. October (north front) and/or. 24. Octobers (south front) were defeated the Syrians; the enclosed and unprovided 3. Egyptian army stood before the destruction.

The losses were high on both sides. More than 2500 Israeli soldiers fell, 7500 were hurt and300 came into shank. The Israeli Air Force suffered large losses by the use of air defense rockets from Soviet production. On Arab side there were 20,000 dead ones to deplore.

The war led those to a Traumatisierung of the Israeli public, the threat with regard to foreign policyhad hardly noticed, because the Israeli army had been considered up to then as unbesiegbar. The reproaches due to the substantial losses forced the Israeli government boss Golda Meïr in April 1974 to the resignation.

For Anwar as-Sadat placed the militarily lost war politically against ita success. With the war it could show Israel that the Arab world was a militarily not underestimating opponent.it met 1977 with Menachem Begin together and already 1979 signed both in Washington the peace agreement of Camp David.

By the demonstration of the strength the Arab countries won again more self-confident its that contained above all the Islamism.

The Jom Kippur war was trip of the oil crisis 1973. The OPEC decided to limit their oil promotion so long substantially until of Israeloccupy areas “released” and the “rights of the Palestinian people” restored are. In addition the Arab countries raised the oil price strongly. Against the USA and the Netherlands a supply boycott was imposed.

states beside

Israel , Egypt took part and Many Arab states took part Syria in the war, this were:

Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Algeria, Tunesien, the Sudan, Morocco, Lebanon, Jordanian one as well as the Palestinians, indirectly also Libya.


See also: Middle East conflict, Israeli-more PalestinianConflict (chronology), six-day war

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