Table of contents
After its art study to the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh continued Borofsky its studies to the Ecole de Fontainebleau and to the Yale University . Jonathan Borofsky sought to interconnect minimum kind and the colored world of the Pop kind into the 1960er year. Hieran closed toward end of the 1960er of works of the concept art on (Zahlenmeditationen). 1971 it continued then its pictorial and bildhauerische practice and created partially oversize plastics like the Himmelsstürmer, the Hammering one or the Ballerina clown (in the outside space „Ludwig forum for international art “, Aachen). The Ballerina clown developed in a first version 1983. The Aachener version comes from 1991 and was in this year part „of the Metropolis “- exhibition in the Gropiusbau Berlin. A further version is in Venice (Los Angeles).
Biografie and work
the works of Jonathan Borofsky are characterized by a far strained elbow of styles, whose multiformity can be added into no stylistic concept. Its artistic work was on the one hand always affected over the decades by elements and prevailing ideas of the world of art, on the other hand by the search for artistic singularness certainly.
As a son of a pianist and a painter to 02.03.1942 in bad clay/tone born, he gets 8 since that. Lebensjahr art instruction. Its study to the Carnegie Mellon University, which he calls “nice four year protection”, it locks 1964 as Bachelor OF Fine kind. it studies 1964 temporarily the Ecole de Fontainebleau in Paris.
The emphasis of its artistic work sculptures, it formed make experiments with gypsum, later manufacture it to the Yale University work from welded steel (often covered with gypsum) on. Its model therein is Picasso, whose plastics and sculptures contain large style variety and - like its - in designs are designed. „Borofsky larva A NUMBER OF separate form - umbrellas, shapes, geometric structures fruit - and organized them into one additives sculpture, which retained the identity OF the individually parts, A feature that continues ton characterize his work.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „It makes 1965 first “primitive” plastics from fiber glass to Jonathan Borofsky “) in the same style.
Its artistic career is coined/shaped both by its academic career (1966 graduation in Yale), and by the soon thereafter following local change. It pulls to the center of the world of art of its time to New York. End of the sixties tried Borofsky to connect the formal simplicity to that minimum kind with the direct figurativeness of the Pop kind in order to be able to lend to new beginnings of subjective Gegenständlichkeit and contentwise meaning expression. Under the influence of the art Roy Liechtenstein it produces decorative objects (v. A. Lamps), most were destroyed however later by him.
1967 stop Borofsky making „art objects “and begin to note its thoughts and number Meditationen. In the conviction „that painting and object making were DEAD “he works for the 60's in the area of the Concept or Idea kind and begins 1969 with the recording of Zahlenreihen on paper sheets, which he continues over several years. 1970 it issues its Thought Books , which contain its reflections over time and space, represented in payment and diagram form, and as own form of the art practice to be understood are. In addition also the construction of models ranks among the illustration of its personal concepts (‚ton and-purchased the world, one thinks in system').
1975 it has first single exhibition in the Paula Cooper Gallery, under it Papierstapel from elbows, which are described with Zahlenreihen from 1 to 2.346.502. The meter-high tower is the continuation of its COUNTING - project, which was already presented to 1973 in the Artists space on invitation Sol LeWitts and repeated as object in exhibitions is included. Since 1974 it begins to count within the minus range. The COUNTING documents time and is cutout in Time of the Thought illustrated universal LINE, which as intellectual expression of the longing can be regarded after mystischer all solidarity.
The sequential COUNTING can be regarded as design, which is occupied with the Sujet of the time: „As on artist, my goal is tons present… illustration OF my thoughts regarding the meaning OF time “. The issued Papierstapel of Zahlenreihen and of designs document the activity of the artist in a certain time interval, an exhibition of its work are as retrospective to be so always evaluated.
It takes its pictorial and graphic work around 1971, after the meditative aspect of the counting process did not occur to come the goal with reaching the million to illuminating. The sequential numbers become the signature of its (consciously) infantilistischen sketches, designs and plastics, which it lines up sequentially - including works from all work phases - for comprehensive condition photographs of a Continuous Painting. With its infantilen mark way, which he maintained until today, he ties after a phase of conceptional working to the quiet lives , which he produced as eight-year old. It takes it and refers it in retrospective Schauen as Age Piece, whereby a work of art is issued again and again representatively for each Lebensjahr as current conditions, into its work.
The numbering of all of its works after current conditions in the COUNTING represents the combination of two sides of its works: On the side linear and konzeptuell, on the other one it is emotional and representative.
Since 1973 he notes its dreams in a note book, which are illustrated both verbal told and. They - and numerous analytic texts - are basis of designs and paintings in childlike-naive manners. 1974 it - again on suggestion Sol LeWitts - begins to implement its collecting mains directly on walls. The C. A. 200 Wandmalereien become consistently white over old after end of the exhibition, the small designs and paintings join the Continuous Painting.
In the motive for dream with the number 2.099.711 (I dreamed I could fly) the desire finds „the cool art to loose-will to open feelings and expose us “ graphic metaphor. The dream of flies is as surrealistisches element reaction against minimum kind and concept art, embodied for Borofsky beyond that a possibility of breaking through space and time and of the chains of the reason of getting rid of. As Flying one it detached it for the 80's in numerous installations in different Environements of the two-dimensional picture surface.
Its Oeuvre in the seventies is to be seen to a Neo Expressionisti movement in the USA, which aims at above all to overcome and to the works of art again a personal character lend the rigid borders of the Concept kind in the context new image of the Painting: ” There were thesis dreams that there which NO rhyme or reason why they were happening. They were fascinating ton of ME and very personal. Many OF them were giving ME of clues ton my own would run. I began ton lake them as my personal contribution ton the kind world RK that time. Incoming goods had Pop kind, which seemed A little too tongue in cheek for ME, and minimum kind, which I could relate my COUNTING tons, but I which looking for something more personal, more hone and open and direct. ”
„The heart “of its work is produced annual the design, it hundreds of it: “Drawing for Borofsky is A demonstration OF his thoughts, as he explained, `My thought process is object on'.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “) the designs basis of the Wandmalereien, pictures and sculptures, which got meaning first as extension of the mark surface in its work. For the sales they were not suitable, them are numerous (approx. 200), but short-lived, there always after the exhibition over-old.
The versatile and in expression and pathos varying space installations Borofskys have the character of synthesis of the arts, which consists of most diverse media. Well-known motives and Topoi in abgewandeter form - as it were as red thread - are presented. With all the spatial effect is evident: Areas full-plugged first (Paula Cooper Gallery 1975: Accumulation of paintings, designs, conceptional work and found objects, which do not permit a focus on a certain object, but give impressions of its work) by plumbing the showrooms are refined, the exact placement of the works in the area receive for it ever greater importance: „Borofskys only major installation in 1977 which RK the kind Gallery RK the University OF California, Irvine. It which the largest space Borofsky had yet worked, and he had approximately two weeks, the longest by iodine yet, tons complete his barrier drawings. From the of photographer and small drawings into his briefcase he selected older images that had been successful as wave as new ones that had emergency yet been used; he arranged the entire room as if it were A four sided painting. The space which tons encompass the more viewer, and primary LINEs OF sight were tons bring the whole room into play. From this POINT on, Borofsky would begin his installation by selecting the most interesting architectural feature OF the space and using it as the focus OF the exhibition. “ (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “).
since that time 1977 leave Borofsky New York and live in Ongunquit, Maine. It issues its designs and paintings about 15 years in American museums and galleries, gets later particularly by its partial monumental plastics international meaning. After he spent 11 years in New York and at the School OF Visual kind taught there, he informs one year at the California institutes OF the kind in Valencia. In its academic career and its work as artists he argues with theoretical aspects of the art and the bases of his work: `I feel like idea person, on idea more painter… it on (the artwork) always has tons the idea with the painting.' If infantil expressive manners of its designs and objects were the reaction to minimum and Concept kind, then the basis of its work is still intellectual and conceptional achievement.
Topic table center of Borofskys Oeuvre is its own identity as an artist. In a short phase of paintings also on the head standing motives as surrealer aspect after a set of technical experiments (and. A. Projection of designs on walls) leads the meeting with works of Baselitz to the end of the project, which fascinated it nevertheless much. Its art is article-referred, by no means however sober and material. The personal and political force of expression of its works, which it manufactures with simple and generalizing motives, are for Borofsky a kind personal participation in the world: „Borofskys drawings almost always have subjects, for he wants ton make A statement, ton take A `political stood'. Into place OF he calls `cool kind what', he seeks connectedness tons society. A child OF the 60s, he recognizes about that by iodine A `shared emotional upsurge' into which people were solicitous OF one more another. Ton participate into the world, Borofsky of hopes ton depict subject matte OF universal consequence. To Toward that end, he has developed A pattern OF recurring, generalized themes that acres often highlighted by type of ark and archetypal situation.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “)
the dominating motive in its work is however the artist, as thinking and feeling Ego in the world. Actually each of its works of art is a Selbstportrait, particularly however its dreams, fears and stories from its life lends it by the figurative and figurale representation a selbstreflexiven character. According to its own statement he does not however only hope, ‚tons and-purchased my own pains and of happynesses', the almost number and the large spreading of his works reflects the search for the own identity as humans and an artist again, but rather his existence as an exemplary character, with which many can identify themselves.
Its work reflects so all conflict lines of human existence again. Physical well-being , around that terrestrial existence and the Übersinnliche, goes finally also around property and bad around Spiritualität and. Into the Egozentrik of the artist sympathy for others is packed; the interior perspective of the artist, its designs and paintings, in which it occurs, represent the written formulation of its dreams are told from the aspect of a spectator.
Its designs receive the political force of expression by the selected Sujets. In the late seventies its designs are occupied according to press pictures with social or politically disadvantaged persons and layers, particularly also with the population in countries beyond the iron curtain.: “Borofsky' s preoccupation with political situation has LED him ton give great emphasis tons of A cluster OF themes concerned in general with violence, oppression, and anxiety. … Victims OF various child OF oppression acres lakes frequently in B' s kind, including imprisoned figures, birds, Cambodians, seals, and the artist himself covered with numbers that recall Nazi tattoos. Elsewhere, heads split distinctively or acres more under duress caused by tremendous weights pressing down on them, and men disintegrate in space. OTHER weapons, too, swords, club and guns acres shown as the tools OF dangerous mansion in.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “) with the cold war it argues again and again in installations and wall wall paintings. On the occasion of the international art exhibition „“1982 in Berlin it takes spirit of the time as one of the few artists purchase to the divided city: In the Gropius building it lets the Flying one fly from a window, which crosses separating wall quasi in the flight. Beyond that it painted a large section of the wall with one „to Walking one “, no sauntering, but a running figure.
The Walking one and the Running one, both beside the Flying one style means of its plastic work, represent not only human movement, but also the thought of the escape, which the confrontation can release with personal and political fears. The positive and more optimistic variant is the Flying one, which overcomes rational and social borders and so the embodiment of liberty and raisedness becomes: “Escape is one way tons more counter suffering, and Borofsky shows various form OF it in his kind… B. himself often achieves OF flight his Flying Figure into the form. He is A fill bodied superman - unlike the Molecule one - attaining A seemingly effortless escape from DAILY occurrences. Into the air, he has A more clearer, more enlightened perspective, which enhances his mirror-image ritual quest.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “)
a heldenhaftere feature is the Hammering one, which represents another basic motive in Borofskys Oeuvre. Work (mental and physical) stands, since it constitutes the fundamental activity of the world, as contrast to Spiritualität and Transzendentalität. When has itself the Hammering one from a design out to monumental free air sculptures developed component of its installations in museums and galleries, which today - like the Hammering one in Basel (1989) and in Frankfurt 1991 - particularly in the context of centers of economic activity. The Hammering one and the COUNTING are for Borofsky as different expression forms for many years a the subject of intensive argument and clarify exemplarily the complexity of its artistic intentions. The giantful silhouette of the Hammering one, whose yardstick Borofsky in several implementings varied again and again, appears to human work in its incessant motion as metaphor absolutely. Borofsky speaks of it as „the worker in us everything. We all use our understanding and our hands to survive in order to live and learn in the world - or simply in order. “
As symbol of inexorable running away of the time the Hammering one corresponds to the new Heartlight - sculptures, which contain a digital admission of its own heart impact. In similar way it operates its computer-moderate COUNTING, which it resumes steadily since end of the sixties. By noting the numbers it makes the Zeitverlauf seizablly. As individual action it is not symbol, but material expression of its work and/or. Work time. The COUNTING is thus Borofskys abstract Biografie, into which all bildnerischen products, designs, painting, sculptures are written, provided with a number, which assigns them its place in its personal time system. In this sense is all work of Borofsky Selbstportraits. Borofsky is „the Hammering one “. (Poticus publishing house: COUNTING)
into the late 70's participated Jonathan Borofsky in rapid succession in exhibitions in the USA and Europe , the works was above all wall paintings and designs, which were locally produced. In August 1978 it has its first exhibition in the Corps de Garde in Groningen, 1979 participates it for example to the Biennal Exhibition in the Whitney museum OF American kind . There it combines its dream pictures with plastic elements from evenly these pictures around a large physical operational readiness level of the narration to create. Its installations are characterised increasingly by large stylistic and mediale variety. It combines realistic paintings with abstract elements, expressionistischen designs, photos, films and figures to an holistic synopsis of the elements, which resembles a baroque synthesis of the arts in the core. Its three-dimensional installations are likewise spaceseizing as complex: “By the use OF of element look for as stringer and wire extending from ceiling ton floor, barrier drawings that continue around corners or extend across doorways, and of flyers suffering ring the floor, B. activates all parts OF A room making his installation totally encompassing experiences. Even aural and olfactory sensation May off-talk tons envelop the more viewer.” (Rosenthal, Mark: „Jonathan Borofsky “)For Borofsky style is actually `A of men OF working ', no achievement. It is interested thereby in the visual effect of the work of art in the area and innovative possibilities of referring the viewer. Plays on the Ping Pong plate were likewise permitted to it like the taking along of Giveaways. At the Biennale in Venice 1980 he distributed copies of his designs for carrying forward.
Jonathan Borofsky would not be ‚poet politician', it would not try to catch and not describe the whole world. The universal spirit, which was already reflected in its Thought Books, is immanent all its exhibitions: „He views all one child as one, collectively united by universal VALUEs and universal truths, which acres revealed through his kind. Thus B becomes the universal one - one representing all. This same principle underlies the characters OF his installation: this-ready components - difference of material form, styles, and ideas - form one whole that transcends its individually parts.” (Rosenthal, Mark: “Jonathan Borofsky”). Its objective after to reach „the people with a generally comprehensible language - words and pictures - “, today internationally exciting external sculptures and installations its work dominate attention, with which it became popular for the eighties. From California until Korea hands the geographical range of its plastic work.
in Germany alone has it beside the Flying one at the University of Augsburg still six other figures installed: It enriched documenta the 7 in Kassel with smaller Hammering Men, the figure one Walking ton the Sky, which was issued on the occasion of documenta the 9, has now its firm place at the Kasseler main station. The giantful Hammering one from steel was composed 1991 before the fairground in Frankfurt, the Molecule one of aluminum 1999 in the midst of the Spree in Berlin. The 2000 in open castle inaugurated liberty figure Freedom (marks Female) reminded historicalpregnant of the liberty fight of Baden, the Walking one decorate the business quarter around the Leopoldstrasse in Munich.
However Borofskys „friendly giants “are extremely popular plastics, which at their reduced, often obliging/pleasing stylistic idiom and the remarkable ( the Molecule one in Berlin is 30 meters high) always adequate size to lie like. The artist, who is dependent with the realization of its works on financially strong sponsors from the economy, seems from the emergency to have to produce responding works of art a virtue to make. It corresponds to its goal of confronting humans, who do not want to argue with high art so mentioned, also outside from museums and galleries with an easily understandable and touching Message.
Cuno, James/Fine Ruth: „Subject (s) - print and multiple by Jonathan Borofsky 1982-1991”, Hanover/New Hampshire, 1992
Geelhaar, Christian Koepplin, Dieter: „Jonathan Borofsky. Designs 1960 - 1983 “, Basel, 1983
Portikus publishing house Frankfurt A. M. (Hrsg.): „Jonathan Borofsky. COUNTING 3287718 - 3311003 “, Frankfurt, 1991
Rosenthal, Marks: „Jonathan Borofsky “, New York, 1984
fitter, Yvonne: “Jonathan Borofsky. Flying one ", in: “Art at the Campus”, University of Augsburg (Hrsg.), Augsburg, 2005
Schmidt, Katharina/origin, Philip: „White Fire - Flying one. American art 1959 - 1999 “, Basel, 1999; Hrsg.: Public art collections Basel
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over Jonathan Borofsky in the catalog of the DDB
- www.borofsky.com homepage Jonathan Borofsky
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of US-American sculptors|
|DATE OF BIRTH||2. March 1942|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||bad clay/tone, Massachusetts|