Juan prime y Prats (actually Catalan Joan prime i Prats), since 1843 count von Reus and since 1860 Marquis of lot Castillejos (* 6. December 1814 in Reus, Katalonien; † 30. December 1870 in Madrid) was a Spanish general and politician.
Table of contents
origin and career/development to 1840
Juan prime closed after its education with 19 years with the outbreak of the first Carlistenkrieges 1834 a free corps named Tiradores de Isabel II (dt. Contactors Isabellas II.) on, that the regular army of the party María Cristinas of Sicily, the widow Ferdinands VII., supported.
In the following seven civil war years it ascended in the cristianischen army due to a number of courageous and victorious military actions, with which it were several times hurt and its horses were killed, piece by piece: After the income of Vilamajó de Vallés by a Kompagnie against in terms of figures superior Karlistic troops and further victorious actions, led by him, he was appointed the captain. After the income of San Miguel de Sabadell the cross of the holy Ferdinand of first class one lent to it. It received this honor again in the future, apart from the transport to the Colonel. With 26 years it applied for its trailers as symbol figure to courage and military success.
rider fixed image Prims in Reus after
La Granja (1840) the condition trailers split government Esparteros (1840-1844) into conservative ones and progressists into Spain, which were led by Calatrava and Mendizábal and with Espartero the new regent placed. When prime was selected 1841 for the province Tarragona into the Spanish parliament, he followed the progressists.
For prime as a member of a unitunit unit the danger of the nonacknowledgement of its military ranks existed after the Demobilierung of the free corps of the Karlistenkriegs. Contrary to most its Mitkämpfer was transferred prime however due to its high prestige as a Colonel to the official army. Beyond that Espartero appointed it the Unterinspekteur of the carbines in Andalusien. When such could prevent prime that conservative leaders under Ramón Narváez, which wanted to return the regency at Maria Cristina over Gibraltar could return to Spain.
Prime with Espartero nevertheless over-threw itself and accused of it to prefer by its freihändlerische commercial policy English fabrics in order to damage and Katalonien in such a way more strongly the central power to subordinate be able the not competitive Catalan textile industry. The alienation of both politicians manifested itself with striking down the 1843 broken out collection in Barcelona before the background of the economic situation of many enterprises worsened by Esparteros commercial policy. Primely participated first in its fight. After hard striking down of the rebellion by the bombardment of the city from the Montjuich , which had undertaken Espartero, it belonged however to the critics politics of the Esparteros.
Soon began military rebellions in Madrid political plots and whereupon 1843 in Málaga , Granada and Almería against Espartero. Primely and Lorenzo Milans del Bosch plotted at the same time in Reus a rebellion against the Espartero. Barcelona closed the rebellion on and shortly thereafter completely Katalonien. For striking down the rebellion pulled general Martín Zurbano of Barcelona against Reus and Tarragona. Under protests of the citizens of its hometown, which was unprotectedly delivered without defense Zurbano, prime pulled to Barcelona, in order to avoid a bloody idea Zurbanos. Primely met there with a representative of a Paris secret company of exilierter military under the guidance of O'Donnell and Narváez and forbade to the conservative generals entering over Barcelona so that they would not arrive before it in Madrid. These generals marched thereupon over Valencia to Madrid, where they arrived before prime. Espartero was fallen without large Gegenwehr and fled to England, while the Narváez the Regierungsgewalt arrived before prime in Madrid took over one day. Isabell II. with 13 years for of age one explained and one proclaimed as queen and Regentin. Under Narváez the decade of the so-called Moderados began (dt. The self-control) within the government responsibility.
during the era of the Moderados (1843-1854)
prime became first by the new government and/or. its war Minister Serrano appointed due to a radical-revolutionary collection in Barcelona ( the Jamancia) the governor and commander of general Barcelona. As honor for their striking down and the pacification of the city primely count von Reus and Vicomte (Vizconde) was appointed by the break, with leaving barness of the title.
Primely turned on it to Madrid to and from the government to the commander of military of Ceuta one appointed. This post it rejected however, withdrew it from the government service and relied Spain. With its return in October 1844 he was accused, because he should have undertaken allegedly a conspiracy and an attempted murder against Narváez. He was condemned to six-year fortress detention, but begnadigten already 1845 on requests of its nut/mother Narváez and/or. the queen. Primely withdrew itself again abroad.
After the resignation Narváez' was amnestied Espartero by the new government under Pacheco. The acting war Minister, Luis Fernández de Córdoba, a friend Prims, appointed him 1847 the general captain of the island Puerto Rico. Was by its hard policy prime on Puerto Rico particularly does not like, among other things he let the guerilla El Águila shoot, after this had broken after its first release its subject-gel-practiced and had stolen Prims horse. Primely struck down beyond that a rebellion in Santa Cruz and on the Danish Antilles island Saint Thomas . For latter action it received - medals to the Dannebrog. It was already recalled nevertheless 1848.
Primely presented itself thereupon as a candidate for the Spanish parliament in different Catalan electoral districts and as a delegate for Vich one selected. Since then it worked as one the most progressive and thus for the moderate government most uncomfortable leader in the Deputiertenkammer. When prime could be set up after the dissolution of the parliament with the new elections of 1851 again as a candidate for Vich, the government appointed him again the general captain of Puerto Rico, in order to prevent Prims choice. Primely the office accepted and withdrew from its candidacy. When after the choice its appointment was cancelled, prime without office and function stood. A progressistic delegate, who had won in two electoral districts, offered on it one to prime seats, which he had received in Barcelona. Espartero, which since striking down the Jamancia - rebellion in Barcelona particularly does not like was, recruited for itself to become, by promising to the most decided advocate of civil liberties and the interests Kataloniens, and was selected.
The government Bravo Murillo dissolved 1852 the Cortes again and governed by decree. In order to prevent a Putsch, prime was proven to France. Although it only five days before the again called up elections was allowed to return to Spain, prime was selected again for Barcelona into the parliament and took again his role as an opposition leader was. After the renewed dissolution of the parliament prime went again to France. When the Krimkrieg broke out, prime at the end of asked 1853 for its delegation as a Spanish military commissioner to Turkey. This was granted to it. It participated in the military operations of the Danube army against Russia and was an among other things strategic advisor of the artillery with the attack on the island dead gale. The Sultan lent the Medjidie medal and the honour sword to it. 1854 reached it the message of the victorious liberals revolution in Spain and returned hasty to its homeland.
in Morocco and Mexico (1854-1862)
in Spain O'Donnell and Espartero had met an agreement, in order to divide the exercise of power. None was ready for the support Prims, which could be set up as a candidate for the Cortes, to 8. November 1854 was selected. Primely therefore increasingly and connected this turned to the interests of the democracy-oriented forces (the republican and socialist) in its political adjustment with the ideas of the Progressisti party, to which he belonged still. Primely into the meeting, there however hardly exercised influence was selected. He withdrew himself finally and took over the office of the general captain of Granada. Here its most important task existed in the safety device Melillas against attacks of Berbertruppen. Primely this defeated in a battle with Cabrerizas. In the year 1856 it to the Teniente general, the second highest general rank of the infantry ascended, withdrew however shortly thereafter as a general captain, when O'Donnell of Espartero took over the Regierungsgewalt. Shortly thereafter O'Donnell was forced to the resignation and with Narváez returned moderados to the government responsibility. Narváez took the Säkularisierungsgesestzgebung decided before by the Cortes (splinter desamortización) back.
Primely the policy of the government criticized Narváez and thereupon because of „lack of military honour “arrested. Its military process was drawn into the length, in order to prevent that prime could be set up with the following elections. Finally prime was condemned briefly before the elections to six months fortress detention, which he served first in Alicante and which was converted soon into banishing. Despite the impossibility to operate election campaign prime for the electoral district Reus was selected into the parliament, could not participate however not in its meetings. After six months it one permitted to the new government to leave the country after Vichy in France.
The government Narváez fell shortly thereafter and after two short interim governments took over O'Donnell again the government. Primely 1856 returned to Spain and followed the liberal union created again by O'Donnell, why he left briefly the Progressisti party.
In this time came it over so specified Mexican question, which had developed from open demands of Spain against Mexico after its independence and incidents in the Mexican civil war since 1858, with which Spaniards had been killed, to discussions over a declaration of war to the former colony. Primely expressed itself against the war. It thereupon the Parteigängerei with Mexico accuses of, since it was married with a Mexican, who was related to a Minister of the liberals government of Benito Juárez in Veracruz. (The conservative ones maintained at that time their own government in Mexico city, which was recognized by Spain.)
O'Donnell directed meanwhile the attention on Morocco, of where out repeats attacks on Ceuta had been undertaken. At the same time this offered an opportunity for the diverson of crises relating to domestic affairs. Although the Sultan from Morocco was ready to satisfaction achievements, O'Donnell explained 1859 Morocco the war. Primely asked for his employment in the expedition corps against Morocco and the commander of a reserve division, which in Antequera was set up, one appointed. With its units and Catalan Freiwilligen he translated from Algeciras to Ceuta. In different engagements, among them in lot Castillejos (1. To January 1860 and Wad race was characterised prime. In the battles of Cabo Negrón and Tetuán the employment of its troops was crucial. After the signing of the peace of Tetuán to 26. April 1860 returned prime to Spain. In Katalonien honour receipts were prepared for it, the queen lent to it the title of a Marquis (Mark count) of lot Castillejos. Primely the director of the Spanish engineer corps shortly thereafter one appointed.
Into Mexico meanwhile the troops of the government Juárez fell the conservative government Miramón recognized by Spain and drove 1861 out the Spanish Ambassador. The government Juárez decided on one side to suspend the national debt repayment. The French and the English government, which suffered from similar measures, decided thereupon, to occupy the customs stations from Veracruz and Tampico to in order to drive its debts over the customs returns. In October 1861 the Spanish government in the Londoner convention with England and France agreed upon the appropriate common intervention in Mexico. Primely the guidance of the Spanish expedition corps took over, had to state however with its arrival in Havanna that the there troop contingents under the guidance were broken open to Mexico already by general captain Serrano and San Juan de Ulua and Veracruz had taken. When primely at the beginning of of 1862 arrived at Veracruz, he accepted the explanations Serranos for breaking open come prematurely.
The area, in which the Spanish troops had broken their camp open, was from unhealthy climate. The so-called vomiting (yellow fever ), black in particular, dezimierte the troops and an expedition in the interior developed to the disaster. The commanders requested thereupon the government Suárez to be allowed to shift their camp after Orizaba received however longer time no answer. After two weeks prime contacted personally his brother-in-law, the Minister Echevarria, and attained desired permission. After the troop transfer the negotiations began de la Soledad around the so-called Convención in Orizaba. The French emperor Napoleon III. had at that time already decided to convert Mexico into an empire under government of ore duke Maximilian and asked prime for support with this project. During the negotiations in Orizaba the French negotiator divided to 15. April 1862 prime also, one will support the konvervative government, that fought that against Juárez. It accused prime of that this wanted to crown itself to the emperor. Primely knows these accusations back and announced (just like the Englishmen) the retreat of his troops, in order not to have to play the Frenchman into the hands. This found under approval of the Spanish government to 25. April instead of. Queen Isabella II. against the throne candidacy of the having citizen Maximilian had expressed itself, although the Spanish government obviously first Napoleon III. to satisfy could. Primely traveled over Havanna and the United States to Spain back, where he was met with hostility first because of his attitude and actions.
prime laid down and occurred political plots in
Spain (1862-1868) in Spain after 1862 the office as a general manager of the Ingenierskorps after the fall O'Donnells also from the Unión liberal out and again the Progressisti party. In the year after queen became Isabella godmother of Prims daughter Isabel. With the elections of 14. The progressists began and looked for November 1863 not in the future other ways to come to the government in particular the approximation to the army. For the 6. June 1864 was planned a state line, which did not come however just like further two months later. Primely thereupon requested by the government in August 1864 because of alleged conspiracy to go in the exile. After it this refused, it was placed in Oviedo under house arrest, amnestied however shortly thereafter by a new government under Narváez. The progressists did not participate again in that end of 1864 taking place choice.
1865 was intensified the repression measures of the government against critical forces, which occurred among other things for democracy and which sales of national possession for the financing of household and national debt criticized. Different university professors, under it , the public expression of opinion was forbidden to Emilio Castelar. At the so-called night of sank Daniel (to 10. April 1864, the name day of the holy Daniel and Ezechiel) they reached their high point: During bloody striking down of student protests, which were initiated from progressistic circles, by Guardia civil and Kavallerie died according to data of the left press 14 humans and many more were hurt. Primely warped thereupon a renewed conspiracy on, had however after the failure one of it initiated Putsches in Valencia abroad - to France - to flee. Primely tried in repeated way to return to Spain undertook however if necessary conspiratorial journeys, over which anecdotes and legends are delivered. In its homeland it acquired itself the call to be main enemy of the acting government.
The queen dismissed finally the government Narváez and uses again O'Donnell as head of the government. This let all accusations and threats fall against prime, which returned to Spain. Against expectations of the new government prime plotted a Putsch again, to 2. January 1866 under participation of regiments from Aranjuez, Leganés and Alcalá de Henares of the Madrider locality Villarejo de Salvanés went out. This reached however not the desired effect, so that prime and its Mitverschwörer had to again flee. Primely reached to 20. January Portugal, was proven there however soon and went to London and shortly thereafter to Paris. It decided not to want to bring to no more the progressists by a Putsch to power but now by one of the population supported revolution.
Nevertheless found, however under participation of civilians, to 21. June 1866 a new coup d'etat in Madrid instead of. Main starting point was the barracks San Gil, where the NCOs support the rebellion and brought after some fights the barracks into their force. In the evening of the subsequent daily however government-faithful troops had won the fights in the capital. Many of the NCOs and Gefreiten involved were shot. Primely, which as new head of the government should be used, France had not left yet. It was expelled a little later from France and went to Geneva in Switzerland.
From Geneva prime called up a meeting progressistic and democratic representatives of Spain in east end (Belgium), who took place in August 1866. Here a committee under guidance was educated by prime, which should prepare a renewed coup d'etat, again under participation of civilians, for August 1867. Primely left to 15. August 1867 Brussels and went by the sea route after Tarragona and from there after Valencia. Since the planned rebellion did not break out, prime went to Marseille and from there to the French-Spanish border, of where he wanted to go at given time to Spain. It returned in September to Geneva, after the planned collection had finally no success. In Spain meanwhile queen Isabel from fear of the rebellion appointed a government from circles of the Progressisti party.
Within a yearly the old political leaders O'Donnell (the Unión liberal) and Narváez (the progressists) died. The general Francisco Serrano Domínguez, duke of La Torre, became new leader of the Unión liberals, while the new leader of the progressistic government, Luis González Bravo, with some awkward decisions the crossing of prominent progressists, arranged under it Juan de Zabala and the admiral Juan Bautista Topete, to the Unión liberal. Topete preferred a dynasty change and the installation of the duke of Montpensier as a king. Primely however the support negated this Prätendenten on request for the progressists. Primely could to Vichy move, after Napoleon III. its neutrality in these internal-Spanish affairs had assured. Soon it went however again to London. Finally the contacts between the relevant generals were attached and a new revolution attempt were undertaken.
the “glorious one” revolution (1868)
prime left London to 12. September 1868 on board the steam ship Buenaventura, disguises bark as a servant of the friendly married couple. After its arrival in Gibraltar it arrived on the English tractor Adelia at the frigate Zaragoza, which lay with other ships of its squadron before Cádiz. After to 17. September 1868 under the line of the admiral Topete the military revolution in Cádiz broke off and in the consequence days on the province expanded, appeared Juan prime to 19. September there and was received with cheers. Under the presidency Topetes formed itself in equal numbers occupied a junta out of members of the Unión liberal, Progressisti and the democratic party. Primely the Mediterranean coast pulled up and won the cities Málaga with its troops (23,9.), Almería (25,9.), Cartagena (26,9.), and Valencia (2,10.) for the insurgent ones, before it at the 3. Octobers with large accumulate in Barcelona one received. In the proximity had the generals blow jetty wheel, Anselm Clave, José María Orense and Mariano Rossell the Republic of Figueras proclaimed. At the 1. October had drawn in the progressistic general Baldrich to Barcelona. Primely went from Barcelona to Reus and from there to Madrid.
It pulled to 7. October in Madrid, after general Serrano to 28. September the royal troops with alkene oleums had struck. In of Serrano to 8. October educated provisional government received the ministry of the Interior to prime. To 27. Octobers he was appointed from Serrano to the general captain of the army. With the elections in January 1869 the progressists in the federation with the moderate democrats received 160 seats, the Unión liberals of 65 seats, the republican party of 60 seats and the Carlists of 30 seats. Primely as leaders of the progressists thereby a crucial role slammed shut. For the new condition it implemented the retention of the monarchy as system of government and nominated Serrano as a regent. By the award of this prestige-rich, but influenceless office at Serrano he pulled these politically from traffic. Primely of Serrano as an Prime Minister to the point of the cabinet was appointed, in which prime besides the war Ministry occupied. To the cabinet in equal parts Minister belonged to the Progressisti party and the Unión liberal.
concerning the new occupation of the throne preferred the search
for a king (1869/70) the progressists the candidacy Ferdinands of Coburg, the father of the Portuguese king Ludwig I., while the unionists preferred further Montpensier. The candidacy Ferdinands failed because of its morganatischen marriage with a dancer and at the resistance of the candidate against the Unvereinigbarkeit of the crowns of Spain and Portugal (the overcoming desire of many its trailer was). The candidacy Montpensiers was energetically rejected by prime. Beyond that he suggested the exclusion of all Bourbonen of the Spanish succession to the throne. It offered the crown thereupon the duke Amadeus of Aosta and prince Leopold von Hohenzollern Sigmaringen on, who rejected however both. Thereupon prime offered the throne to the 16-jährigen duke of Genova . Topete had affirmatively on the condition that the duke of Genova marries one of the daughters Montpensiers. The candidacy was accepted in the Cortes with 128 to 52 voices. But the duke of Genova rejected the Spanish throne.
Primely offered thereupon the crown the old-served general and statesman Baldomero Espartero on, which however likewise rejected it. Primely turned thereupon again at the prince von Hohenzollern Sigmaringen, who finally explained to accept the crown if more than two thirds of the delegates of the Cortes were correct for it (the law planned only the absolute majority). However the explanation Leopolds arrived only after end of the parliamentary session, so that no tuning could take place. On the part of of France expressed resistance against the occupation of the Spanish throne with a Prussia it led finally to the fact that Leopold took back its promise and from the candidacy withdrew.
After the unsuccessful process of the king search prime offered again the crown to Amadeus, to which duke of Aosta, on, finally explained itself on the condition of the agreement of European powers ready to mount the Spanish throne. After agreement was caught up, the duke became to 26. November 1870 with 191 voices by the Cortes to the king selected and broke to 27. December to Spain up, over as Amadeus I. to be crowned.
Primely on evening of the same daily following a sitting of parliament in his Kutsche by several men one continued. These opened on the fire on the Prime Ministers, to 30. December 1870 at the consequences deceased, after it had experienced from the departure Amadeus'.
Those background the assassination attempt were never completely clarified. As a client the republican delegate José Paúl y Angulo is considered. Often assumed entangling Serranos and Montpensiers can be excluded so far neither soundly occupied nor.
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Joan prime i Prats, count von Reus and Marquis von Los Castillejos|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Spanish general and statesman|
|DATE OF BIRTH||6. December 1814|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Reus, Katalonien|
|DYING DATE||30. December 1870|