Julius Caesar

of these articles treats the Roman Imperator. For further meanings of the name see Julius Cäsar (term clarifying).
Gaius Iulius Caesar

C. (Gaius) Iulius Caesar (eingedeutscht: Julius Cäsar; * 12. or 13. July 100 v. Chr. in Rome; †(murdered) 15. March 44 v. Chr. in Rome) were a Roman statesman, field gentleman and an author. It conquered Gallien and caused in the following civil war the end of the republic , by proclaiming itself to the autocrat. After its appointment as Dictator on lifetime it fell an assassination attempt to the victim. Its name became the title of all following rulers (Caesaren) of the Roman empire and in taken form (emperor, Zar) the title of the rulers in the holy Roman realm and of theBulgarian one as well as the Russian realm.Caesar was also the title for Mitherr in Roman late ancient times and in the Byzantine realm.

Table of contents

lives

origin

C. Julius Caesar came of the outstanding old-Roman Patriziergeschlecht to the Julier (gene Iulia), that its roots upAskanius Iulus, which son of the Trojan noble Aeneas led back, which was the legend after son of the goddess Venus. On the summit of its power, in the year 45 v. Chr., Caesar let a temple establish in honours of the Venus,in order to emphasize its connection to this goddess.

Caesars family was not richly, based on the standard of the Roman aristocracy, and only few members of the family had politically out-done: In the early period of the Roman republic in 5. Century v. Chr.findsitself in the Konsularlisten, whose authenticity is disputed in the research, more frequently the name „Iulius “.451 v. Chr. was a Gaius Iulius Iullus member of the Decemviri, which should transform the state fundamentally. For the following centuries are only twoiulische consuls, for the years 267 and 157 v. Chr., proven. Caesars father was 92 v. Chr. Prätor. Some relatives were consuls and Censoren. Caesars origin and Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse were before-determining for its in the timethe civil wars. Like that its uncle was the field gentleman Marius, who defeated the Kimbern and Teutonen and stated as repeated consul the political group that popular (popular one) in the Roman senate.

First steps into the policy

Caesar married 84 v. Chr. Cornelia, the daughter of the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna, which likewise to the political group that popular belonged. In the same year it became also the Fleming dia.-reads, who upper priest of the Jupiter determines.

The family connection tooCinna and its relationship with Marius brought Caesar in opposition to the dictatorship to Sullas, which represented the conservative group of the optimum width unit. Sulla instructed the divorce of Cornelia to Caesar, but this opposed and relied Rome. On the request of influential friendsit was begnadigt soon, did not return however not to Rome.

Instead it became with 19 years an officer in the staff of the Marcus Minucius Thermus, which was sullanischer Propraetor and governor of the province Asia. During the FE storage of the city Mytilene on the island Lesbos was distinguished Caesar with corona civica („citizen crown “), which was lent to that, which had saved the life to a Roman fellow citizen in the battle. In order to advance the FE storage, Caesar in diplomatic mission became king Nikomedes IV. skillfully by Bithynien.

Only after death Sullas in the year 78 v. Chr. Caesar dared it to return to Rome and further pursue its political career. It began, as at that time usual, as public prosecutors and member vigintisexviri, thatsubordinated municipal officials of the republic. As a prosecutor Caesar excited by a process against Cn. Cornelius Dolabella (consul 81 v. Chr.), a trailer Sullas, large attention and proved thereby its opposition again to the camp of the Sullaner.

Around meeting with hostility the Sullaner outthe way to go, Caesar decided to leave Rome again. It was unusual that he did not announce himself to a military mission, in order to make itself as an officer a name, but undertook a study trip after Rhodos, where it with thatRhetor Molon its speech art to improve wanted. On the way after Rhodos Caesar came into the shank of Piraten. Allegedly it requested these to demand a higher ransom for it since it is by far more worth (so with Plut. Caes.2, according to which Caesar increased the demanded sum from 20 talents to 50 talents; Suez. Caes. it reports 4 however that Caesar was ready for the payment of the demanded sum of 50 talents). After its release it organized however a private sea-armed force,the Piraten caught and left it to kreuzigen.

Caesars ascent

at the beginning of the yearly 73 v. Chr. Caesar selected in place of its deceased used Gaius Aurelius Cotta in the Priesterkollegium that pontifices. 69 v. Chr. finally dressed he the Quaestur,the lowest stage of the politically meaning offices of the Roman republic.

As Caesars first Mrs. Cornelia 68 v. Chr. , married he died Pompeia, a very wealthy granddaughter Sullas, whose wealth he used immediately for its political ascent: 65 v. Chr.becameit to the kurulischen Ädil selected; 63 v. Chr. attained he the important office of the Pontifex maximus, the upper priest. During the Catilinari conspiracy 63 v. Chr. Caesar of a condemnation escaped: Although he had co-operated in former times with Catilina, him none could Participation in its conspiracy to be proven. Altogether Caesars remains role in this conspiracy unclearly, which is to due to the unsatisfactory source situation (see. v. A. Sallusts representation in the Coniuratio Catilinae, in that those already a generation after the events completelyobvious confusion of the event connections and cover-up of the participation of prominent politicians become quite clear). In the year 62 v. Chr. he was selected to the Praetor. In the same year „ the Bona Dea scandal led “ to the divorce of Pompeia.

Governor in Spain, Triumvir and Konsul

thatfirst important office Caesars outside of Rome was the governorship (prop. RA door) in Spain. Its aggressive war guidance against the Iberer strengthened its call as a capable strategist and served it for the reorganization of its highly which were to blame for finances. Thus it possessed the necessary condition forthe application around the highest public office, the consulate.

Many senators opposed however Caesars ambitions to become consul. Therefore it was received with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus a strategic partnership. All three wanted to coordinate their respective influence possibilities:Alliance designated of the Roman historical writers as the first Triumvirat („three-man rule “), of the scholar Varro against it as „dreiköpfiges monster “, of the historian Livius as „conspiracy “brought money (Crassus was the richest man of Rome), to military (Pompeius was the most successful General) and political influence (Caesars political admittingness and energy) together. For the confirmation of the alliance Pompeius Caesars daughter Julia married.

The Triumvirat knew the choice Caesars for the consul of the yearly 59 v. Chr. intersperse. Its office guidance was in the senatedisputed; a prosecution after end of its consulate was prevented however by with five years the unusually long term of office Caesars as pro consul in Illyrien and in Gallien (Cis and Transalpina). Before its assumption of office he married Calpurnia.

Pro consul in Gallien

thatPro consulate in Gallien meant an important power gain for Caesar. As pro consul it could set up armies, which were personally sworn in in the system of the Heeresclientel on it, and although this to its obligations did not belong, it began its conquest campaigns in Gallien.

The extension of the Triumvirats 56 v. Chr. in Ravenna and Lucca the common consulate Crassus' and Pompeius' reached 55 v. for the year. Chr.as well as the extension of Caesars pro consulate by further five years. So it knew altogether 10 years(58 v. Chr.- 49 v. Chr.) remain in Gallien and the conquest of the whole free Keltenlandes up to the Rhine locking. Here Caesar the Zerstrittenheit of the gallischen trunks used itself among themselves, only rarely against a commonOpponents together-did. Many trunks called it even against other trunks to assistance, whereby they were conquered as result frequently by the ambitionierten pro consul.

For attention Caesars two Rhine crossings after Germanien and two passages provided after Britannien: First RomanField gentleman accomplished Caesar military expeditions into these the Romans to a large extent unknown regions, however Germaniens and Britanniens did without a durable conquest. In particular the restriction of the Roman Okkupationen by the Rhine border and the renouncement of the conquest of the rechtsrheinischen Germaniens were a power-politics decision Caesars meaning uncommonly for further European history.

One estimates that in the Galli wars Caesars a million Gallier their life were lost and one further million humans were enslaved . Thus for instance the trunk of the Helvetier became almostdestroys completely, like also different trunks. With the fights against the king of the linksrheinischen Teutons Ariovist it succeeded to Caesar also the influence of the Teutons in Gallien back urge. Caesar reported de bello Gallico themselves in the Commentarii on its time inGallien. The writing describes many interesting details from the occupied country, served however above all the justification of its campaigns. Besides Caesar put for the first time Gallier and Teutons out as two different people shanks and characterized it individually, whereby he as border betweenessentially the Rhine to both people shanks regarded. Before the Teutons were considered still as a celtic partial trunk. Also it introduces for instance the trunks of the Helvetier or the Bataver, which lived partly this very day the areas in those it, the namesgive.

In Vercingetorix, for the prince of the Arverner, Caesar more dangerously and a militarily equal opponent arose for it. Only in the battle with Alesia in the year 52 v. Chr.the gallische resistance was finally broken. With this victory over in terms of figuresCaesar secured far superior opponents the rule over Gallien for centuries. Vercingetorix, which had resulted Caesar before the walls of Alesia, was not granted the requested grace: it became six years later, after Caesars triumph course 46 v. Chr., inRome executed. The enormous war booty and the tributes of the subjecting were used from Caesar to the financing of its army and for the political struggle for power in Rome.

Civil war

in the year 53 v. Chr. Crassus on a campaign was against part ago aroundLife come; with it also the majority of his army of over 40.000 had gone down men. At the same time Pompeius the senate had approximated, since it its former junior partner had become too powerful Caesar. The first Triumvirat did not exist any longer. Caesar hadat the end of his pro consulate and had no political basis more in Rome to be afraid by the senate, who on military power and ability of the Pompeius set, to the account to be pulled.

As Caesar admitted, walked he, however around its dignitas,its became, true, the coup d'etat. Despite the prohibition to bring against the will of the senate military to Italy it crossed to 10. January 49 v. Chr. with a Legion of 5.000 men the border river Rubikon. On this occasionis Caesar the famous utterance alea iacta est („the cube is pleases “; see below. „Quotations “!) transacted (see. Suez. Caes. 32). Probably however the formed Caesar did this utterance on Greek, concerns it on the GreekComedy poet Menander decreasing/going back proverb (anerriphtho kybos - „high is thrown the cube! “) - which would be to be interpreted then also quite differently. Without encountering considerable resistance, Caesar reached Rome; Pompeius had vacated Italy and had withdrawn themselves to Greece,in order to let Caesar run in emptiness. Also the majority of the caesarfeindlichen senators had set off.

In the year 48 v. Chr. if Caesar was selected again to the consul, the Adria crossed and pulled against Pompeius, which he in the battlePharsalos in Greece struck, after Pompeius had probably been pushed from its own officers to the fight. Pompeius fled to Egypt, where he on instruction of the king Ptolemaios XIII. one murdered. Caesar followed Pompeius to Alexandria, where one himthe head of its rival and former allied ones presented. Caesar left however, again as indication of its clementia, which mildness opposite the opponent, who transfers mortal remnants in all honours, which was owed however not least also political appropriatenesses. In Alexandriait was pulled into the there political disputes. Thus it made the acquaintance of the young queen Kleopatra, Ptolemaios' sister and Mitregentin. This was probably the beginning of a passionate dear relationship, which provided in the future still for much unrest, butalso not to be overrated should. Caesar seized „the Alexandrini war in such a way specified for Kleopatra a party and had to do “(bellum Alexandrinum) against Ptolemaios and/or. , that in the spring 47 v. deliver its general Achillas. Chr. with death Ptolemaios' XIII. itsConclusion found. Kleopatras position of power was confirmed thereafter, and Caesar turned afterwards the fight against Pharnakes II. from Pontus to; the famous utterance: I came, I saw, I triumphed (Veni, vidi, vici) was approximately on the short campaignPharnakes gemünzt.

Still two campaigns follow: In the decisive battle in the African war Caesar defeated to 6. April 46 v. Chr. with Thapsus in the province Africa republican senate troops under Metellus Scipio and Cato the younger one. In the Hispani warthe decision finally fell in the year 45 v. Chr. in the battle with Munda against the sons of the Pompeius.

Dictatorship

already before final attaining of the autocracy in Rome unfolded Caesar an extensive law activity (Leges Iuliae), overto reform the Roman commonwealth fundamentally. It planned a coding and a revision of the laws, the plant of an extensive library and the dewatering of the Pontini sumps. Besides it introduced an improved calendar with the Julian calendar designated after him.Already after its return from Egypt in the year 46 v. Chr. Caesar could be appointed the dictator on 10 years. After its last military success in Spain he was appointed from the senate to dictator perpetuus (dictator on lifetime). In particularthis last, not condition-conformal title aroused the suspicion that for Caesar to reach wanted.

The question, whether Caesar really aimed at the title of a king or with the dictatorship to be content wanted, employs the historians until today. Likewise is itcontentiously, whether Caesars “, which was based on persons, however not on institutions, was the basis at all a conception „for the state; much points rather on the fact that this was not the case. Safe is that Caesars was position, it however no wayfound to introduce with agreement of the Romans the monarchy. As around the dead point to overcome (and probably to provide around itself additionally authentication), its decision seems to a large campaign eastward, on which are subjected part agoshould. In the meantime in the senate a group of conspirators had formed against Caesar.

Caesars death (history painting from that 19. Century)

death

Caesar became at the Iden March (15. March) 44 v. Chr. of the conspirators around Marcus Iunius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus during a senate meeting with 23 passes erstochen. Caesar is to have addressed famous last words on Greek its to Brutus, which had been he despite all political differences a kind paternal friend: καὶ σὺ τέκνον (kaì system téknon, „also you, my son “). However its injuries were actually heavy by numerous Dolchstiche probably so the fact that he could say nothing at all more (see. Suez. Caes. 82, both versions supplies). (The more common „Et do, breed? “(„also you,(oh) Brutus? “) only Cicero, an opponent Caesars with Shakespeare.), is by the way political but in the conspiracy involved, a witness of the act was not and wrote in a letter to its friend Atticus , this is the fair laterEnd a Tyrannen been (see. Cic. Corrode. 14.14,4). One calls the murder at Caesar therefore also Tyrannenmord.

Funeral

Caesars funeral ran to 20. March 44 under tumultuarischen circumstances. Marcus Antonius, the consul of the yearly 44, had throughdifferent measures the city-Roman Plebs brought on its side: Thus Sueton that before the speaker grandstand on the forum Romanum a reduced model of the temple of the Venus Genetrix established by Caesar was set up, reports from the Caesar allegedly descended; therein becamethe blood-soaked clothes of the dictator shown; the establishment of the heap of failure on the Mars field took several days up, since all too many humans wanted to put still dead gifts on it; aufwändige corpse plays were organized, the also emotional up-shaking productions of tragediescovered; Antonius left Caesars will, according to which each citizen should receive 300 Sesterzen, and additionally a senatorial decree read out, which awarded Caesar, as Sueton writes, „all göttlichen and human honours “; the following dead speech of the consul did a remaining to heat the atmosphere -According to Plutarch the bloody Toga of the dictator was shown only here the people. Two hundred year after the events from it finally the version kolportierte by Appian, one presented a realistic wax picture of the murdered one on a tiltable stand to the people.

The population tore now the aufgebahrte corpse actually, established spontaneously a new heap of failure from furniture, dresses and the weapons of Caesars soldier and äscherte the loved dictator on the forum. In the connection the mobilization tried the houses thatTo storm Caesarmörder, in order to lynch it. The Volkstribun and neoterische poets Gaius Helvius Cinna were dead-struck by the Pöbel on open road, because one it due to its name with L. Cornelius Cinna confounded itself, briefly before adversely overthe dead one had expressed. Brutus Cassius and the other conspirators, which had actually counted on it, than Befreier and remanufacturers of the republic to be celebrated withdrew themselves therefore at the beginning of of April from Rome.

After Caesar

further inside followed death CaesarsConfused one and civil wars, those up to the year 31 v. Chr. to last should. Marcus Antonius (Caesars Mitkonsul 44 v. Chr.), Caesars large nephew and (by will) adoptive son Octavian as well as Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed that for 2. Triumvirat, its pro script ion lists many republican senatorsand dignitaries, as for instance Cicero, when enemies Caesars fell to the victim; their fortune was drawn in. In the battle with Philippi Antonius and Octavian defeated the conspirators around Brutus and Cassius.

Subsequently, Octavian switched its fellow combatants as a competitor around powerout and was starting from 31 v. Chr. Autocrat in Rome. It avoided each appearance to want to establish a monarchy spoke even of „the re-establishment of the republic “and called themselves modestly „princeps “, first citizen. Octavian followed the political conception of the Pompeius(like the transmission of extensive powers by the senate) and characteristically not that of its foster father Caesar, kept thereby however all important shift levers of power in his hand. Under the honour name Augustus, which justified raised ones, which was lent to it by the senate,it the Roman Empire of (Prinzipat) and carried the Roman republic finally to grave.

Already at the beginning 2. Triumvirats was raised Caesar as Divus Julius to the official God. Octavian called itself since then as Divi filius („son of the Göttlichen “)and the temple of the Divus Iulius on the forum Romanum 29 v. weihte. Chr. .

Caesar as a writer

Gaius Iulius Caesar

Caesar wrote de bello Gallico over its campaign in Gallien in seven books the Commentarii, (comments on thatGalli war), which the annually drawn up service reports are the basis to the senate. The Commentarii is to today because of their simple and clear language (the vocabulary is limited to approximately 1300 words) a standard work for the initial reading in school latin instruction. Caesardescribes in the work descriptive the battles and plots during the nine years, in which it destroyed the armies of the gallischen trunks, the resistance carried out. Are from interest besides the numerous remarks to the living conditions of the Gallier, Teutons and Britannier.An eighth book over the last war year comes no longer from Caesar, but from its officer Aulus Hirtius.

Latin pupils learn frequently the famous first set of the Bellum Gallicum by heart; this sentence is thus for the common property/knowledge of the old-linguistically formed publicbecome. It reads:Gallia est omnis divisa into partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae nostra Galli appellantur. In the sentence Caesar describes the Gallien of its time: „Gallien is generally speaking divided into threeParts, by which the one of the Belgern one inhabits, second of the Aquitanern, and third of those, which are called in its own language Celt, in ours „Gallier “. “

The drawing up and publication of the Commentarii - they becameprobably not annually given change, but than uniformly written complete work after end of its term of office in Gallien - served primarily the justification of Caesars campaigns and thus the defense of its measures during its term of office opposite its numerous critics in the Roman senate.

In additionwrote Caesar still another work over the first phase of the civil war, the writing De bello civili. Some smaller historical writings, which treat later phases of the civil war and in connection with the Bellum civile are delivered, do not come from Caesar;the authors of this „small in such a way specified bella “ are unknown.

All remaining writings Caesars are lost.

Other

the name „Caesar “

after the Roman writer Plinius leads itself the name „Caesar “from the participle perfect of latin of word caedere („cut out “), caesus („cut “), off.In the context of the Roman law lex regia or lex caesarea, after that pregnant women women, who deceased during the birth, the child from the body to be cut, the name should as „from the nut/mother body the cutting “is interpreted. This has howevernothing with a today's Kaiserschnitt to do, because this interference had less the goal of saving the child than being able to bury rather it separately from the nut/mother. It would be to be accepted then that in former times move Gaius forward Iulius Caesars alsostood for such an interference in connection and from it the name is derived.

Another thesis assumes the name Caesar with lost gone karthagischen word for elephants in connection stand. One of Caesars ancestor has itself thereforein the punischen wars earns this surname. It suggests that Caesars coat of arms animal is the elephant, which is shown also on the backs of the coins coined/shaped with its face.

Both Etymologien are disputed, to two further explanations see. Hans's George Gundel: Caesar, in: The small Pauly 1 (1964), frame. 996f.

The suffix - acre - is otherwise completely unknown in latin name context. It is besides possible that the entire Cognomen is „Caesar “not at all latin of origin.

„C “became inLatin to Caesars time by the way like „K “in German [k] expressed, „the ae “as [ae̯], not as [ε:] „A “. From it the following discussion of the word Caesar results: [ˈkae̯sar] „Kaisar “(or rather['kaɪ̯ʂar], if necessary also as ['kaɪ̯zar]) and not as in the linguistic usage usual [ˈtsɛːsar] „Zäsar “. Nevertheless this discussion form becomes in general. maintained, because it was in-patriated.

For the posting of the first name as Caius see the article Gaius.

The title Caesar

The title Caesar was since Augustus part of the name and the Titulatur of the Roman rulers. Since the time emperor Hadrians was Caesar of the titles second in the hierarchy, the designate successor of the Augustus of “ titulierten emperor.

Easilyit was varied in many languages a title of the ruler. German emperor and the slawische Zar are derived from „Caesar “.

Caesarchiffre

the Caesarchiffre is a simple text coding procedure, which is to have been used by Caesar. Letters become from thatPlain language by a letter replaces, which stands a certain number, for example for 3, places later in the alphabet.

Caesar in the arts

numerous artists and writers selected Caesar as topic of pictures, dramas and novels.

Most well-known the play might To William Shakespeares its, see Julius Cäsar.

George Friedrich trade composed an opera Giulio Cesare.

By the numerous novels, whose main figure is Caesar (see [1]), are mentioned:

  • Bertolt break wrote fragment a remained novel the business of the gentlemanJulius Cäsar (1957 publish), in which he describes very alive and possibly somewhat freely by the example of the Catilina affair the political plots of the time at that time.
  • Thornton of savages wrote with The Ides OF March (1948; German: The Iden March) onefictitious source collection, which lights up Caesars dictatorship from different perspectives.
  • Mirko Jelusich published 1929 the novel Caesar, in which the title shape is described as strongly idealized leader shape.
  • In Dante Alighieris Divina Comoedia become the two conspirators against Caesar, the first God-intendedEmperor, Brutus and Cassius beside Judas the traitor at Jesus in the internal circle of hell tormented.

The recent public might Caesar particularly by the Asterix - Comics of Albert Uderzo and René Goscinny admits to be.

Julian calendar

in the year46 v. Chr. Caesar introduced, probably after inspiration by Acoreus and Sosigenes from Alexandria in place of the old Roman moon calendar the sun calendar originating from Egypt. The Julian calendar designated after it applied in the catholic countries to in 16. Century, when it was replaced by the more exact Gregorian calendar. Most Protestant states kept the Julian calendar to in 18. Century , Russia even until 1918.

July

after Caesars death became its birth month, mensis the Quintilis, up toReform fifth month of the Roman calendar, in mensis Iulius, dt. „July “, renamed.

Julius

  • Caesar, direction films: Uli noble, Germany, Italy 2002.

  • Caesar had announced quotations in a alpine village as a field gentleman the realization: „Dear one here first itsas in Rome second. “
  • Veni, vidi, vici („I came, I saw, I triumphed “). The place of the quotation is disputed, it with different conditions in connection is brought.
  • When Cäsar crossed those the field gentleman forbidden border of the Rubikon, coined/shapedit the expression “Alea iacta “(„[ ] cube is literal “, often however as „[ ] cube is thrown pleases “translated. ) see probably

also Julius

Literatur

works

Pours

  • (latin) the Caesar Biografie of Sueton
  • (Greek) the Caesar Biografie of Plutarch

secondary literature

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Gaius Julius Caesar - quotations
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Julius Caesar in the catalog of the DDB

}}

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)