Table of contents
with their articles and contributions making possible journalist a public discussion over current topics, the basis of each democratic living together is. One speaksin this connection often of the journalism and/or. the media as the fourth force in the state, there the task of the forming of an opinion to transfer and so political, social and economic operational sequence to affect can do it.
At the same time the journalism stands for that in the criticism, by sensation greed and unobjective, partial wrong reportingOrder to contribute to the truth identification to correspond often only insufficiently. This applies particularly to the boulevard newspapers, partly however also to entire medium landscape.
Again and again the formation of „opinion monopolies will become “feared, the structure and the market shares of individual publishing house companies therefore by control organs howthe Federal Cartel Office and the European commission adjusts.
serve media practical each modern form of the transmission of news as medium for the journalism. Here print , agency -, sound broadcasting - become, television - and on-line journalism differentiated between. Depending upon medium texts, photo , info. diagrams come, Originaltöne and induced pictures to the employment.
in practice become partly press statements already prepared (also: „Original texts “) invariably taken over and spreads further. The use of agency messages, which are if necessary shortened or decorated slightly, is more frequent. Here one speaks of informative journalism.
the journalism has itself in the course of its more than 2000 years lasting historyin each case serves of the newest technologies. Milestones were the invention of the printing in the Renaissance, the development of the information transfer in 19. Century by the Telegrafie as well as the invention of sound broadcasting (over 1920) and the television (around 1950). Beginning of the 1990er years came asnewest development form on-line journalism in the Internet in addition.
the origins of the journalism are in the Roman realm, in starting from that the 1. Century v. Chr. the appearing daily newspaper Acta Diurna was published. The editors of this first graphic medium became diurnarii mentioned. At the same time appeared with the Commentarius Rerum Novarum the first weekly paper, which exhibited and by approximately 300 professional writers was provided already similar topic spectrum as today's newspapers - a mixture from official information, messages and maintenance -.
In the Middle Ages became stillbefore the invention of the printing economic information at the commercial centres (in particular on ports) on handbills spreads, which were called in Italy avvisi and in German-language countries newspaper. One can regard this as origin of the specialized journalism, which is concerned with specific topics.
The printing accelerated thoseProduction of such newspapers, the break-through of the journalism took time nevertheless further centuries, what was particularly because of at that time still slow speed of the information transfer on the land and sea route. This problem could do only in 19. Century to be satisfying solved.
Forerunner: A black boardor official reports in the village at each third corner loud after clips read out…
the beginning of the modern journalism
of the Strassburger newspaper publisher Johann Carolus left itself from correspondents from cities along important post office routes - like Cologne, Vienna, Prague, Venice and Rom -weekly the newest message (at that time „advice “mentioned) send. At the beginning of copied it the messages with own hand and sent it to financially strong prospective customers, who had subscribed this service. To the subscribers of Johann Carolus belonged above all rich buyers, those their goods abroad exported andexperienced wanted, what in Europe happened. 1604 acquired Carolus of a Strassburger printer three presses and set up these in its dwelling. In that printering it probably set the first printed expenditure of its newspapers for 1605.
1631 gave the Frenchman the first newspaper to Théophraste Renaudot inout and a patent announced modern sense, La Gazette in this kind of the information spreading. Renaudot is considered as vision acre of the modern journalism and as an inventor of most journalistic representational forms such as comment or report, which are used this very day in the printed media. Starting from beginning of the 18. Century also in the USA the first newspapers were published, which addressed themselves still to the formed elite.
End 18. , At the beginning 19. Century could be obtained in the pressure technology crucial break-throughs, the printed media made clearly cheaper. At the same time that concretized itselfCareer profile of the journalist.
At this time the reporting was in most media still very opinion. 1835 were created with the New York Herald the first newspaper, which tried, to supply objectively and realistically current information. This informative journalism found rapid imitators,dominant factors the manifestation it became however only after 1900. In the same year with Havas the first press agency was created.
beginning of the mass media
in the middle 19. Century developed the first mass media in the USA. Those had a large influence on this developmentProgress in the education, which made possible also a learning of vintages and letters for the elevated middle class and made it thereby customers for the newspapers. In addition, the progress in the technology - the automation of printing as well as the optimization of the information transfer by telegraph and telephone - contributed to the success of the press, since they made those ever cheaper manufacturing a medium.
Into the same time important economic progress falls, as the purposeful Platzieren of advertisement in the newspapers.
In the second half of the century that had itselfJournalism finally as instruments of power in the social opinion establishes. It became therefore object of attempts to spread interests of all kinds - in particular political and economic nature -. These attempts persist until today and are one of the main points of criticism, which are addressed to the journalism.
an arising of the broadcast
end 19. Century the technology of the moved pictures was developed. It was used after the invention of the Tonfilms into the 1920er - years for informative purposes, particularly to weekly message overviews (Wochenschauen).
However first that had a larger influenceArise sound broadcasting into the 1920er - years. This new medium changed the kind to write rapidly, since the radio in real time could report on current events and in addition by means of music entrance to the emotions of the listeners had. New Unterkategorien of the occupation of the journalism developed,like the commentator and the moderator, as well as new representational forms.
In order to be able to exist against the radio, the journalists in the printed media shifted on analyzing and commentating the messages. In the USA the so-called interpretive journalism developed already briefly after the First World Warin special magazines, new magazine were called. Important now no more was to convey a message but, to place and for the reader make it more understandable into its context. Particularly after the world economic crisis 1929 such background informations became ever more importantly, there many economically interested humansabout the causes of this crisis to inform wanted. Around 1950 the interpretive journalism had achieved the dominant factor role under the development forms in its discipline.
The television provided end of the 1940er - years for a further quantum transition, there now the information live with pictures to be transferred could andthe users the possibility had of attending an event practically from the distance. Es hatte einen großen Einfluss auf denpolitischen Journalismus, da sich die Politiker nun live bei Interviewsund Talkrunden zeigen konnten, wodurch die Berichterstattung und damit auch deren Aufnahme durch die Bevölkerung personenbezogenerbecame.
These new media provided for a specialization within the occupation. While television and radio became the place for informative journalism, also because long analyses and comments are disturbing there, specialized the printed media in the niches of the interpretive and the opinion journalism. The kind, thoseTexts to write, became for each medium differently. For example it comes in sound broadcasting particularly on a short and knappe, but complete language on, while printed media make possible longer and more complete papers, because the consumer can decide here, what it when read. If the recipient inText “gets stuck”, can read it it also several times. He must understand a radio contribution against it at first attempt. In the television it is important that picture and text complement each other. Its character as combined text, clay/tone and picture medium gave particularly creative organization possibilities to the journalism, around entrance to thatTo receive attention of the spectator. In documentary films about the interpretive journalism with the art tooths itself: Music and visual effects are used, in order to underline the information and to produce so a suitable tendency.
The opinion journalism experienced a new upswing at the same time alsoArise the boulevard journalism, which sought to satisfy the interests of the masses with sensation, partly invented reporting. Most well-known example in the German-speaking countries is the picture newspaper.
Starting from the 1950er - years experienced the form of the investigativen journalism its bloom time. Here it concerned purposeful searchesthe media to special, in particular political topics, which had remained hidden for the public so far. The journalists could uncover so several scandals. The most well-known case was the so-called Watergate affair at the beginning of the 1970er - years, which to the resignation of the president at that time of the USA, Richard Nixon led.
Into the 1980er - to years appeared as the newest representational form of the interpretive journalism in the printed media and on the television the info. diagram, the text and picture combined and thus complicated circumstances to make understandable could. This accompanied with a ever greater importance of the pictures in the printed media,by it their feature to make more attractive knew. Thus the integration of Farbbildern and various Design elements in the important newspapers became the standard around 1990.
today is the journalism in a further paging phase. Arising on-line journalism into the 1990er- Provided years for a revolution within the discipline, whose consequences are not yet fully foreseeable. This new development form could combine the advantages of the printed media with those of sound broadcasting and the television: it is able to report in real time on current events because of itsA text character is suitable it however even for longer papers, which the reader in peace can consume. Besides they offer the possibility of merging multimedia information about to videos or clay/tone documents.
The only disadvantage of on-line media opposite the printed media is that that the reader itself so far at one Computer gone must, in order to be able to consume it. Therefore it is more comfortable for the reader to read long texts on paper - a circumstance, which led to a further specialization of the printed media on analyses, background informations and comments. It is to be expected however that theseDisadvantage in the near future is void, should become generally accepted new developments such as E-Books or in particular for several years the electronic paper in development. The new on-line media were regarded to that of the traditional media because of these advantages fast as danger and today often for the decreaseRuns particularly made by newspapers responsible.
The Internet boom led to a further phenomenon: Since now at one time each user could spread its own homepage fast by the letter of information into all world, it provided for rapid rising of the publications with a journalistic character. ThoseBorders between professional journalism and the activity of amateurs disappear thereby appreciably. Many on-line media - and also the Internetpräsenzen of the traditional media - bind for instance Weblogs or even Wiki - elements into their offers in, others let their texts of the readers commentate or possess panels. Some media are written meanwhile even by the readers themselves; well-known representatives are Indymedia, the German information portal grin, the Korean on-line magazine Ohmy news and the Wikinews belonging to the Wikimedia Foundation. These phenomena are often summarized under the key word grass root journalism.
Parallel to thisDevelopment came it to one Renaissance of the opinion journalism, since each Internet user could take position by Website or Blog to arbitrary topics without special costs. In many on-line magazines one finds a mixture from opinion journalism and interpretive journalism, since it is seductive with such publications, thoseto represent own view of the things. This development is observed of advocates of the journalism as stronghold of the objective reporting with concern. - Partly rightfully - the Polemisierung of the journalism is feared particularly with critical topics, while the search and representing different points of view next to each other inthe background to move threatens.
In summary one can say, which led an arising of on-line journalism to a rising “informatization” of the society. The consumers are today owing to the various journalistic offers many more comprehensively about current events informed than still before 20 years. Nearly everyone stillso small niche topic is occupied meanwhile by a journalistic offer. Besides the “information monopoly” of the traditional media was attacked by small independent offers, so that it does not fall the journalists any longer so simply to manipulate or deceive readers. An example is the BILDblog, thatInternet user over errors and wrong information in the picture newspaper inform. But this variety of points of view has also the disadvantage the fact that the information is often steered altogether more unclearly will and the attention on banalities. One often speaks unnecessary information, those in this connection of info. garbage - thatView on the substantial adjust.
view into the future
like these developments the world of the journalism will change, is still unclear. Probable it is however that the circulations will be at least as large as with arising the broadcast. Some voices warn meanwhile alreadybefore becoming extinct the printed media, which could not be confirmed however so far yet; also sound broadcasting and television exist further. The competition grows the relatively new Internet television stations nevertheless by Internet radios and. It is probable according to opinion of many that the past media with a further increase thatRange of the Internet into only one multi-medium will merge, which would mean a further increase of the journalistic representational forms and offers.
the legal basis of the journalistic activity is in the Basic Law by the Pressefreiheit as well as in the respective Lands of the Federal Republic the appropriate national press lawsregulated. Besides the journalist in its daily work must consider corresponding laws, about personality rights and copyrights.
as obligatingControl instances were created beyond that the German , Austrian one and Swiss press advice. They examine the adherence to the created journalistic Kodizes and rügen of offences. These Rügen do not have legal consequences.
|Wikiquote: Journalism - quotations|
- journalist, Journaille, Paparazzo, journalism theories, creative letter, medium journalism, journalist school, press statement, on-line journalism, specialized journalism, technique journalism, science journalism, medicine journalism, Presseausweis, press conference, widow vibrating
- Bourdieu and the journalism Field, hrg. by Rodney Benson, Eric Neveu, Polity press 2005, ISBN 0745633870
- Lutz Hachmeister (Hrsg.): The Mr. Journalisten. The elite of the German press after 1945. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2002. ISBN 3-406-47597-3
- Claudia mast (Hrsg.): ABC of the journalism. 10.Aufl. Konstanz: UVK, 2004.ISBN 3-89669-419-7
- Siegfried Weischenberg (Hrsg.): Manual journalism and media. Konstanz: UVK, 2005. ISBN 3-89669-429-4