Julian calendar

the Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar and still was in some parts of the world to in 20. Century valid, within the church range partly until today. It becomes today in the science retroactively also for the yearsbefore Julius Cäsar uses. It replaced by the Gregorian calendar.

The Julian calendar may not be confounded with the Julian date.

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principles

the old Roman calendar was original from the Greeks of taken over moon calendars. This was adapted depending upon need in irregular distances to the sun year. This led to so large difficulties that Julius Caesar a new calendar of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes to prepare left. The impact in addition the sun calendar supplied, to the Caesar with 48 v. Chr. in Egypt by Acoreus more near had probably become acquainted with.

This new, later it in honours „Julian “calendars mentioned steppedin the year 46 v. Chr. into force. With consisted of 12 months with 30 or 31 days each (as today still usual), which kept the designations from the Roman calendar first. Only the year 46 v. Chr. (Verworrenes year) one extended to 15 months (=445 days), in order to harmonize the new calendar with the position of the sun.

In the old Roman calendar in the leap years February was shortened on 23 days and one switching month was inserted. This time thatCircuit maintained Caesar, so that each fourth year (leap year) of the 24. February (ante diem sextum kalendas martias i.e. sixth day before the Kalenden March) was doubled, i.e., it became new 24. Day (ante diem to sextumcalendas martias i.e. second sixth day before the Kalenden March) inserted. Past 24. became 25. February (ante diem sextum kalendas martias i.e. sixth day before the Kalenden March). But the rule became after Cäsars death ofthe Pontifices wrongly applied. The priests already ordered every three years one leap year. The first leap year was 45 v. Chr., afterwards every three years to 9 v. Chr. The leap years too much counted thereby were corrected by emperors Augustus, byonly again 8 n. Chr was inserted one leap year and changed over to the four-yearly cycle (Augustei correction ).

smaller change, predominantly names of the month

in the year 44 v. Chr. became the Quintilis (original „fifth month “, since 153 v. Chr.thatseventh) Julius Caesar renamed to honours in Julius (Lex Antonia de mense Quintili („over the month Quintilis “) of the consul Marcus Antonius)).

The Sextilis became later (original „sixth month “, since 153 v. Chr.the respected) in honours emperors Augustus' afterthis designated. Whether August was at the same time extended of 30 to 31 days, in order to let none develop „to disadvantage “of the Augustus opposite Julius, and this day was inferred February, is disputed. Another theory, which as the more probableregarded, it is meant that with the Romans the months applied with 31 days as luck months, and the months with 30 days as misfortune months. Since Augustus did not want however that the month designated after it is one misfortune month, it inferred from thatFebruary its 29. Day. Since it would have given now three months one behind the other with 31 days, it exchanged the days of September with October and of November with December.

In addition, other months were designated after Roman rulers, but apparent survivednone of these changes their death. Caligula called September [seventh month] Germanicus; Nero called the Aprilis [fourth month] Neroneus, the Maius [fifth month] Claudius and the Iunius [June] Germanicus; Domitian called September Germanicus and the October [figure eight month] Domitianus.September was renamed also in Antoninus and Tacticus, November [ninth month] got also the names Faustina and Romanus. Commodus was singular in the regard that he designated every twelve months after his accepted names (January until Decembers): Amazonius, Invictus, Felix,Pius, Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, and Exsuperatorius.

Around some steady than the names of the month of the Roman realm after emperor Augustus were the names introduced of Karl the large one. It designated all months into to a large extent agricultural terms of the old high German. These became to in 15. Jhdt. and with some changes also still in 18. Jhdt. and in today's German uses. (January until Decembers):

  • Wintarmanoth (winter month), January
  • Hornung (the dirty one; Hybrid), February
  • Lentzinmanoth (spring month), March
  • Ostarmanoth (Ostermonat), April
  • Winnemanoth (pasture month),May

in more recent time partly falsely than “Wonnemonat” interpreted),

  • Brachmanoth (breaking month), June
  • Hewimanoth (hay month), July
  • Aranmanoth (harvest month), August
  • Witumanoth (wood month), September
  • Windumemanoth (wine month), October
  • Herbistmanoth (autumn month), November
  • Heilagmanoth (holy month) December

the Julian calendar actually was in the entire RomanRichly recognition, the yearly beginnings however were handled different from region to region. The yearly beginning was in Egypt to 29. August, in Konstantinopel and later also in Russia at the 1. September, in the western Middle Ages usually to 25. December,and in other countries on still different days. Only starting from that 13. Century sat down to the 1. January in the west more or less generally through, in the east only many later.

annuity

also the annuity was into thatdifferent parts of the Roman realm differently; in the west usually one did not count over at all, but the years were designated in each case after the two for one year officiating consuls. Besides also the counting became “later starting from establishment of the city (Rome)” and those diokletianische era uses. In the east the Seleukidi epoch was usual, the 312 v. Chr. as a year 1 counted. Later still for a long time the time calculation became generally accepted “starting from the Erschaffung in the west to today usual Christian time calculation, in the east was the world " usually; this became of the Byzantinern on the year 5500 v. Chr. set.

Gregorian reform

the Julian year is too long in relation to the sun year around 11 minutes and 14 seconds. This led to an increasingDeviation, in 14. Century already more than seven days was. This compelled finally the correction by Pope Gregor XIII. in 16. Century, which introduced thereby the Gregorian calendar in the year 1582. It determined that on the 4. October1582 directly the 15. October 1582 to follow had, with which 10 days were jumped over.

Since the new calendar was introduced by the Pope, first only the Roman-catholic states used it. Most Protestant states kept the Julian calendar to in 18. Century with (which particularly in konfessionell mixed areas, like e.g. Parts of Germany, to a calendar chaos led), Russia led the Gregorian calendar even only after establishment of the Soviet Union in 20. Century . The exact data are in the article Gregorian calendar mentioned.

Some orthodox churches (the so-called Altkalendarier, z. B. ) all commit the Russian and Serbian church their celebrations further after the Julian calendar. Their Christmas (25. December) falls therefore at present on the 7. January (greg.). The Neukalendarier (e.g. the Greeks and Bulgaren) celebrate the being certain celebrations however after the Gregorian calendar. The Ostertermin and the other mobile celebrations become however in all orthodox churches (except the Finnish) after the Julian spring beginning and an oldMoon formula computes; they coincide therefore only occasionally with the appropriate celebrations of the western churches, usually are them either 1 week or approx. 1 month later.

see also

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