Josef Stalin

Josef Stalin

Josef Stalin (Georgian იოსებსტალინი/Iosseb Stalini; Russian ИосифСталин/Jossif Stalin; * 6. December/ 18. December 1878 in Gori, Georgien; † 5. March 1953 in Kunzewo with Moscow)was a Soviet politician. Born as Iosseb Bessarionis dse Dschughaschwili (Georgian იოსებბესარიონისძეჯუღაშვილი; Russian ИосифВиссарионовичДжугашвили/Jossif Wissarionowitsch Dschugaschwili Tondokument ? / License).

Since 1922 he was Secretary-General of the central committee of the communist party of the Soviet Union (the CPSU), since1941 chairmen of the advice of the people's commissars, since 1946 Council of Ministers and in the years 1941 to 45 highest commander of the Red Army. After it had succeeded in the struggle for power within the CPSU, it was from 1927 to 1953 in fact dictator of the Soviet Union. During his reign became alleged and actual political opponents as well as millions of Soviet citizens and whole groups of peoples of besetzer areas in Gulag - punishing labour camp deportiert and to large parts murdered. The collectivization of the agriculture advanced by itcontributed in particular in the Ukraine and at the Volga to hunger emergencies with approximately ten million victims. As important partners first National Socialist Germany and later the allied one he had a crucial influence on beginning and process of the Second World Waras well as on the postwar organization of Europe.

Table of contents

youth time and banishing

Stalin in the year 1894

Iosseb Dschughaschwili was born as a son of the formerly body-own Georgian shoemaker Bessarion Dschughaschwili in Gori. Its nut/mother Jekaterina Geladse was Ossetin and daughter of an body-own. Thus Stalin was one of the fewParty leader of the CPSU with simple origin, developed later. Brothers and sisters Stalins died young, so that it as an only child buildup. Its father opened a shoe store, which went however rapidly to bankruptcy after his release. Afterwards it was forced in a shoe factory inLow-read to work. Stalins father hardly worried about its family, was drunkenness addicted and struck woman and children. One of the friends from Stalins youth time wrote later: „These undeserved and terrible flog made the boys just as hard and feelingless as itsFather. “ The same friend wrote also that he had never seen Stalin crying. Another youth friend Stalins, Josef Iremaschwili, wrote that this flog also a hate on authorities in Stalin caused, there each humans, more power than ithad, it of his father reminded.1888 went to Stalins to father low-read and left its family.

One of the customers of his nut/mother, the Jewish buyer David Papismedow, gave at that time the pointed name to the young Stalin, that „Soso “had and its nut/motherwhen laundry washing and with the work as a charwoman, money and books helped and munterte it up. Decades later the old Papismedow came into the Kremlin, in order to experience, what from the small Soso had become. Stalin surprised its comradesbecause he did not only receive the older Jewish man, but also in public with him chatted.

Starting from 1887 Iosseb Dschugaschwili went into Gori to the school. Stalins class was a very much mixed group of pupils, the many different languagesspoke. At school however Russian was prescribed as language. Its schoolmates were usually socially better than it and made themselves at first merry over its threadbare school uniform and its smallpox-scarred face. Iosseb Dschughaschwili could however soon due to itsObservation gift the guide roller in its class transfer. Although Stalin placed its Georgian origin later much into the background, he liked the Georgian homeland narrations in his youth very much. One of these narrations acted of the Bergwanderer Koba, that for independence Georgienshad fought. Stalin admired it much and could from in the class Koba be called now on. In order to hide its low origin, Stalin tried to be the best one in everything that he did. Therefore it fell by its awakeIntelligence up, whereby it left the school 1894 as best pupils and for the attendance of the orthodox Tifliser of seminar for priests, which was suggested to at that time most important higher educational establishment Georgiens and a center of the opposition against the Zarismus.

The city low-readaround the year 1910, color photography of Sergej Michailowitsch Prokudin Gorskij

as Stalin at the age of 15 years the second academic year of the seminar completed, got it contact with the secret Marxist circles. It visited the bookshop of a certain Schelidse, where the youngRadical entrance to left works had. 1897 wrote the deputy custodian a remark: It got Dschughaschwili when reading Letourneaus „the literary development of the nations “. It has it recently already with „the workers of the sea “as well as the workVictor Hugos „1793 “surprises, altogether thirteen times with forbidden books.

1897 Dschughaschwili, it was 18 years old, into the first socialist organization Georgiens taken up, the Messame Dassi group (dt. The third group), led of Noe Schordania, Nikolai Semjonowitsch Tschcheidse andG. Zereteli, which became late Menschewiki. In the following year led Stalin a study circle for workers. At this time it already read works of Plechanow and the first writings of Lenin. it stepped 1898 officially into the social-democratic labour party of Russia (SDAPR). 1899 it was excluded from the seminar for priests, because it had been missing due to these political activities with several important examinations. Instead of priests Stalin became a professional revolutionary.

Thereupon Stalin worked as a propagandist of the SDAPR and organized under the pseudonym „Koba “among other things strikes and demonstrations among the Eisenbahnarbeitern.1902 it was arrested for the first time, because it had caused a worker demonstration in the Georgian city Batumi and afterwards to Siberia banishes. After it could flee 1904 from banishing, it always becameagain - altogether eight times - arrested and into banishing skillfully, could flee however each time again.

Gedenktafel an den Aufenthalt Stalins in Wien-Meidling, welche während der sowjetischen Besatzungszeit dort angebracht wurde
Gedenktafel to the stay Stalins in vienna Meidling, which was attached there during the Soviet crew time

over in contact with Lenin to remain and itselfpursuit by the tsarist police to extract, he fled in December 1912 to Austria Hungary. There he spent some months in Krakau and in Vienna. When it returned in the summer 1913 again to Russia, it was arrested. Thereupon itspent he the years from 1913 to 1917 in banishing. For these frequent arrests and aligning there are several explanations.

A possible reason is seen for example in the bad organization of the tsarist police. The tsarist police apparatus pursued thoseRevolutionary only very halfheartedly. The “Bolsheviks fleeing from banishing „could use for example without problems all means of transport the available. In addition they got support from the population in the form of food and other allowances. Were arrested the revolutionary, leftthey send themselves simply without further resistance into banishing, in order to begin on day after their arrival the home journey immediately. If there were longer stays, that had the cause that the banished ones a free dwelling and a not small food moneywas available, which both were suitable for it, to bridge temporary financial bottlenecks the revolutionary. As a further explanation for its fast becoming released contacts are after-said to him to the tsarist secret police.

In case of banishing stay last of Stalins was also the outbreakthe First World War a cause for its remaining. It was afraid after its next arrest into the Russian army to be drawn.

After splitting of the SDAPR into Menschewiki and Bolsheviks, on the Party Congress in London 1903, Stalin closedthe wing under Lenin on, who held the opinion that the political revolution in Russia would come off only by a party led central by „professional “revolutionaries. In the year 1905 it met to the all-Russian conference of the Bolsheviks in Tammerfors tofirst time Lenin personally. In this before-revolutionary time, in which Stalin had already organized many strikes, it showed not as large theoreticians, but represented themselves a pragmatic politics policy.

Stalin as well as the ZK-member Suren splinter January in banishing (1915)

sotook part he in the following years in the organization of different bank assaults, in order to fill up the party cash. The most well-known assault occurred 1907 at the realm branch bank in low-reads. 250000 roubles were captured. Starting from 1912 it belonged then after the willLenin to the central committee of the Bolsheviks and Stalin (the steel one) accepted the name as alias .

During its last banishing stay he became acquainted with Lew come-new and makes friends themselves with him. Around the turn of the year of 1916 it left /1917 togetherwith come-new its banishing place. It was exempted from a summoning commission as military service unfit. To the February revolution 1917 it went to Petersburg to sank (since 1914: Petrograd). It belonged now to the editorship of the newspaper Prawda. In sank Petersburg pushed Grigori Jewsejewitsch Sinowjewto Stalin and come-new. This late than „Triumvirat “designated group should in the future an important role in the Soviet policy play.

Private life

his first Mrs. Jekaterina Swanidse, which it had married 1904, died in the year 1907at typhoid fever. This was for it a shock, on which he came to speak in later time only rarely. 1917 he married Nadjeschda Allilujewa. The human contact between the two disintegrated however to at the beginning of the 1930er years due to thatactual conditions in the Soviet Union. Nadjeschda Allilujewa committed finally 1932 suicide, by shooting themselves. When its son Jakub (called Jascha) came to 1941 into German war shank, Stalin did not prefer it opposite other Soviet prisoners of war. Its comment on thatfrom the Germans offered exchange against any German prisoner was:„Target I in the trade get involved? No - war is war “. He meant with the fact that this exchange regarding the other soldiers of the Red Army notit is correct since the Soviet national service act meant that the Soviet soldier was not allowed to surrender. Those Soviet prisoners of war, who were freed later from the Red Army, were arrested immediately by the Smersch and the NKWD. They had with a punishmentto count from 10 years hard labour, since they had offended against the Soviet national service act. Jascha Stalin came 1943 with an escape attempt to death.
Stalins daughter Swetlana (* 1926) emigrated in the 60's into the USA.

Revolution and civil war

In June 1917 Stalin on the first allRussian congress of Soviet was selected to the member of the central executive committee (ZEK). He pursued a policy of co-operation with the provisional government under Kerenski beside other Bolsheviks first. As a Lenin from the exile returned andthe support Kerenskis as betrayal of the Bolsheviks branded, changed its course for Stalin and supported Lenin. It defended Lenin ideas on the large debates of the Bolsheviks in September and October. It had however very few with the preparation and executionto do the October Revolution. The central role with the revolution came to Leo Trotzki as a boss of the military committee of the Petrograder Soviet.

In to 7. November would install provisional first Soviet government received it to the thanks for its loyalty the poststhe commissioner for nationality questions. Stalin wanted to create a freiwillige and a honorable alliance between Russia and all minorities of the country in this position. This alliance was however going by reduced that their members had to be socialist.

But it came differently. Firstthe Soviet centre government and the again created Red Army were very weak. They controlled an area, which had the size of the old Russian large principality in the summer 1918. Many of the nationalities in tsarist Russia watched themselves now the possibility, independentlymake and explained their independence, without consulting the Soviet government. The most well-known example of it is the Ukraine, which created in Kiew with the Rada its own parliament and independently explained themselves. The only minority areas, which followed the Soviet alliance,were Tatarstan and Baschkortostan. The actual task of Stalins consisted in the next years to integrate the missing areas again into the Soviet Union. After this situation had appeared, it changed its attitude in relation to the minorities and decided each meansto begin, in order to cancel the independence of these states.

After the outbreak of the civil war in June 1918 Stalin became a commander in the Red Army created again by Trotzki. It was sent in July as a commander of the south front after Zarizyn,in order there the only important area of cultivation of grain, which lay in the hands of the Soviet government, to secure. It relied thereby on the assistance of the former tsarist general Sytin, which had been appointed from Trotzki to the commander of the south front. With Sytinit came however soon into an argument, since it let officers of the Red Army shoot, who had been in the army of the Zaren officers already before. It succeeded however nevertheless to defend the city against the troops of the general Krasnow.Zarizyn was therefore renamed 1925 in Stalingrad (‚Stalinstadt `, the today's Wolgograd).

In March 1919 Stalin became a member of the new internal board of directors of the Soviet government. Here it had the first violent collision with its main rival Trotzki. Trotzki arranged former officersthe tsarist army again into the Red Army created by it, in order to tighten the organization of this troop and to let it become thus combatstrong. Stalin resisted strictly this procedure (in particular because of general Sytin), was however in view ofmilitary successes defiance gravel to the silence condemns.

Grigol Ordschonikidse, Stalin and Mikojan 1925

as a commander of the south front concentrated Stalin after the successful defense of Zarizyn its effort on the integration of the Caucasian peoples into the Soviet Union. In February 1920 becamethe northCaucasian peoples the Soviet Union attached. This happened first on freiwilliger basis, since the Nordkaukasier had revolted first against the counter-revolutionary white general Denikin. The Chechens rose however in the August of the yearly again against Soviet power andStalin was anxious to repair the stability of the Soviet rule. The mountain peoples promised Stalin thereby the following:

„Each people - the Chechens, Ingu, the Osseten, the Kabardiner, the Balkaren, [...] must its own Soviet have. [...] That should Proof to be furnished that the Scharia is necessary, then may it the Scharia give. [...] The proof should be furnished, which the organs of the Tscheka do not understand [...] it to adapt to the way of life and the characteristics of the population then is clearly that also in this area corresponding changes must be made. “
(Congress of the peoples of the Terekgebiets to 17. November 1920)

Toward end of the yearly 1920 the entire Caucasus with exception of Georgien was in the territory of the Soviet Union. With the help offrom Grigol Ordschonikidse, a party friend from his early party career, organized Stalin back conquest Georgiens, which was final in February 1921.

Fight for power

<time LINE>

ImageSize = width: 180 height: 550 PlotArea = width: 50 height: 530 left: 50 bottom: 10

DATE format = yyyy Period= from: 1919 till: 1991 TimeAxis = orientation: vertically ScaleMajor = unit: year increment: 5 start: 1920

  1. there is NO AUTOMATIC collision detection,
  2. thus SHIFTs of text UP or down manually tons avoid overlap

DEFINEs $dx = 25 # SHIFT text ton right simmer OF without

PlotData=

bar: Leaders color: talk width: 25 Marks: (LINE, white) align: left fontsize: S
 from: start till: 1922 SHIFTs: ($dx, 15)   text: Wladimir~Iljitsch~ Leninfrom: 1922 till: 1953 SHIFTs: ($dx, 5)    text: Josef~ Stalinfrom: 1953 till: 1964 SHIFTs: ($dx, 5)    text: Nikita~ Khrushchevfrom: 1964 till: 1982 SHIFT: ($dx, 5)    text: Leonid~ Brezhnevfrom: 1982 till: 1984 SHIFT: ($dx, - 12) text: Juri~ Andropowfrom: 1984 till: 1985 SHIFTs: ($dx, 4)    text: Konstantin~ Tschernenkofrom: 1985 till: end to SHIFTs: ($dx, 10)   text: Michail~Gorbachev

< /timeline>


In the year 1922 Stalin had ascended by elections to the Secretary-General of the central committee (ZK) of the CPSU. Lenin was often not with Stalin in later years an opinion, especially it found it too rough for the position of a Secretary-General. In, He wrote year 1922, already very seriously ill:

„Comrade Stalin concentrated, after he became Secretary-General, an immeasurable power in his hands, and I am not convinced that he will always understand it, of this power carefully use toomake. “

Since 1917 it already gave within the central committee a Triumvirat in such a way specified, which consisted of Stalin, come-new and Sinowjew. Stalin was with come-new together in banishing, Sinowjew was close to these two in many views and was with them gets used to. Briefly after the October Revolution Lenin had exerted a party expulsion procedure against Sinowjew and come-new, because they had betrayed the secret plan of the Bolsheviks to the revolution by force to the provisional civil government. Stalin had ensured that the party exclusionnot into the act one converted. In addition connected all three a common dislike against Leo Trotzki, Stalins hardest adversary around the seizure of power after Lenin death.

To 16. December 1922 left Lenin the policy because of a serious illness. Short time laterLenin was incapable of any work to to his end of life. The physicians forbade each kind of the effort to it, because this would have only accelerated its death. The Triumvirat sat down to the point of power within the central committee and held at the same timeits other members like the defiance crates of power far. Sinowjew produced itself particularly as a speaker, come-new led the presidency of the meetings and Stalin concentrated on the work with the apparatus. Thus the selection of functionaries layfor the central and local posts in its hands. Already during lifetimes criticism at the Triumvirat became loud. Lenin wrote in two letters the Party Congress that the comrades over one become detached Stalins thought make and after a successorto search should, more tolerantly, more loyaler and more polite is. From the same letters however also it follows that he did not see other suitable candidate in the Politbüro at that time. At Stalins Lenin exposes however nothing to political balance.

Also different attempts, for examplesecret conversations of other ZK-members in Kislowodsk, which had as a goal to limit Stalins power failed. Justified this was partly because of diversities of opinion of the participants, partly at political plays Stalins and the attitude of the party members.

After the death of Lenin these becameLetters before the delegated one of the XIII. Party Congress read out, however this by Sinowjew was settled, while come-new made the interpretation.

Rival Trotzki arranged likewise letters to the central committee, by accusing to the Triumvirat, to be a regime that further from that Worker democracy was distant as the regime of war communism during the civil war. It requested the old guard to make for the still inexperienced recent generation place and saw the Triumvirat short before the degeneration. After internal-party diversities of opinion it took several yearsuntil Trotzki at the end of of 1927 was excluded from the party. Trotzki was only banished to Kazakhstan and proven then from the Soviet Union.

At the same time disintegrated however also the Triumvirat, come-new and Sinowjew became internal-party opponents Stalins, which againSupport with Nikolai book airs, January Rudsutak, Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Frunze and Felix Dzierzynski found. Come-new and Sinowjew were pushed 1926 from power and about ten years later after public looking processes were executed.

Starting from 1927 Stalin was thus unrestricted autocratin the Soviet Union. It was the head of the communist party. The national range it was limited long time to the office of a deputy Prime Minister of the USSR.

Stalin represented the thesis of „the building up of socialism in a country “, thusin the Soviet Union, without waiting only for the support by a world revolution, how this defiance gravel had been beginning.

Time of the Stalinismus

Stalin advanced the obligation collectivization of the agriculture unyieldingly. It broke inconsiderately the resistance of the farmers, thoseit as „Kulaken “diffamierte. Consequence, in addition, quite desired aid of the collectivization was an enormous hunger emergency at the Volga, in the Ukraine and generally speaking country. It cost several million the life to humans, however are exact victim numbersdoes not admit. Individual estimations indicate up to 10 million victim.

Minister of foreign affairs Molotow, Josef Stalin and the NKWD chairman Jeschow on the bank of the Moskwa Volga channel 1937

the murder of Sergej Mironowitsch Kirow, which was considered to opponents as Stalins „“, supplied the pretextfor the policy of the notorious „cleanings “(Russian „Tschistka “). 90% of that party comrades, who had participated 1934 in „the Party Congress of the winners “as delegated ones (and became tried there to diminish Stalins omnipotence), during public looking processes (Muscovites of processes), Among them also the majority of the functionaries and Ministers condemns death. Stalin alone decided, whatever Ministers and functionaries or whole cities of its opinion behind its politics did not stand and Jeschow left, during the time of the large cleaningthe boss of the secret police NKWD was, the execution of its instructions. These ran out usually on it which the persons concerned were at least arrested and shot frequently. The criminal offence existence used by the secret police because of antisoviet behavior, more trotzkistischer or other opposition against thoseThe CPSU as well as a multiplicity of other conspiracy theories were all together offences against the paragraph 58 of the penal code of the USSR, for which the legal basis for pursuits formed. Between September 1936 and December 1938 roughly about 1.5 million humans were killed.It remains disputed in the research to what extent pursuits of partially faithful trailers had a rational core, or whether one must talk about pure illusion conceptions Stalins. The result of the cleanings was that Stalin after 1938 really absolute power inthe Soviet Union held. After the end „of the Tschistka “and the replacement Jeschows by Lawrenti Beria arbitrary arrests were not stopped, arrested humans were however usually condemned to detention times in punishing camps, their duration 10 and by a law change inYear 1949 25 years amounted to.

Stalin surrounded itself in this time with ever larger mass an accepting person cult. This expressed itself among other things in the art (praise praising and devotion works in literature and forming art) and in a pervasivepublic operational readiness level, then in nearly all Soviet republics and Eastern Bloc countries some cities in Stalinstadt were renamed, besides public buildings, works, sports facilities and other more.

Important coworkers Stalins were the people's commissar for internal affairs and NKWD boss Lawrenti Berija, Trofim Lyssenko and Mikhail Kalinin.

1939 it closed a nonaggression treaty with his opponent Hitler, the Hitler Stalin pact, which contained also a secret treaty for the allocation of Poland and Eastern Europe between the two states. After the German invasion in Poland also the Soviet Union marchedto 17. September 1939 in Poland, into which states of the Baltic and eastern Romania up to the Danube (Bessarabien), which had been awarded in the Hitler Stalin pact of the Soviet Union. It came to war crimes, like the murder of 20.000caught Polish officers in Katyn. Stalin was 1940 also winner in the winter war against Finland.

During „the Great Patriotic War “(thus the Second World War after Russian designation), after Hitler a surprise attack on the Soviet Union had started, was Stalin also commander in chief of the army. It succeeded itself to it by appeals at the Patriotismus and general rage at the German aggression large parts of the population behind the party and at crowds.

Millions of humans, whole peoples and groups of peoples, howthe Krimtataren, which became Russian-Germans or the Chechens in this time as potential Kollaborateure the hard labour into the inhospitable Permafrostgebiete to Siberia deportiert, where there were large losses at human lives under the Deportierten. Also the Armenians were from theseDeportationen concerned. The Baltic states lost so for instance ten per cent of their inhabitants.

The Portrait „Josef Stalin “of A. M. Gerasimov (1939) as an example of the devotion art, which left itself in the Soviet Union in the thirties

interspersed Stalinthe system of punishing labour camps, which admits Gulag under the name was and by Lenin had been already furnished, develop. It covered internment and labour camps or „reformatories “for political prisoners. The paragraph 58 of the penal code made it possible, the term of the politicalTo expand prisoner very far: So for example stealing apples from a Kolchosgarten was counter-revolutionary sabotage. The exact numbers over the number of the prisoners and victims of the storage system are since opening of Russian archives the subject of historical research andextremely disputed: Thus the estimated number of the prisoners varies between 3,7 and 28.7 million. With approx. 20 to 40 million victims Stalin as well as Mao and Adolf Hitler ranks among the three largest mass murderers of the twentieth century.

1949 to 1951it came again too „cleanings “. Also clergyman, member of not-Russian peoples and alleged political opponents (Kosmopoliten, Westler, Jew) were numerously arrested and exposed every now and then to the torture, whereby many innocent ones itself the reproach of espionage or „counter-revolutionary activity “saw suspended.

The Verhöre in the Stalinzeit - and also still after it - were coined/shaped by humiliating searches, sleep withdrawal, flog, hunger, thirst and intimidation. That gave a report on it - and over the conditions in the punishing camps -More closely Solschenizyn in its book „the archipelago Gulag “.

On the conference of Teheran 1943 and the conference of Jalta 1945, in which Stalin participated, also the borders were again drawn in Europe after the Second World War. Thisresulted to humans in the eastern half of Europe in driving out of several millions.

Death Stalins and condemnation of the Stalinismus

„Joseph Stalin in the coffin “of A. N. Yar Kravchenko

in the evening of the 1. March 1953, took a nocturnal meal with Lawrenti to StalinBerija, Georgi Malenkow, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev. Stalin was in scratched open tendency, supposed because he angetrunken was. At this night Stalin broke down. It died four days later, to 5. March 1953, at the age of 73Years, at the consequences of its impact accumulation.

The day of its collapse was in this year date of the Jewish Purimfestes, in which Jews in all world think of the obstruction of a planned mass murder. Stalin had in the months before from fearbefore feeler gauges of the west such a mass murder at Jews planned.

In with its funeral to 9. March 1953 arising crowding thousands of humans died.

According to the memoirs of Wjatscheslaw Molotow, which was published 1993, has Berija itopposite it states that he poisoned Stalin.

1956 dissociated itself Nikita Khrushchev on that XX. Party Congress of the CPSU in the name of the Soviet Union in the secret speech in such a way specified officially of Stalin. Characteristically he criticized only those crimes, the Stalin at others, As for instance the murder at Kirow, and not the diktatoriale system had committed communists as such.

The process of the Entstalinisierung followed then also in all other Eastern Bloc countries.

Quotations

„which would be the consequence, if it succeeded to the capital, the republicto smash the Soviets? - One epoch of the blackest reaction would break to toggles, which positions of international communism liquidated over all capitalistic and colonial countries, one became the working class and the suppressed peoples completely!“(J.W. Stalin: Speech to7.Dezember 1926 on VII. extended plenum of the executive committee the communist international one. Works Bd. 9, S.29)

the quotation is going by exemplary, since it illustrates the general speech style Stalins very well. It placed questions, which it during its responding very frequentlyimmediately answered.

„With Stalin each crime was possible, because there is not one crime, which he would not have committed. With which measure we want to measure it, anyhow… the fame will be given to it, the largest criminal of history tooits… “

(quotation of the Yugoslav head of state Tito, 1962)

sources

literature

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Josef Stalin - quotations
Commons: Josef Stalin - pictures, videos and/or audio files
This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)