Joseph Marie Jacquard

Joseph-Marie Jacquard

Joseph Marie Jacquard (* 7. July 1752 in Lyon; † 7. August 1834 in Rhône) was a French inventor, who contributed industriellen by its advancement of the loom crucially to the revolution.

Jacquard became in Lyon as a sona weber born. Its father possessed a workshop with several looms and its nut/mother worked as a sample A READEr in a Seidenmanufaktur. Already as a child Jacquard had to pull the sample threads.

Because it this work was hated, the young Jacquard learned the tradea Buchbinders. Nevertheless it inherited their workshop after the death of its parents and began in this to mechanize the sample Web technology. Its first attempts remained however unsuccessful and for Jacquard became impoverished appreciably.

The punch card control of the Jacquard machine

1789 broke the French revolutionout. Lyon and Jacquards workshop were destroyed. Only 1795 returned Jacquard to Lyon, where he resumed its attempts. By the revolution the economy was appropriate down and for Jacquard found some textile manufacturers, who supported its attempts financially. Some important improvements to Production process and the looms help it to some reputation and an appointment to the “Conservatoire kind et métiers” by Napoléon of the Bonaparte in the year 1804. Jacquard the divided remainders of Vaucansons weaving loom, discovered there, and reconstructed these. Finally combinedit its control engineering with techniques of the Austrian sample looms.

the Jacquard Musterwebmaschine

the Jacquard weaving loom

the most important improvement of Jacquards sample loom opposite all its forerunners consisted of the fact that he the cam roller of the Austrian looms by the continuous principle of the punch card controlreplaced. Thus endless samples could be manufactured by arbitrary complexity mechanically.

On the punch card all kinds of information about the sample which can be woven was contained. The maps were scanned with needles; a hole did not mean thread elevation, a hole thread lowering. These two information was enoughout, in order to manufacture wide examinations. Jacquard was thus first humans, who used this binary system, which led later to the development of the computer.

This loom was thus the first “programmable” machine (could be reequipped thus) and put thus a foundation-stone totoday's automation. It eliminated the last obstacle for the complete automation of the weaving mill: the production of woven samples.

Napoléon was inspired of Jacquards control system and awarded to it for reward a lifelong pension . 1806 tried Napoléon, the new looms by government decreeto intersperse, encountered however embittered resistance of the guilds, which felt threatened by progressive automation in the textile industry. Jacquard was several times attacked and brought before court. After however the English textile mills began to use Jacquard looms itself the technology could likewise intersperse in France.

1812 gave it in France to the 18,000 Jacquard looms.

In the year 1810 Jacquard with the cross of the Ehrenlegion was honoured.


  • Almut Bohnsack: Jacquards loom, German museum, Munich 1993


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