1791 (Franz) Joseph Haydn (also Josef, it never used Franz) (* 31. March 1732 in Rohrau in Lower Austria; † 31. May 1809 in Vienna) was a prominent Austrian composer of the classical period. He was brother of the composer Michael Haydn and tenor - the singer Johann EH gelist Haydn.
Haydn spent the largest part of its career as a yard musician and led the orchestra and the opera of the wealthy family Esterházy on their countryseat,for which it had to compose music. He described the effect of the separatingness of other composers and of the currents of the music with the well-known quotation: „I was seperate from the world, nobody in my proximity could me at meeven mad-make and torment, and so I had to become originals. “
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Haydn as a son of a Stellmachers (Wagenbauers) in the village Rohrau/Lower Austria the close Austrian at that time Hungarian border was born. Both parents could not read notes, but became after Haydns memoriesin its family and with the neighbours frequently sung. Its musical gift was discovered, when it was a small child, and at the age of five or six years he became 1737/1738 on relatives into close shark castlesent to the Danube, in order as choir singers to be trained. In the year 1740 became Haydn of George von Reutter, who notices musical director of the step Hans cathedral in Vienna, when this traveled by the provinces, in order to find talentierte choir boys. ReutterHaydn carried forward to Vienna, where he lived nine years as a choir singer, of it the last four in society of its younger brother Michael. Here Haydn received singing, piano and Violinunterricht. Reutter corrected Haydns first compositions, gave it however no regulated Kompostitionsunterricht.Nevertheless Haydn learned much - mostly in private study and alone probably already by the fact that he was in recent years as professional musicians at a place important for the music. Whether it already in this time or only in later yearsJohann Matthesons the perfect Capellmeister and Gradus ad Parnassum of Johann Joseph Fux through-studied, is after the sources not clearly to be decided. The adult composer called both works as fundamental for his development.
1749 had physically so far matured Haydn,that it could not sing the high voices in the choir to no more. Under a pretext it became from its place to dismiss. He spent obviously one night homeless in a park bank, however by friends was taken up and began a career as freerMusician. In the run to this cumbersome period, which took ten years, Haydn many different activities followed, among other things as chamber servant/a companion of the Italian composer Niccola Porpora. It strove to fill the gaps in its training and wrote finally itsfirst caper quartets and its first opera. During this time Haydns professional reputation rose gradually.
Since 1754 the young Haydn of the 1744 in Vienna gave Marianna Martines piano instruction to born later Komponistin. At the beginning of this training is Marianna Martines already outstandingplayed. Haydn lived in the same house and gave it daily against free food instruction.
Probably 1757 received its first important place to Haydn as a director of music of the count Karl von Morzin on lock Lukavec with Pilsen. On this year datedHaydn its first in Morzins services composed symphony. As a director of music it directed a small orchestra, and for this ensemble it wrote its first symphonies. Streichtrios, Cassationen and caper quartets spread soon, often in copies, into the pressure arrived themnot.
Count Morzin suffered soon thereafter from financial difficulties, which forced him to give its musical enterprises up but Haydn was offered fast a similar place (1761) as Vizekapellmeister to the family Esterházy, one the wealthiest and most important in the Danube monarchy. When the old Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner died finally 1766, Haydn was promoted to first Kapellmeister.
As Kapellmeister with the Esterházys
as more livrierter (with a Livree, D. h. Uniformly more dressed) musician in the rank of a house officer of the Esterházys followed Haydn thatFamily in three main residences: the family seat in iron city, approximately 50 km of Vienna; the winter palace in Vienna, and Eszterháza, a large new lock, which was built into the 1760ern in the rural Hungary. Haydn wore a far fieldResponsibilities, among other things composition, line of the orchestra, plays of chamber music for and with its patron, and finally arranging opera productions. Despite the enormous work load Haydn in its place felt lucky. The Esterházy princes (only Paul Anton, then forwardsall Nikolaus I.) music connoisseurs, who estimated its work and it the necessary surrounding field for its artistic development gave, were among them the daily entrance to its own small orchestra.
In the year 1760, in the security of its Kapellmeister position, Haydn married.It and its wife, born as Maria Anna cellar, did not get along well with one another. Maria Anna could not get children, which regretted Haydn much. Without any proofs is speculated, he is again and again the father of the son Anton of LuigiaPolzelli, a singer been in the Esterházy enterprise, with whom Haydn had a longer affair.
While that it produced nearly thirty years, which Haydn in the house Esterházy worked, a tide at compositions, and its musical style developed itself further constantly. Its popularityin the external world became larger likewise. Gradually Haydn wrote Paris symphonies (1785-1786) and the original orchestra version that just as much for publications as for its employer, and some important works of this period, as those filters last words of our Erlösers at the cross(1786) from the foreign country in order were given.
Around 1781 was established a close friendship between Haydn and Mozart, whose work it had already affected over years. The two composers enjoyed it playing in caper quartets together. Haydnwas very much impressed the Mozarts' of work. It is that Haydn stopped at this time mostly, operas and concerts to obviously write - two of the kinds, in which Mozart was strongest. Mozart worked hard to write six caper quartets,those with the level to keep up knew, the Haydn with its briefly row OI completed before it. 33 had reached; when Mozart thereby was finished, it dedicated the quartets to its friend.
Haydn belonged the Freimaurerloge to the true unity, into which heat the 11. February 1785 was taken up. Mozart could not be present however, there he in the same evening, in presence of its father Leopold, a subscription concert in „the Mehlrgrube “gave. By the lying affiliation of the two men their friendship received an additionalFacet.
1790 died prince Nikolaus; its successor was completely unmusikalisch and dismissed the whole musical enterprise and sent Haydn in pension. The accepted on it a lucrative offer of the German Impresarios Johann Peter Salomon to go to England andto specify its new symphonies with a large orchestra.
The journeys (1791-1792, and again 1794-1795) were a large success. The public stormed in Haydns of concerts, and it acquired fast fame and fortune. The attendance in England created in music some from Haydnsbest well-known works, under it the symphony with the bass drum impact, military info. never, the Londoner symphony, the rider quartet and the Zigeunertrio.
Haydn considered actually, English citizen to become and durably establish, the things took itself however oneother process. It returned to Vienna, let a large house for itself build and turned to the composition of large religious works for choir and orchestra. Among other things the two large Oratorien the creation and the seasons developed as well as six fairs for the Esterházy family, which was led to this time again by a in music bent prince. Haydn composed also the last nine of a long set of caper quartets, among other things the emperor quartet, the Quintenquartett and the quartet The sunrise. Trotz seines fortschreitenden Alters schaute Haydn in die Zukunft; in a letter he called out „how much remains still doing in this wonderful art! “
In the year 1802 Haydn felt that an illness, at which he already sincesome time it had suffered, had so far worsened that it was physically no more able to compose. This was certainly very with difficulty for it, there - how it admitted - the river on blew musical ideas, thosefor elaboration waited, did not stop. Haydn was maintained by its servants well and received many attendance and public honours during these last years, but no very lucky years for him can have been. During its illness he often foundat the piano comfort when playing the Austrian Kaiserhymne, which it had composed as patriotic gesture 1797.
Joseph Haydn was buried at the Hundsturmer cemetery (today Haydn park in Vienna - Meidling), where he was not any longer considered by the family Esterhazy. Only the admiration by the duke of Cambridgereminded prince Nikolaus II. the officials and its genius and Joseph Haydn was exhumiert in such a way 1820 and transferred after iron city into the Haydnkirche (mountain church).
When with these work the coffin was opened, the absence of the head became of theComposer determined.
Investigations resulted in that the secretary of the prince Esterhazy - Joseph Carl rose tree - had captivated Totengräber, one prison manager as well as two Viennese officials due to his trailer shank of the head teachings of Franz Joseph Gall, eight days after buryingto open secretly again the grave and steal the head.
All investigations to the defiance the hiding place of the stolen head could not be determined and the body without heads after iron city was transferred in such a way and buried there.
Later handed overthe prison manager Johann Peter of the police a head, which it spent as that Haydns. In all silence this was put to its place, but this should turn out as wrong.
The genuine head still was in the possessionthe secretary Joseph Carl rose tree and this „left “it on the dead bed to his friend Peter with the order to bequeath the Reliquie to the music conservatoire.
But neither these nor its widow trusted itself to do this and the head moved in such a waystill by some hands, until he arrived to 1895 into the possession of the society of the music friends in Vienna, in whose museum it was until 1953.
After already once a return of the head had failed in last minute, could in the year 1954 after a procession from Vienna to iron city of the heads with the remainder of the Gebeine to be united.
The sculptor Gustinus Ambrosi was allowed to put the Cranium in the Sarkophag and to finally manufacture thus after 145 years the dead peace of Joseph Haydn.
A character and feature
Haydn were among its contemporaries admit for his kind and optimistic personality. It had a strong sense for humor, which stepped out in its love for practical jokes and becomes visible in its music often. It particularly becameof it the whom are subordinate yard musicians of the Esterházys estimated, since it maintained a cordial work atmosphere and effectively opposite its employer represented the interests of the musicians.
Haydn was pious catholic, who often took its Rosenkranz to the hand, if he with a compositionfestgefahren was, a habit, which usually helpful he found. If it had terminated a composition, it tended to write „louse deo “(honour was God) or a similar idiom the end of the manuscript. Its dearest hobbies were the hunt andfishing.
Haydn was of small Statur. As in its time had it the smallpox survived many, and its face was scattered by the scars of this illness. It was looking not well and was quite surprised, as the Mrs. itwhile its London attendance umschwärmten. The different Portraitmaler, which drew or painted Haydn during its lifetime, tried to express its attractive personality on different way instead of its ugly face; therefore no two the delivered Portraits resemble themselves.
Haydntraditionally as „a father “of the classical symphony and the caper quartet and was newer one is regarded when writing Klaviersonaten and Klaviertrios. Although other composers of the early classical period, like Carl Philipp Emanuel brook with the Klaviersonate and Johann Christian brook and Leopold Mozart with the symphony, an important role played, Haydns influence as prevailing are estimated nevertheless.
Besides Haydn carried also for the development of the Sonatenform of a simple, from „the Sonata bipartita “ago coming form pattern to a subtle and flexible musicalStyle. It invented also the Sonatenrondoform, the variation form with two topics, and he was a first important composer, the joint and kontrapunktische elements into the classical form brought in.
Structure of the music
a central characteristic of Haydns music is thoseDevelopment of larger structures from very small and simple musical motives . The music is formally often quite concentrated, and which rapid important musical events of a sentence can themselves unfold.
The organizational principle of many of its works is the Sonatenhauptsatzform,their substantial elements - as they appear with Haydn - which are the following:
- Exposition: Presentation of the initial musical material, followed of a modulation into the dominant factor (the one increase of the musical tension caused), and with a cadence a dissolution inthe dominant factor. A special characteristic of Haydns expositions (differently than with the expositions the Mozarts and Beethovens) is that it uses frequently no contrasting „second topic “with reaching the dominant factor; instead it repeats the opening topic or a variant of it.
- Execution:The musical material is changed over, transformed and often fragmented, while by a set of more distant kinds of clay/tone one modulates. Often a high point is reached, usually in the Mollparallele.
- Reprise: The material of the exposition is again presented, this time to the majority in that Tonika remaining. Usually the Reprise contains one „secondary development “, which occurs in the place, where the exposition is modulated into the dominant factor; this secondary development usually explores the Subdominante. Contrary to Mozart and Beethoven Haydn often placesthe topics of the Reprise into another order over.
Haydns kompositorische practice affected both Mozart and Beethoven. Beethoven began its career with the letter of rather pleonastic, loosely organized Sonatenexpositionen; but with using its „middle period “seizedit Haydns practice up and increased it, by developing very highly organized musical structures from extremely simple motives for basis.
Perhaps more than every other composer is Haydn admits for the jokes, which he put into his music. The most famous examplethe sudden loud chord is in the symphony No. 94 „with the bass drum impact “, but others is perhaps merrier: the pretended ends in the quartets OI. 33 No. 2 and OI. 50 No. 3 or the remarkable rhythmic illusion, which itin the Trio OI. 50 No. 1 platzierte.
Development of Haydns style
Haydns early works date from the period, in that the kompositorische style of the high baroque (as it in brook and trade music to the expression comes) from the mode comewas, but composers not yet were encountered ways to write in the again arising Idiom works from similar weight to. It was one period of the research and uncertainty, and Haydn (18 years before the death of brook born) was even onethe musical researchers of that time. An older contemporary, whose work recognized Haydn than important influence for its work, was Carl Philipp Emanuel brook, the second son Johann Sebastian of brook.
If one Haydns work over the five decades (approximate 1749until 1802) pursued, in which it was created, one finds one gradually, but constantly increasing complexity and musical refinement, which developed in such a way, as Haydn from its own experience and that of its colleagues learned. One knows some important milestones inthe evolution of Haydns musical style constitute.
The late 1760ern and early 1770ern Haydn occurred one period, which one calls „storm and urge “, fully from jagged chords, sudden transitions and strange Moll harmonies. Most symphonieswith numbers between 35 and 55 are approximate from this kind. In this time busy it with kontrapunktischen studies and experimented itself with the letter of joints, those in the Viennese Tradtion of Italian origin (J. J. Fux) stand andless with the joint work J. S. Brook to do, remarkably in the final sets of the six caper quartets (sun quartets) OI have. 20 (1772).
In the year 1781 Haydn published six caper quartets OI. 33, with an announcement to the potentialBuyer that they are written „in a completely new, special kind “.Charles roses discussed that this explanation is completely seriously meant on the part of Haydns not only marketing, but; it points to a number of important progress in Haydns style, which appear in these quartets. Among other things this is the flowing kind of the Phrasierung, in which each motive comes out from the preceding without interruption; the custom to be able to be developed accompanying material into melodisches material and the kind of the„classical counterpoint “, in which each instrument part retains its own integrity, which corresponds to procedures mentioned by Beethoven „obligatory Accompagnement “. These characteristics sit down away in the many quartets, the Haydn after OI. 33 wrote.
Starting from 1781/1782 Haydn stood in activeExchange of ideas with W. A. Mozart. Both recognized as equal masters on, closed friendship and learned from each other. In the music science one speaks therefore with Haydn also of a vormozartschen and a nachmozartschen period.
Into the 1790ern Haydn developed, lively throughits England journeys, which calls roses its „popular style “, a way of the composition, which brought music out, which held large popular attraction and nevertheless with unparalleled success a scholarly and radical musical structure possessed. An important element of the popular style was thatfrequent use of Austrian or Croatian folkloristischem (or invented pseudo folkloristischen) material. Haydn strove to use such material in suitable places so at the ends of Sonatenexpositionen or as opening topics of final sets. In such places the folkloristische material serves asElement of stability, which helps to embody the larger structure. One can hear Joseph Haydns popular style in almost all later works, for example in the twelve Londoner symphonies, the late quartets and Klaviertrios and in the two late Oratorien.
- Oratorien the creation (main header. XXI: 2) and the seasons (main headers. XXI: 3)
- Fairs, under it the Missa into tempore belli, Nelsonmesse, creation fair, harmony fair
- 108 symphonies, partly with titles by program like „the clock “, „with the bass drum impact “, „the parting “ etc. (see also: List of the symphonies Joseph Haydns)
- of concerts for violin, Violoncello, trumpet, horn, oboe, piano, bassoon, flute and flute clock
- chamber music,among them 83 caper quartets. See for this list of the chamber-musical works Haydns
- piano sonaten and other piano works
- 24 operas
- G. A. Griesinger, Biographic notes over Joseph Haydn, 1810
- A. C. This, biographic message of Joseph Haydn, 1810
- C. F. Pohl, Joseph Haydn, 3 volumes, 1875-1927 (volume 3 of H. Botstiber)
- of letters and life documents of Haydn, given change of W.Richly, 1946
- Heinrich Eduard Jacob, Joseph Haydn. Its art, its time, its fame, Hamburg 1952. Last new edition: Hamburg: Rowohlt 1977, ISBN 3-499-14142-6
- H. C. R. Landon (Hg.), The Collected Correspondence and London Notebooks OF Joseph Haydn, 1959
- D. Bartha and L. Somfai, Haydn as Opernkapellmeister, 1960
- D. Bartha, Joseph Haydn, collected letters and recordings, 1965
- Joseph Haydn in its time, exhibition catalog, iron city 1982
- Jens Peter Larsen and Georg feather/spring, Haydn, 1994
- Harald Haslmayr, Joseph Haydn. Its work - its life, 1999
- L. Fin, Joseph Haydn and its time, 2000, ISBN 3-890-07534-7
- Hansjürgen shepherd, Joseph Haydn - lives and work, 2000, ISBN 3-932529-65-0
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Joseph Haydn - quotations|
| | * Literature of and over Joseph Haydn in the catalog of the DDB
- entry over „Joseph Haydn “ in the Austria encyclopedia of AEIOU
- http://www.haydn-institut.de (critical total expenditure)
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Austrian composer of the classical period|
|DATE OF BIRTH||31. March 1732|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rohrau|
|DYING DATE||31. May 1809|