July revolution

The July revolution of 1830 entailed the final fall of the Bourbonen in France and the renewed seizure of power of the middle class in a more liberal kingdom.

A cause of the revolution was the reactionary policy of Karl X., itsa highest goal it was to repair the conditions how they had prevailed 1789 ago, thereby behind the French revolution to decrease/go back and the supremacy of the aristocracy again to implement (see restoration). Its cabinet under the prince Polignac governed consistently at the chamber of deputies past. Together alsothe social problems of the using industrialization (see Industrielle revolution) this led to a politically explosive tendency, which could not be diverted also by the conquest of Algeria in the spring.

Similarly as in „the large “revolution of 1789 were connected liberals (and also bonapartistische) Middle class with a per-ton-proletarian lower layer, which became politically again active since 1795 for the first time. Vorbereiter of the revolution was national the editor-in-chief of the Adolphe Thiers, which became in the following governments one of the most important French politicians.

Direct trip of the July revolution were „the Juliordonnanzen “of 26. July, in which the chamber of deputies dissolved, for which extremely upward choice censuses and the Pressefreiheit was set was continued to limit.

To 27. Barricade fights , the Karl X. began July. after three days to the resignation and to the escape to Great Britain forced. Unrests of the lower layer could withoutProblems to be suppressed and also the republicans could not become generally accepted, particularly since a republican France would have had to be afraid difficulties with regard to foreign policy up to an intervention of the holy alliance. Thus the moderate party of the large middle class sat down around Thiers and above all François Pierre Guillaume Guizotthrough. A distant cousin of the king was set on the throne:Louis Philippe of Orléans, „the citizen king in such a way specified “.

With it the period „of the July monarchy began “, which is considered as a golden age of the French middle class.

At the same time this revolution radiated on the remainder of Europe.Not only that the liberal movement received everywhere lift. In some states of the German federation such as Saxonia, Hanover, Hessen Kassel and Braunschweig after unrests new conditions were provided, which remained however still in the landständischen framework.

Also in the Italian states, in the church state, in Parma and Modena, gave it to unrests (see also Risorgimento), above all however in since the Viennese congress Poland (congress Poland ), divided of 1814/15 between Prussia, Austria and Russia, where the Polish question was again raised by the rebellion. That Zar was set off as a king from Poland and a national government under Adam Jerzy prince Czartoryski was educated. Only in the autumn 1831 the rebellion could be struck down by Russian troops; Poland sank into the rank of a Russian province down. In Paris an influential Polish emigrant scene developed,however soon into „white ones “and „red one “split up.

Also in the direct northeast neighbourhood of France there were effects: The southern Netherlands revolted against northern patronizing, and in November 1830 the Kingdom of Belgium was proclaimed. The condition, which the new state gave itself, appliedas the most progressive of Europe. The borders of the country were specified after various military actions only 1839 with the division of Luxembourg.

At longer term the July revolution the liberals and democratic efforts in completely Europe strengthened. As Louis Philippe ever more of its liberals roots departed and finallyby the Metternich '„the holy alliance coined/shaped “it attached, came schen system 1848 to a further civil liberal revolution into France, which February revolution 1848, with which it came to proclaiming the second French republic. The February revolution caused also the March revolution in many other states of Europe,to the overcoming of the Metternich restoration led.


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Wiktionary: July revolution - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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