Jomo Kenyatta

Jomo Kenyatta (* 20. October 1893 in Ichaweri, † 22. August 1978 in Mombasa) became 1963 with the independence of Kenya first Prime Minister of the country. 1964 it became after the proclamation of Kenya the Republic of their first president.

Table of contents

overview: Taa ya Kenya

a translation contently placing of its name accepted only late „Kenyatta “does not exist. Since the name is „Kenya “even a Verballhornung, Kenyatta can be also none genuin African name. Earliest the name carries the meaning „the Kenianer “. The expansion on all inhabitants of Kenya (Kenianer = Kenyatten), which can be found sometimes, is wrong.

Kenyattas life and work is over-radiated of the extra large role and honouring acknowledgment by its people as „a father of the nation “. Some biographies or representations are to be called rather Hagiographie, e.g. in the English Wikipedia. So all data and events are also not to be occupied always free of doubts. Kenyatta was highly respected, but in some of its positions and actions also most disputed.

Its address was “Mzee” (speak: Mseeh). In Kisuaheli „mzee is “the address for each venerable older man. It however was the “MZEE”. Thus it e.g. becomes. also on Schilling coins of the country mentioned. Kenyatta called under the Slogan Harambee, what on Kisuaheli about so much is called how: „Let us all together on a cord pull! “, a this very day important social self-help movement in the life.

One again and again the posed and in the long run probably not comprehensively to answering questions, is the question about its role in the Mau Mau - liberty fight. But it was finally condemned to seven years prison and later house arrest. It stands firmly that he was not an operational - also no more secretly - leader of this military fight. In addition, it did not agree also with the methods of this fight, was close this part of its people, because these fighters wanted to likewise terminate colonial rule of the British. To that extent one had common goals, but not the same ways. It however always understood it to use the encroachments of the Mau Mau fighters politically whereby e.g. the resistance will of the population also after the collapse of the Mau Mau was not by any means erlahmt. The Mau Mau fighters were however never compensated in any form or taken part by Kenyatta in power.

It it succeeded to keep the white settlers in the country by a moderate Landreform. Economically it tried with East Africa niches an Economic Community with Milton Obote, Uganda, and Julius Nyerere from Tanzania, of which this very day tell the automarking. Each number in Kenya begins with „K “and in the two other countries with T and And. This community breaks however soon by ideological differences and leads to threatening bearing of many years and bulkheadings of the countries. Even if Kenyatta pursued officially a non-aligned policy, Kenya developed nevertheless to the capitalistic sample country of Africa, which attracted also foreign investors. Kenya became also member of the United nation.

It applies after a liberty fight for many years, in which it really einte the nation, after scientific and journalistic work, after personal suffering in prison and/or. Banishing and convincing political Führerschaft many humans as „Taa ya Kenya “(Kisuaheli = the light of Kenya) and one of the large leaders of Africa in the independence phase.

Shade sides face each other in addition, this great life achievement, so its ever more authoritarianly becoming style of leadership and again and again the raised reproach, ashore, ivory and Bodenschätzen to have enriched. Its safety apparatus oppressed political Opponenten. This apparatus is brought also with murder cases at political opponents in connection, e.g. in the murder case Josiah Mwangi Kariuki .

Kenyatta was four times married, has from all marriages of children. With his last Mrs. Ngina Kenyatta , mentioned (mummy Ngina), which it 1951 married, had it four children:

  • Christine Wambui Pratt (* September 1952),
  • Uhuru Kenyatta (* 1961), (Uhuru was 2002 the been subject presidency candidate)
  • Anna Nyokabi and
  • Muhoho Kenyatta (* 1964).

The international airport in Nairobi was designated after „the father of the nation “„Jomo Kenyatta internationally air haven “(JKIA), in addition, many schools and other institutions.

Its life can be divided and regarded well on the basis its different names. Its life history is to a large extent congruent with the colonial history of its country.

lives

childhood and youth: Kamau wa Ngengi

Kenyattas birth year is not safe; it lies between 1889 and 1895. The small Kamau wa Ngengi lives with his father Muigai and its nut/mother Wambui in Ng'enda, a Dörfchen in the Gatundu - division of the Kiambu - district. This homeland area remains it a life long faithfully connected and its political familiar ones gladly than the “Kiambu clan” or somewhat more strongly than „the Kiambu mafia “were later designated.

Its father Muigai dies and its nut/mother Wambui by Muigai's younger brother Ngengi “is taken over”. Shortly thereafter she gives the life to James Muigai, however the house of the new married man leaves, in order to return to their parents, where it dies soon. Kamau leaves Ng'enda and pulls to its grandfather Muthiga Kingu Magana, which is a medicine man and a fortune-teller.

It becomes 1909 member „of the Church OF Scotland mission “in Thogoto, where it receives basic education and the carpenter's workshop learned. It terminates 1912 the primary school and becomes a carpenter. In Nyongara river with the Thogoto mission it is cut 1913 and for member of the Kihiu Mwiri/Mebengi age group.

arising: John clay/tone Kamau

in August 1914 he lets baptize like a Christian and keeps the name John Peter Kamau, whom he changes soon thereafter in John clay/tone Kamau. In order to find work, it travels to the close Nairobi.

On a sisal farm in Thika engineer John Cook adjusts it 1915, which knows him still from its time in Thogoto.

From a heavy illness 1916 a mission physician and its friend Charles Stokes, which accepts it to its house to Tumutumu , heal it.

In the year 1917 it extracts itself from the threatening introduction to the military by the joggle in the Maassai - country to relatives after Narok. The British colonial power drew in about 200,000 Kenianer as soldier and carrier and sent it after Tanganjika, in order to fight there against the Germans. About 50,000 lost thereby their life. The African had made the experience here however for the first time that white ones are fought and to die to be able. In Narok Kenyatta for an Indian building contractor works. It now carries a bead-decorated Maassai belt, on which „Kinyata is engraved “.

It returns 1918 on the search for other work for Nairobi, where it finds in the stuff shop of Stephen Ellis employment. In the evening it visits the Christian evening institute.

After Kikuyu tradition he marries 1919 Grace Wahu.

1920 become Kenya British colony. One appoints Kenyatta as the translator to a court of Nairobi, where a complaint around the country of Sub Chief Kioi one negotiates. To 22. Octobers he is called before the Christian Council of Elders, because he married alcohol without Christian rite and soaks. One demands it on official to marry. Also without church benedictions becomes to 20. November his first son Peter Muigai Kenyatta born.

To 8. November 1922 he marries Grace Wahu in a marriage before the registry. He earned monthly 250 Schillings as salesmen, works however at the same time as Wasseruhren Ableser for the municipality Nairobi. But it buys a bicycle. Harry Thuku, which leaders of the Young Kikuyu Association arrested, condemns and for eleven years in banishing skillfully. Bloody rebellions break out. Kenytta becomes member in the Kikuyu cent ral Association (KCA, which most important black group of interests, which itself for the reduction of the taxes, which land return fought, in addition, for female cutting. The latter was felt as inakzeptabler interference of the mission acres and the British into the Kikuyu culture.

After it promised 1923 to renounce to the alcohol it is accepted again to the church. A part of its house in Dagoretti it converts Kenyatta net curtain “, which becomes soon thereafter a popular point of approach for black ones from all trunks to the stuff shop named „.

The political activities of the KCA leaders James Beauttah and Joseph Kang'ethe begin to interest it 1924.

Its English knowledge makes it possible to it 1926 to sketch and translate letters for the KCA. The wages he becomes a managing director of the KCA.

To 28. February 1928 it accompanies KCA representatives, who must state before the British Hilton Young commission. Its first daughter Margaret Wambui Kenyatta, later the Oberbürgermeisterin of Nairobi, is born. In May it begins to publish the Kikuyu Wochenmagazin „Muigwithania “(the Versöhner), which is manufactured in Indian printering:

1928 it travels on its motorcycle landup landab and creates KCA bases.

1929 it makes an important decision: The KCA sends it to London, in order to raise before the Colonial Office complaint. The Indian politician and member of the Legco (legislation Council) Isher that, in which 11 white ones, in addition, 5 Indian with British passport and an Arab (however no African) sat, collect money for the ship journey. To 17. February Kenyatta and Isher start that, some similar Petition for the Indian municipality to hand over want from Mombasa and reach to 8. March London. Kenyatta begins to publish immediately in English newspapers such as The Time and The Manchester Guardian with the tenor „gives us our country back “. And it travels also to Moscow.

It turns 1930 to the Colonial Office, because it is afraid, after its return to Kenya to be arrested. To 24. September is it again in Mombasa and by Beauttah and his Mrs. Wahu is called welcome. He works now for „the Kikuyu Independent School “in Githunguri. These independent schools tried to teach their black children also English, that the white settlers - contrary to the Colonial Office in London - were not particularly interested. Publicly it turns against female cutting, and/or. Genital mutilating.

To 2. May 1931 begins its second journey to London, where it wants to speak a Petition of the KCA before a parliament commission. Since those does not before-let it, he writes himself in the Quäker Kolleg Woodbrooke in Birmingham as a student.

At Easter 1932 it terminates its study in Woodbrooke, states before the Carter country Commission and visits in August the USSR again. This time it occupies on invitation by George Padmore, a radical west Indian from Trinidad, economics at the university by Moscow.

Padmore over-throws itself 1933 with the Russians, whereupon also Kenyatta must return to Great Britain.

From 1934 to 1938 he dedicates himself college, London to the study at the University. He works on „the Barlow's Kikuyu Dictionary “(Barlows Kikuyu dictionary). Study to London School OF Economics and Political Science with professor Bronislaw Malinowski, with which he hears anthropology. He works over its people, the Kikuyus. Published and holds everywhere lectures in the country.

in mature man age: Jomo Kenyatta

its famous Magisterarbeit becomes 1938 under the title „Facing Mount Kenya “- and under its new name Jomo Kenyatta publishes. It is now 49 years old.

it lives 1940 of opportunity jobs as a Filmschauspieler into Sanders OF the River (with Paul Robeson) and as a farm worker.

The love caught up it 1942 and it marries at the 11. May in west Sussex the Englishwoman Edna Clarke, which it left later again.

At the 11. August 1943 is born son Peter Mugaria Kenyatta.

The first African Peter Mathu becomes member 1944 in the Legco. The Kenya African union, CHEW, one creates and Harry Thuku its first president.

In February 1945 organize Kenyatta the world trade union congress in London. In October it also the 5 organizes. Panafrikani congress in Manchester, Kwame Nkrumah participates. The Slogans read: „Liberty now “and „Africa the African “.

it creates 1946 with Kwame Nkrumah the Pan African Federation. In September it returns to Kenya and marries for the third time Grace Wanjiku Koinange, the sister of his political gone away Mbiyu Koinange and daughter of the deceased senior Chief Koinange. It becomes Principal (leader) of the Kenya Teachers college in Githunguri.

It becomes at the 1. June 1947 president of the Kenya African union, after Juntas Gichuru had withdrawn. Kenyatta receives murder threats from white settlers. In CHEW face each other radicals (like Dedan Kimathi) and pragmatic Greens sharply. Kenyatta belongs to the moderate pragmatic Greens, but the settlers and the British do not trust him. One regards it due to its stay in Moscow as a communist. In the background the forerunners of the Mau Mau are formed - movement.

From 1948 to 1950 Kenyatta Kenya bereist and reclaims on countless meetings of the white settlers the country. It demands the outrageous, independence for its country within three years. At the same time he calls its compatriots on hard to work and condemns Tribalismus, nothing doing and criminality.

Kenyatta takes 1950 at a common meeting of CHEWS and to the Kenya Indian Congress part, on which a resolution of the trade unionist Makhan Singh is accepted for the liberty of East Africa. The young wife Grace Wanjiku dies in the child bed, which outlives daughter Jane Wambui Kenyatta.

In May 1951 Kenyatta James Griffiths meets, the British undersecretary of state for affairs of colonial and still demands a conference of condition before May 1953. Those CHEW one forbids. The Mau Mau - liberty fight begins. In September he marries Ngina Muhoho, the daughter of Chief Muhoho and its Mrs. Nyokabi.

In Kiambu 1952 on call have itself CHEW a large quantity met, to which Kenyatta speaks. In September mummy Ngina of its daughter Christine Wambui Kenyatta gives the life. Governor Baring takes to 7. October together with Kenyatta at the funeral ceremonies for Chief Waruhiu part, despite repeated murder threats by white settlers. The Mau Mau operating in the underground gives itself a central committee, in order to be able to organize from now on all activities. To 20. October explains the colonial government the state of emergency. Kenyatta is arrested immediately with 182 other black guidance personalities and to 18. November Kapenguria accused of causing the Mau Mau rebellion. Several lawyers defend it.

To 8. April 1953 it becomes - it is 60 years old! - because of guidance of the Mau Mau - rebellion seven years hard work and afterwards unlimited Verwahrung condemns. He is spent in the prison by Lokitaung, a dusty nest in the northwest of Kenya. All redresses, which its lawyer inserts until 1954 against it, remain without effect.

To 14. April 1959 it can leave the prison, however after Lodwar into banishing is sent. This way his Mrs. Ngina Kenyatta follows it.

A Gefolgsmann Mahatma Gandhis, the Indian Ambu Patel, creates 1960 a committee for the release of the political prisoners, which organizes large demonstrations. In a Petition with more than one million signatures the release Kenyattas is demanded. To 14. May selects into the KANU in absence to the president. In December the state of emergency is waived. The Kenya African national union (KANU) is created, shortly thereafter the moderate Kenya African Democratic union (KADU) of Daniel arap Moi, the party of the small Ethnien against Kikuyu Luo dominance.

The successor organizations CHEW, the KANU and the KADU, demand 1961 Kenyattas release. To 23. It receives March in Lodwar attendance from Kenyan politicians, among them also Daniel arap Moi. It pulls on the 11. April over after Maralal, its daughter Margaret pushes to it. It gives for the first time for eight years again a press conference. To 14. August we it finally released. It goes to Gatundu and other places, where everywhere a jubilant receipt is prepared for it. To 26. October is born son Uhuru Kenyatta. To 28. Octobers becomes he officially a KANU president. It leads the KANU delegation to the important first Lancaster conference to London, to which the majority is decided by black ones in the Legco. Members in the Legco become the young trade unionist Tom Mboya and the radical Ogiga Odinga, both Luos as well as Ronald Ngala and Daniel arap Moi. A new condition is sketched, in which Kenya is called country, which will belong to the African. The entrance for black ones to the White Highlands is guaranteed. Many settlers sell thereupon their farms and leave Kenya.

Kenyatta becomes 1962 likewise member legislation of the Council and in a coalition government from white ones, Indian and black ones (KANU/KADU) Minister with far Portfolio - condition and economics. It leads the KANU delegation to the second Lancaster conference to London. The desire for a federal condition, which the KADU speaks, is shifted there.

In May 1963 those achieves KANU a grandiosen choice victory. 83 of the 124 constituencies goes at Kenyattas a party.

president in the pensionable age: Mzee

at the 1. June 1963 becomes Kenyatta prime minister. It calls up its cabinet; this day becomes the national holiday, the Madaraka Day, i.e. on Kisuaheli „autonomy “. He speaks more frequently versöhnlich and confidence-buildingly before white settlers. To 12. August convinces to remain it in its famous speech in Nakuru the white settlers in the country. Both sides should assign and forget. In the consequence Kenyatta supports itself actually further by white officials and judges. He does not expropriate a white country. Settlers, who give their country up, are compensated with the help of the British government. The Landreform leaves many landless, makes it land lots on now black possession. Many of them pull into the cities, preferentially into the Slums of Nairobi. The country goes at black great land owners and Kenyatta belonged to them. This group that realms calls the vernacular appropriate „Wabenzi “, is it nevertheless the Swabian Nobelkarosse those their status symbol became. Up to the today's day some British troops are stationed in Kenya. In close proximity to Nanyuki they maintain a large training camp.

Its son Muhoho Kenyatta is born 1964. With the help of British troops both Somali attack and its own army revolt are struck down. KADU and KANU go to 10. November together and the country becomes practically a party state. To 12. December becomes Jomo Kenyatta the first president of the Republic of Kenya. It is now 71 years old. Now no more is the English queen sovereign, but a black one.

1966 it suffers a cardiac infarct. Further frontier incidents with Somalia. The land program is explained officially for terminated. The KANU splits. Its vice-president Oginga Odinga creates a socialist party, the Kenya People´s union , the KPU with 29 delegates. Kenyatta tries this movement, gave for the poor mass to speak to become by law and constitutional amendments gentleman. The members of the KPU are pursued again and again by Kenyattas security agency. In the times of the cold war this is more or less tolerated of the west. The smarte Tom Mboya, to which generally one thinks capable of, once Kenyattas successor to become, stands firmly at the page Kenyatta and the west. Odinga gives its posts up as a vice-president, it follows for short time the beautiful-mental Joseph Murumbi, which withdraws however soon disappointed from the politician business and makes on this post place for Daniel arap Moi.

Kenyatta tries 1967 in East Africa niches an Economic Community (EAU) with Milton Obote, Uganda, and Julius Nyerere, Tanzania, e.g. Course to lead post office and airlines together.

Its biography appears 1968 and carries the title Suffering Without Bitterness.

To 5. July 1969 is down stung Tom Mboya in Nairobi on open road by a Kikuyu. The murderer Mboyas comes before a court and becomes later (allegedly?) hung. So far no entangling of higher places can be proven, but death Mboyas brings the Luos, which see themselves kept away from the meat pots of power in such a way, on years in rises up and to bitter Zwist with the Kikuyus. As Kenyatta abstattet - the entire Luo guidance is present - the situation threatens to escalate a reconciliation attendance in Kisumu due to the furious quantity, so that the police shoots sharp: at least 10 dead ones are to be deplored. The KPU is forbidden, although the condition permits opposition parties. Odinga is banished without court decision. Paramilitäri police troops from Kikuyus and loyalen related trunks, general service unit, GSU, to the protection of the interests of government were formed.

To 29. January 1970 is sworn in Kenyatta for the second term of office as a president. The tourism industry flowers up.

In Uganda Idi amine putscht in the year 1971 and its daughter Jane (Jeni) marries 1973 Udi Gecaga. Kenya seems against other African states a stronghold of security.

To 5. November 1974 he is sworn in for the third term of office as a president. The life of simple humans does not change to the better, for makes only slow in the Slums also at all.

It comes 1975 to a further murder at Josiah Mwangi Kariuki, a Kikuyu, ex-Mau-Mau and delegate of the Nyandarua North of electoral district. On the other hand protest rises. Critics were placed under house arrest. The land question grows silent under the pressure on years. In Nairobi bombs of a radical group (Poor´s People liberation Group) explode.

Kenyatta suffers a cardiac infarct again in April 1977. The EAU is at the end, surprise-raidlike the airplanes, goods and other means of transport such as ships and trucks of the community is konfisziert. Kenya secures itself the lion's share. The tensions between countries remain existing over years. It comes again and again to encroachments and skirmishes at the border.

To 14. August 1978 it meets its whole family in its house in Mombasa around itself. Also his son from second marriage, Peter Mugaria including family, from Great Britain flies in addition. To 22. August dies „the father of the nation “in presence of his Mrs. Ngina and Sohn Peter Muigai peacefully in the sleep, for most Kenianer a large shock, with some however germinates hope for a more democratic mornings. The state funeral finds to 31. August instead of. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta is buried in its own Mausoleum before that parliament building by Nairobi.

Jomo Kenyattas of books

  • Facing Mount Kenya - The Tribal would run OF the Gikuyu (1938), Vintage Books the USA, 1962, ISBN: 0394702107
  • My People OF Kikuyu and the OF Chief Wangombe would run. Oxford University press, 1967, ISBN: 0196805422
  • Suffering Without Bitterness. The Founding OF the Kenya nation. (Biography, 1968)

see also

Weblinka


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)