Youth culture

as youth culture the cultural activities and styles are designated of young people. The term was coined/shaped by Gustav Wyneken (1875-1964). The core of a youth culture is not the establishment of its own subculture within an existing culture of the adults, those the growing upit satisfying expression possibilities for it as again felt life feeling offers.

Table of contents

closer regulation

a youth subculture in the broadest sense gives it in each new generation (see. youth sociology), but becomes the total culture not each time stylistic strongly by itaffected. The term “youth culture” emerged also for the first time in a time of the taper of a certain German youth culture, i.e. during the” youth movement “. Due to the complexity of the procedures within a youth movement and their interaction with existing social, political howeveralso aesthetic elements of the adult culture, the meaning and the influence of the youth culture on a society are often controversially discussed.

Contents of a youth culture oppose mostly the Mainstream of the adult world or concretely its parents generation and Peers also adapted or ironisiertthis.

causes and nature

starting point for a youth culture is frequently an innovation within the range of music, fashions and attitudes, with which smaller groupings of young people develop first an innovative behavior, imitators find, then alternative ways of acting train and Values set up, in extreme cases their own world view develop and actively continue to obtain. The acceptance within the respective generation decides to exist on it, whether this subculture expands to a correct youth culture, only as subculture remains and/or. into oblivion comes.

Different young people show- depending upon psychological arrangement and social level - a differently strongly minted affinity for their youth culture. These procedures are to be seized only for each individual case and general and comprehensively not explainably. On the one hand often simple psychological motivations lielike the increase of own attractiveness for the purpose of the partner search beginning or the solution of the parents' house, the demonstration of the “arising unity”, forwards. On the other hand the desire for participation in creative organization of the society affects, quite also the basis inthe childhood more mediated, also ideologisierter values. The latter extends the causes by sociological aspects. Often one looks for causes for the emergence of a youth culture also in an orientation phase of the young person, in whom existing values are again examined and judged. This seems young personto fall within a group more easily, since here group-dynamic effects work.

To a large extent identify themselves member of a certain youth culture with this over group symbols. These articulate themselves in youth language, certain partial highly differentiated mode directions in regard to music style or clothes, Decoration, Tätowierungen, possibly in the consumption of certain Rauschmittel. Mostly that has a cult character.


however the outside characteristics of such a culture are often taken up after short time by a broad mass, and worths andcreative aspects remain on the distance: The youth culture becomes in such a way a part of the Konsumgesellschaft. This development increased since end of the 1980er years strongly, when young people became increasing the target audience of the economy. Ever faster the interested suck Industries developing youth cultures up and take contents and authenticity in such a way to them. This goes up to attempts creating however through television and advertisement of “cults” without before a youth movement was there and carries probably to a general cultural uneasinessas well as reference losses within recent generations. The “cult” takes only one moment and authentic youth cultures develops only very heavily…

boy and young-remained

by the emergence of the Popkultur into the 1950er years developed the phenomenon that alwaysmore humans, which the Adoleszenz entwachsen long is, “youth-cultural” phenomena and they remain arrested understanding far part of their life-style and its identity. Thus are z. B. in the public of the Rolling Stones humans at riper age, those the culture benefit of the Skirt still enthusiasm gain. In addition, there are commercially not successful of volume (for example in the Punkbereich), whose motivation is less with the money making, but in the expression of a feeling structure, which does not correspond to that the broad mass. Adult, those their youth culture faithfullyremain, often play an important role, since they have resources for the spreading and organization, which are missing to the young person, and there understanding bridges it can build.

see also: Verkindlichung

youth cultures

in history

  • in Paris 1795 , after the end of the fright rule (the Terreurs ), in the further process of the French revolution under the Directoire formed (German: Board of directors), for some years a demonstratively unpolitical, fashions inventing and entertainments looking for youth culture of the wealthy middle class out,as Jeunesse the dorée (“golden youth”) is designated, many bad Nachrede of the older ones experienced and after the fall of the board of directors by Napoleon Bonaparte ran out.
  • The youth movement starting from 1900 would be allowed to do an example of a youth culture20. Century its, at least related to the German-speaking countries. Among it for example the moving bird or the Bündi youth ranked.
  • More strongly politically motivateswere the noble pointing mirror-image rates, which stood in the tradition of the bündischen youth, and which turned during the time of the national socialism against the uniformity of the Hitler Youth. The small groups of the noble pointing mirror-image rates were in particular in Cologne area active and led alsoconcrete resistance actions against the LV regime through, which reached up to sabotage, for which some from them with the life had to pay and despite their young age were executed.

in the western societies after the Second World War

  • those primarily links political movements from 1967 to center of the 1970er years (student movement), those at first strongly from young people and young adultswere coined/shaped, however at least in the further process than independent youth movement does not apply ( 68er, Ökos, alternative youth, see also new ones social movements).
  • Punk has its roots as Gegenkultur to the consumeroriented culture. At the beginning also those stoodRefusal of music styles and clothe styles. Within short time Punk was reduced however completely to the exterior: Colored hair, torn dresses and safety pins could be acquired suddenly also in department stores - from the citizen fright to the Modegag.
  • in the surrounding field of the Punk and New Wave - movement developed for end of the 1970er years those new romance - scene and at the beginning of the 1980er years the Gothic culture and many further subcultures.
  • the Popper since end of the 1970er years, those from protest to in front against genes consumercritical youth culturesthe consumption demonstratively celebrated (“rebellion against the rebellion”).
Two Raverinnen
  • the Techno and Houseszene is also less consumercritical than the politisierten youth cultures of the 1960er and 1970er years, tried however by own more individualistischere consumer styles the dictation of the Mainstreams andto extract the conformalism and create with the “Rave “or in the” club “on the Tanzfläche a Gegenmodell to the skirt music star cult with its superelevated stages. In the center - strengthened sometimes by drugs - common the ekstatische music experience is locatedand expressive intoxication-like dancing up to the excess, which is collectively carried out. The DJ becomes the new star. Also with Techno special life attitudes hold themselves (e.g. Individualism, experience orientingness, Expressivität, affirmation or Ironisierung of the technology, politicalization). It gives bothmeasure-compatible currents like also subcultureal. Sub scenes:House, Goa, hard core Techno and. A.
Hip Hop mode
  • in the Hip Hop with the four disciplines RAP, Graffiti Writing, BREAK thanks and DJ-ing were opened many going through possibilities. Despite the commercialization of the music andthe reduction on a commercial dress style the youth culture survived, since the reputation is secured within the Hip Hop scene only by the participation, and so the making in the center stands.
  • Since center of the 1980er years developing Indie/ alternative (music) - movement,to today substantial influences on the skirt music has. Regarding youth-cultural practice at that time the picture of the “Slackersresulted, ideal-typically represented from the musician Beck (“loose”). In addition, volume of the Grunge end of the 80's beginningthe 90's with their long hair and Holzfällerhemden represented an appropriate youth-cultural identification model. The Hype around this music style is however a good example of the rapid commercialization (besides locally embodied) a youth culture by the music industry.
  • The Rocker- Lifestyle has its roots already into the 1940ern. From the search to community and security there was coined/shaped straight returning soldiers, in motorcycle clubs together-found themselves around here in similarly hierarchical form of a group of interests to be connected. There becomes besidesmostly represent a very traditional patriarchalisches sex picture. Increased ready for violence shank, under a covered code of ethics is only some tendencies, which contributed in following years to a radicalization of the scene. For this the group from avowed Einprozentern is to be surely counted to, thosein consequence ever more frequently to so-called Businessclubs (MC with with priority economic interest) changed themselves. A progressive obsolescence of these as youth culture movement developed is originally considered as one of the large problems, to which this group has to place itself increasingly.
  • Hooligan, which celebrate approximately their ready for violence rituals around sport events (usually soccer games), border themselves off from the usual fan (football fan) and from Ultras. With hooligan concerns it predominantly young people and young adults, butit is doubtful whether one can call this subculture of their self understanding rightfully youth culture.
  • skinhead is today a collective term for all members of the skinhead scene, a very heterogeneous, in a juvenile manner dominated subculture. Together they have above all those brieflyto bald sheared heads as well as clothes, to whose characteristics usually heavy steel cap boots and bombers -, „Harrington “- or „Donkey “- jackets belong. In the public the term skinhead is usually used synonymously to neo-Nazi. In view of the also politically very heterogeneous scenethis equating is however wrong. The skinheads going since end of the 1960er into action, who since that time transformation and splitting processes went through.

outside of the western culture area

  • in formerly very traditional and authoritarian Japan with his high loyalty term is roundover mobile phone and bang-multicolored Outfits a youth culture developed, and at the latest since the 90ern are also all usual formerly western youth cultures present.

see also

Streetwear, youth illusion, youth work, archives of the youth cultures

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