under Judentum understands itself one the whole from culture, history, religion and tradition as a people Israel (he. to jisrael, bnei jisrael) characteristic Jewish people. With the term know also aimed the Jewish religion or, as group, both the people and a religious community representing Jew (he. jehudim) to be addressed.
history of the Jewish people
after that Tora, (five books the Mose), begins the history of the Jewish people with the federation, which God with Abraham closes (1. Mose 12). The Jewish tradition sees Abraham as the founder of the monotheistischen faith in a only one, invisible God. God continues this federation with Abrahams son Isaak and its son Jakob , since the ring fight at the eastern bank of the river Jabbok (1. Mose 32) Jisrael was called. Jakob had twelve sons, who became the master fathers of the twelve trunks of Israel (Israeliten): Carrots, Simeon, (Levi), Juda, Issaschar, Sebulon, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, ashtray and Joseph (with its sons Ephraim and would one-eat). These pull to the today's Palestine from Kanaan , and/or. Israel to Egypt, where their descendants (the Hebräer) are enslaved by the Pharao. From this slavery from Mo (Moses) aforementioned Hebräer is released by God, which reveals at the mountain Sinai (written and verbal) Tora to them. Although the Jewish people fails because of this task frequently, which the later prophets deplore again and again, the federation with God remains unbroken.
The designation „Jews “originally meant „Judäer “and decreases/goes back to the Kingdom of Juda , which had its name again from the members of the trunk Juda living therein. The name „Judentum “originally refers only to these one of the trunks of total Israel.
After the Babylonian shank in such a way specified all inhabitants of the region of the surrounding peoples were called „Judäer “and thus the name was expanded „Jews “since all Israeliten. In the Diaspora became the name „Jew “then its self designation.
Already in brightistic time emigration movements made of Palestine took place : Light sneezing tables in such a way specified the Judentum developed. At the latest since the destruction of the Jewish state in the 1. Century after Christ and the destruction Jerusalems under Hadrian (the Jerusalem in Aelia Capitolina renamed) absent-minded itself the Jews as a regionally seizable and closed people finally, whereby however the large majority settled within the Roman realm. In late ancient times and the early Middle Ages the emphasis shifted after Babylonien, at that time part of the realm of the Sassaniden.
The remaining trailers of the Judentums distributed themselves in the high Middle Ages also into other parts of Europe, in the late Middle Ages, in the course of the Pestpogrome and the classification for example from France, particularly to Eastern Europe, furthermore into the Islamic world and in the connection (driving out from Spain 1492) again in the today's Palestine as well as into the new world. Jews were often pursued and ghettoisiert, could be established in parts in addition, while maintaining from faith and tradition than an integral component of the local societies.
See also: History of the Jewish people
the Jewish religion is based on the religious excessive quantities of the Jewish people. These excessive quantities divide on into written teachings, those in that Tora are laid down (written Tora) and verbal teachings (also: verbal Tora) in Mischna and Talmud is discussed. On both the Halacha , the Jewish law is based. The Halachah been based in addition, on rabbinischen legislation and orders in the course of the time pleases became. One of the most well-known halachischen works is the Schulchan Aruch.
the term Jew designates humans with a Jewish nut/mother and those, who went over rightfully to the Jewish faith after the Jewish right of the rabbinischen Judentums since the modern time calculation (see Gijur).
The Judentum is suspended religious, ideological and political meeting with hostility and Pogromen and pursuits for thousands of years frequently. In history against it the attempt of the regular and quasi quasi-industriellen extermination of the Jewish people is unique by National Socialist Germany.
In the year 1934 17 million Jewish humans in the world were counted. Six million of it, more than one third, fell the Holocaust to the victim. This accelerated after the collapse of the third realm the conversion of the zionistischen efforts and led 1948 to the international acknowledgment of the State of Israel as Jewish homestead.
The today's State of Israel, a democracy after western model, justifies his territorial outside and home policy national sovereign, its home policy is however in some fields also strongly religiously coined/shaped. Like that a civil marriage is still not possible in Israel, since the family right is subordinated to the respective groups of religions. This can lead for example with divorce to problems for women, if itself the married man refuses presenting to the woman the divorce letter (GET). Such Scheidungsverweigerer can be by the Rabbinatsgericht into enforcement detention, but without GET the Mrs. separated from their man remains bound „“and cannot marry not again after traditional Jewish right.
due to special history and tradition of the Judentums is pronounced the understanding of a Jewish identity, which refers to a common fate and not necessarily religiously one justifies. Many Jews regard themselves z at the same time. B. when the British or Americans, until 1933 also as patriotic Germans, who risked or sacrificed their life for their European homeland in the First World War.
Today there are Jewish municipalities
in the world about 14 million Jews in the world, on whom most live in the USA and in Israel. By different emigration and immigration waves the distribution of the Jews in the world changed in the last years very much. Before 15 years still another majority of the Jews in the former Soviet Union lived. After their dissolution many humans emigrated to Israel (see Alijah), into the USA and to Germany .
Today most Jews live in:
in the Federal Republic of Germany was counted end of 1989 27,771 Jewish municipality members. To at the end of of 2003 this number - particularly by Zuwanderung from the countries of the former Soviet Union - rose to 102.472.
A special fate experienced the Judentum in China, where it came in unusually high measure to an ethnical mixing of the zugewanderten Jews with the Urbevölkerung as well as to an assimilation to the Chinese culture.
The religious currents of the Judentums of the presence
in the present can be made different categorizing groupings of the currents of the religious Judentums. The differences concern not primarily, in addition, the God conceptions and the faith. Orthodox and non-orthodox Jewish currents are differentiated. Here it is important that for the adjective non-orthodox is taken synonymously also progressively , reformed or liberally (whereby is here liberally not derived from the political liberalism) in a broader sense. Conservatively however conservative Judentum is occupied , one since that 19 with the term. Century itself developing current of the Judentums, which takes a position between Orthodoxie and the liberal Judentum.
One of the fundamental differences between orthodox Judentum and the non-orthodox currents is the understanding of revealing at the mountain Sinai, whereby the Orthodoxie assumes that, Mo received entire Tora literally. The non-orthodox Judentum understands this revealing not as absolute, but as a progressive (= progressive) process of the dialogue of God with its people, in the time and in the cultures. In the context of this historical-critical interpretation of revealing all non-orthodox currents of the Judentums developed. Since they stress all the development, belong all this to the progressive Judentum in the broadest sense. Strictly speaking the term determines progressive Judentum however all groups of the reform Judentums, which united in the federation world union for progressive Judentum.
Two thirds of the religiously coined/shaped Judentums are not belonging to the Orthodoxie, a third rank themselves among the orthodox Judentum with its different Unterströmungen.
All religious Jewish currents of the present have its exit in the impulses of history of ideas above all Germany and Europe starting from end 18. Century. - The focus of the development of the Judentums is appropriate since the end 19. Century in the USA. -From Germany the contributions are insignificant for development after Jewish thinking and spirit life the Shoa. Slowly this develops however increasingly under the Zuwanderung of Jewish humans from the former USSR, from the Diaspora of Eastern Europe and Asia.
Mainstreams of the Judentums of the present:
- Orthodox Judentum with its Unterströmungen
- liberal Judentum
- conservative Judentum
other one, smaller religious currents of the Judentums of the present:
other laizistische currents of the Judentums of the present:
- Secular Judentum
- of Humanisti Judentum
under influence of some free churches developed in the USA the group of the messianischen Jews in such a way specified (self-designation) or modern Jew Christian, who profess themselves to the Christianity. Usually is this converted Jew of evangelikaler coinage, who holds to its Jewish identity as well as a few Jewish traditions maintain and in the USA to be found main are. “Messiani” Jews are not after the understanding of all other currents of the Judentums (orthodox, conservatively, liberally, reformed) in the religious sense Jews, since their interpretation of the tradition is Christian. Here self perception and external perception differ.
See also: Currents of the Judentums, secular
allocation into ethnical groups
in history were divided Jews in four larger groups:
- Aschkenasim, whose ancestor in Germany or France lived, before they to Eastern Europe and partial emigrated later into the USA.
- Sephardim, whose ancestor on the iberischen peninsula (Spain, Portugal) lived. The sephardischen Jews fled 1492 before the Spanish Inquisition, and settled themselves predominantly in the Mediterranean area, partly in addition, in central and Western Europe on (z. B. in Hamburg and Altona). Their common language is the Ladino, which has different regional developments.
- Eastern Jews (Misrachim), who in the Near East and in North Africa lived, in addition, to central and south Asia moved (eastern Jews often also sephardisch called, there their traditions agree large).
- Yemeni Jews (Teimanim), who for a long time were isolated from the remaining Jews and thus own rites developed, in addition, old traditions longer retained (Hebrew language, Kabbalah).
Smaller groups are
- the äthiopischen Jews (self-designation Beita Israel, other designation Falascha),
- the Bene Israel from Bombay in India,
- the Bnei Israel (also Shinlung in northeast India and Burma, them come allegedly from the Jewish trunk of the Menaseh (would one-eat) off),
- the Romanioten, Greek-speaking Jews the Balkans,
- the act speaking mountain Jew of the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan) see also Salbuz Trade Union of German Employees,
- the turksprachigen Krimtschaken on the Krim and
- the religious community of the Karaiten, which are to have had a substantial role with the Bekehrung of the Chasaren.
The position of an Afghan
- group, which is to decrease/go back to the antique trunk Ephraim , is disputed
- the Lemba in Simbabwe
the Samaritaner is an early splitting off from the Jews strictly speaking, who divided nevertheless intended or inadvertently for a long time their fate: Rebellions of the Jews drew often also the Samaritaner into the happening, since the Romans had problems to differentiate between these. How there were Jewish synagogs in Rome, then there was also samaritanische. Today there are only very few Samaritaner.
Jewish municipalities religiously and legally by a Rabbiner are led. Sephardi Jews as well as the Karäer call their religious leader also Chacham (wise one). In Yemen with the Teimanin the term Mori ( my teacher) is common. The services are led generally said by a Kantor, Chazzan, or more generally by a Vorbeter; its execution a quorum becomes and/or. (Hebrew) min January, D. h. the meeting ten Jewish persons religiously of age (into the Orthodoxie only men), needs. The general, lay line of a Jewish municipality however is to Gemeindevorstand who can be selected with one from the municipality members to.
Historical Jewish sparkling wines
nearly all Jews of the modern times follow the verbally delivered law contained in Mischna and Talmud; they are called Rabbini Judentum. Within the rabbinischen Judentums there is different directions, as for instance the orthodox or the Reformjudentum.
- The small group of the Karäer represents a splitting off from the majority of the Jews. It rejects the teachings contained in Mischna and Talmud.
- The Samariter has version of the Torah, the Memar Markah as well as its own Liturgie, laws and interpretation writings as holy writings. A majority of the Tanach (Jewish Bible) is not considered to them as inspired. Contrary to the Judentum the Psalter of the Samariter has 155 Psalmen; Judentum and Christianity know only 150. The authority of Mischna and Talmud reject it likewise. There are only few trailers SAM air tables of the religion.
the Jewish culture stands in strong reciprocal effect to the cultures, in which the respective Jewish community unfolds its cultural life, so that it can be regarded hardly isolated. The religion plays a differently large role.
of Jewish human
the processing of Pogromerfahrungen give to the Jewish influences in the culture pretty often a strongly human and egalitäre coinage (and/or. becomes here the Jewish influence earliest obvious).
Many artists profess themselves to the Judentum as nation and understand themselves at the same time as Atheisten. As an example the Französin Leslie Kaplan can be stated here, be always had in their novels and narrations the figures the possibility for the decision between property and bad. That applies in Fever (novel) even to the Deportateure of the Nazi period. Humans can always imagine the consequences of its doing, form the core of his people unity.
Hebrew is the language of the oldest Jewish writings and was colloquial language of the Jews in the antique period of their independence. It became as colloquial language after centuries of Aramäi displaced, however inside service language remained, partially also scholar language into our days. Aramäi is one to Hebrew very similar language, which affected also the written Hebrew of later Jewish writing works. Some passages in the writings of the Tanach were already written on aramäisch, then for example the book Daniel of the Hebrew one changes in Aramäi. Jesus and its Jewish compatriots spoke aramäisch. In the Diaspora accepted the Jews the languages of the countries, in which they lived (see Jewish languages). Some special cases are languages, which took over Jewish communities from different areas of the world and due to the historical circumstances to independent languages (if one wants, to dialects) developed further. See in addition: Jiddisch (the language of the Aschkenasim), Ladino (or Sephardisch, the language of the Sephardim), Judeo Berberisch (the language of Jewish Berber in Morocco), act (also: Judeo act, the language of the mountain Jews of the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan)). In the everyday life Jews speak the language of the country, in which they live.
The Iwrith, which is spoken today in Israel, represents a successful revival of the antique Hebrew, which was extended by a modern vocabulary and also in the grammar some adjustments experienced. Today other languages develop themselves further also in the alive use like.
- Haskala, Haggada, Kabbalah, Schma Israel
- Israel, Israeliten, Zentralrat of the Jews in Germany, Zionismus
- Jewish Encyclopedia,
- Kawwana, Tachles
- Proselyt, Jew mission
- Zarathustrismus, Christianity, Islam, Hinduismus, Buddhismus, Konfuzianismus, Taoismus, Jew Christian
- David star
- Jonathan Magonet: Introduction to the Judentum Jewish publishing house Berlin (JVB), Berlin 2003. ISBN 3-934658-43-1
- max DIN man: Liberal Judentum. Jewish publishing house Berlin (JVB), Berlin 2000. ISBN 3-934658-13-X
- Jonathan A. Romain, walter Homolka: Progressive Judentum Knesebeck, Munich 1999. ISBN 3-89660-046-X
- Gilbet S. Rosenthal, walter Homolka: The Judentum has many faces. Knesebeck, Munich 1999. ISBN 3-89660-045-1
- Hans Küng: The Judentum Piper, Munich 1999. ISBN 3492228275
- Meyer, Hajo: The end of the Judentums. The purge of the Israeli society Melzer, new Isenburg 2005. ISBN 3-937389-58-X
- Paul Spiegel: “Which is more koscher?” Ullstein, Berlin 2003. ISBN 3-550-07575-8
- Arthur Herzberg: Who is Jew? Hanser, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-446-19760-5
- Jens J. Carpenter: Of the “yellow patch” to the “Jew star”? Genesis and application of Jew badges in the Islam and Christian Europe (841-1941). Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main 2004. ISBN 3-631-52553-2
- Monika Grübel: Judentum. Row dumont high-speed course, DuMont, Cologne 1997. ISBN 3770134966
- Dominique Aubier: The Jewish case. Le Cas Juif, ontologische Kraft of the Hebrew language, the Jewish specific characteristic. Mont blank, Geneva 1970.
- Dominique Aubier: Answer to Hitler, the Jewish order. Explanation of the Shoa. Qorban, Damville 1979. (Dominique Aubier)
- Peter Ortag: Jewish culture and history. Hrsg. v. Brandenburgi national center for political education. Potsdam 2004 (5. Aufl.) (country widely available through: Federal center for political education, Bonn)
- www.israelnachrichten.de Israel message - the German-language daily paper from Tel Aviv
- Internet archives compactmemory places more to than 80 Jewish Periodika 18. , 19. and 20. Century for the order.
- Jewish general ones, since 1946. The newspaper stands for created general newspaper of the Judenthums in the tradition of the 1837.
- The structure. (New, European expenditure since 1999)  Hg. Jewish media AG, Zurich. All older expenditures are readable over the search machine than text.
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from Jewish view
- www.hagalil.com German-language Jewish Internet portal
- Jewish life in Germany today
- practical Judentum with much background information, target group: Jew
- meaning Jewish personalities from natural science, philosophy, music etc.
- German-language Jewish religion portal
- Jewish municipalities in Germany
- on-line encyclopedia Judaism 101 (English)
- sources and principles of the Jewish right