Jungsteinzeit

Three-periodic system
Holozän historical time
Eisenzeit
Late Bronzezeit
Middle Bronzezeit
Early Bronzezeit
Bronzezeit
Copper stone time
Jungsteinzeit
Mittelsteinzeit / Epipal.
Pleistozän Jungpaläolithikum
Mittelpaläolithikum
Altpaläolithikum
Paleolithic age
Steinzeit

the Jungsteinzeit or the Neolithikum (of griech. νεο „“and λιθος „stone “) is one epoch again, young mankind history. Their beginning is generally determined with the transition of some hunter and collecting tank cultures to the Levante to cattle breeders (nomadisierenden ) Hirten or field farmer, their end with the locally different use of copper or tin bronze by these neolithischen cultures. Aheadthe Mittelsteinzeit went and/or. Paleolithic age, it follows the Bronzezeit.

The conversion in the food procurement of collecting, chase and fishing to aminal husbandry and cultivation of plant marks one of fundamental pagings in the history of mankind; a process, of someResearchers one calls „Neolithi revolution “.

The permanence can already starting from 11 ' 000 v. Chr. , the breed of grain places sets at the latest in 9 is determined. Millenium v.Chr. and the breed at the latest of goats and sheep in 8. Millenium.

Throughthe production of food created humans the conditions for a more or less constant population growth. Instead of to around-tighten humans in village communities lived. Instead of short-lived dwellings could be changed over in addition, solid buildings from wood, later from stone up toTo be established buildings of monumental as the temple on the Göbekli Tepe. Last the latter made possible the agriculture also the beginnings for a arbeitsteiligen society, in which specialists were in the situation, and. A. to develop the metallurgy.

Table of contents

definition

The British Anthropologe Sir John Lubbock defined 1865 the transition to the Jungsteinzeit with the occurrence of polished stone artifacts (axes, hatchets). Later the occurrence of ceramic(s) than substantial characteristic was designated. One recognized center of the last century however regionally also,that there was the ceramic(s)less Neolithikum. Nowadays the beginning of the Jungsteinzeit, Vere Gordon Childe is equated following, with the beginning by permanence of the population, breeding of plants and the aminal husbandry (the transition from the acquiring to the producing restaurant way), alsoif the Domestikationen took place not at the same time. In addition for its definition the production of ceramic(s) and of polished stones is crucial.

preliminary stages and stages of the Neolithikums

11,500 - 9,500 v. Chr.: Protoneolithikum (Natufien, designatedto discovery site in the Schubka cave at the Natuf Wadi, which rises from the Judäi mountains)

These hunters and collecting tank culture, that arose in the Levante and in the middle Euphrates mountains, knew however neither cattle breeding nor cultivation of grain was established. Their roundish housesthey built in village plants. Their flint tools sharpened it not, but struck them with other stones into the desired form. Most important discovery sites: Jericho and Mureybet IN GENERAL <p> 9,500 - 8,500 v. Chr.: Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) = präkeramisches NeolithikumA, Frühneolithikum<p> In this culture it was usual to establish large settlements from substantial Steinarchitekrur (dry stone walling) whose individual houses in round form were built. The Tell - settlement emerges in this time for the first time. The settlements were afteroutside limits. They knew still no cattle breeding, therefore they made further for hunt for Gazellen. The art of this time was limited mainly to Idole (S.Abgott), small stone sculptures, which represented mainly women, rare men, or animals. Plastics place onesexual intention (fertility) clearly. Cultivation of grain was already well-known at this time. Most important discovery sites: Mureybet I B, II, III, Tell EN Sultan. <p> 8,200 - 6,800 v. Chr.: Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) = präkeramisches Neolithikum B <p> The housesthis time built on rectangular or square sketches, completely differently thus than the houses of the previous cultures. With this culture the “colonizing movement” took place to the west, which led by the raft and the Einbaum also across water. InRun this time the Tierdomestikation one began. The Idole was from stone or clay/tone and had main women as motives, whose heads were anonymizated represented, which were to be recognized sex parts for it all the clearer. Prevailing in the tool production was nowthe polished stone industry. First ungebrannte ceramic(s) goods are well-known from this time. <p> 6,500 - 5,500 v. Chr.: Pottery Neolithic (pn) = ceramic Neolithikum <p> The community did not bestattete their dead ones no more within the city or even the ownHouses, but extramural, i.e. outside of the city. After the cultivation of grain this culture begins now also with the Domestikation of utilizable animals, so that the hunt does not have to be any more main part of the food procurement. The ceramic(s) art spreads, so that one the pnstill into three phases to divide can: to mono chrome phase, painted phase, classical phase. <p> The designations are taken over from the English, since the excavation at the most important discovery sites, a Tell in Jericho and Mureybet were undertaken, of English-speaking scientists (excavationfrom Jean Cauvin, Kathleen Kanyon and John Garstany)

change of the restaurant way

before the transition to the producing restaurant way, was necessary a set of developments, which are called proto neolithisch. Thus some durable settlements developed in Palestinealready before development of the agriculture. The direct environment of these settlements offered however only occasional sufficient resources to the inhabitants (whether now fish, meat or plants). A use lasting for thousands of years of appropriate game occurrences preceded the cultivation and the cultivation of grain;in the Levante is this to 21,000 v. Chr. demonstrably.

emergence of the agriculture

the transition to the rural way of life, thus the change for the cultivation of suitable kinds, carried out itself in mankind history independently at at least three, probablyeven at five or more places.

thoseEmergence of the agriculture does not fall for the first mentioned areas into the same period, you begins about 11000 v. Chr., which not coincidentally with the end of the last ice age (transition Pleistozän/Holozän, about 11000 to 8300 v. Chr.)agrees.

the Near East

finds from Ohalo at the lake Genezareth in Israel it shows that already before 20000 to 22000 years, hunters and collecting tank large quantities of most different grass sorts, under it savages wheat and wild barley, when used food. That under italso very kleinsamige grasses were, which were to be harvested very laboriously, point on the fact that simply accessible food was limited.

The transition to the agriculture at least into the Levante less one „freiwillige “development than rather one from the change of the environmentresulting necessity for surviving. The Grosstierfauna (in particular the Gazelle) had already very early left this region, why in the region between upper Euphrates and Mittelmeer game grain increases on Reibsteinen (hand mills) was processed. The so far oldest traces of possiblyone found to domestiziertem grain (in this case rye) in Abu Hureira at the Syrian Euphrates; they become estimated on an age of 13,000 years. In this time, a long lasting Dürre left a majority of the wild varieties of grain to the younger Dryas Stadialmove away, why humans bred aimed the dry-most resistant. To the most important varieties of grain domestizierten in this area barley and above all wheat belong.

In the drier areas south of (Judäa and in the Sinai) one went to disappearingthe Gazellen in addition over, game goats and - to hold sheep in herds. A Domestikation of the animals leaves itself already in Beidha around 11.000 v. Chr. derive and starting from 8.300 v. Chr. occupy, there at this time Caproviden and Boviden in addition,Cervinalen (Damtiere) with humans to Cyprus arrived. It must have by far in former times taken place therefore. At first sheep and goats were kept exclusive as meat and skin suppliers; around 7.500 v. Chr. the use of the secondary product milk leaves itself later also to wooloccupy archaeologically. Genetically (investigation Peltonen) the beginning of the dismantling of the Laktoseintoleranz, which lay with all humans first with 100%, points to an early benefit of animal milk. The employment of cattle as a course animal before the plow made finally that possibleTransition from the recently-in-temporal building of chopping to a higher agriculture culture. See in addition also history of the transportation in the antiquity.

China

in China, in the sea-area at the central run of the Jangtse, became in approximately simultaneous as in the Levanteto changed over originally cultivating excluding collected wild rice gradually. Further river downward the Jangtse in an area with at that time humid subtropical climate by the Chinese research the center of wet rice cultivation is seen. In the clearly cooler and drierThe north of China, north and south the Huáng Hé, became some thousands of years later (probably between 5.500 and 5.300 v. Chr.) millet , probably piston millet domestiziert for the first time.

For meat production in China pigs, dogs and Bankivahühner were domestiziert. Where that Water buffalo was originally domestiziert is unclear. This found supposed however likewise in south China around 4.000 v. Chr. instead of. Just as the Auerochse in he should particularly attain the Near East as a course animal meaning.

Central America

Mais gehört zu den ältesten Kulturpflanzen Amerikas
corn belongs to thatoldest cultivated plants America

the beginning of the agriculture in Central America had (differently than in the Levante and in China) practical reasons. Thus the inhabitants of the Oaxacatals in the south of Mexico already bred around 8.000 v. Chr. Garden cure bites, over therein water ofto transport the river courses to their inhabited caves in the mountains. Their food they procured themselves against it further as hunters and collecting tanks. Only around 5.100 v. Chr. the cultivation of one began as food determined useful plant in the nearby Grijalvadelta: the Teosinte, the wild form of corn. Scarcely thousand years later, 4200 v. Chr., the cultivated Teosinte was cultivated also in the Oaxacatal. In the course of the time were added Paprika, sunflowers and garden beans to the cultivation plants.

There it into the American fauna at game animals is missing, which had a biological arrangement to the Domestikation, except Lama, dog and Truthahn no animals as meat supplier or workhorses were domestiziert.

spreading of the agriculture

apart from the few areas, those likewise asindependent birth places in question come, the agriculture nirgend otherwise were nirgend independently developed, but imports from one of the origin regions by Emmigration. Primarily is because of the absence of suitable wild plant and animal species in these regions. Thus the game forms came todayworld-wide useful plants spread such as wheat and barley originally only in Anatolien and Syria forwards, why they were domestiziert only there and spread from there.

the middle east and Mediterranean area

the field farmers of the Levante had themselves around 8.000 v.Chr. for instance spread in the area of the southern Anatoliens ( inclusive of Cyprus) up to Persian Gulf . It began a concentric expansion of the agriculture, by migration of the farmers with by them domestizierten the plants and animals from the Levante as well asthe knowledge around their care, raising and Vermehrung in the luggage. Thus comparisons of the mitochondrialen DNA show that the early Indian farmers were more near to the farmers of the Levante related than with the hunters and collecting tanks in their neighbourhood. Something similarapplies to Europe, which the field farmers cultivated before approximately 9,000 years over the still existing land bridge at the Bosphorus. From South-east Europe they spread first along the Mediterranean coast as well as along the large river courses to east and Central Europe. Newer analyses genetic investigationfrom Y-Chromosomen of European men and mtDNA from neolithischen skeletons it points against the fact on the fact that only the methods were passed on and no population expansion took place into Europe.

On Cyprus one made cats and in Sumer and Egypt donkey domestic animalsand the earth almond and the Maulbeerfeige added to the cultivation plants. The inhabitants of the Industals domestizierten Sesam, the east Europeans against it oats and the west Europeans poppy. On the Arab peninsula the Dromedar became and in the today's Ukraine or in Kazakhstan the horse domestiziert.

Africa

likewise the domestizierten plants and animals from can have given to the Near East the Initialzündung for the agriculture in the tropical west Africa. More probable it is however that in this region about over 5,000 v. Chr. independently Sorghum, Perl millet and African one rice as well as Perlhühner were cultivated. It seems to have existed however a connection between this and the agriculture regions in Eurasien, there bspw. Sorghum already starting from approximately 2,000 v. Chr.in Indiaone cultivated. Cattle and goats found the way turned around to west Africa, of where out them finally by the migration of the Bantu starting from 3.000 v. Chr. the way in the southern Africa found.

In Ethiopia (possibly even forwards) the arrival that becamefrontasiatic cultivated plants Teff and coffee domestiziert.

Eastern Asia and Polynesien

with around likewise 3000 v. Chr. spread using austronesischen expansion the agriculture with that in south China cultivates plants in Southeast Asia and the Pacific area. Therefurther Domestikationszentrum between India and south China is improbably judged of the research than, is China therefore also place of origin Indian rice. In new Guinea against it the native hunters and collecting tank perhaps already were in addition before the arrival of the southChinese cultivated plantschanged over to use bananas and Zuckerrohr. From north China, where rice starting from 3000 v. Chr. , spread the agriculture was cultivated within thousand years to Korea and finally very late to Japan.

America

the mesoamerikanische agriculturespread to the north, where he found an obstacle however in the desert areas of today's Texas. Possibly the Domestizierung took place uninfluenced by sunflowers , gänsefuss , Maygrass and earth pear in the east of the today's USA therefore. Kürbis, then gene tests proved,in altogether six different regions one domestiziert. Likewise numerous other plant types were cultivated several times in different regions. In the Peruvian Anden and the adjacent Amazon low country therefore probably independently Maniok and potatoes were domestiziert and supplemented only later by corn.

Likewiseas in Central America it lacked in South America suitable large mammals to the Domestikation. The Lama was only used for the load transport. For the meat supply Charque , dried Lama meat and it cut in strips served guinea pigs was held.

other ones

In some regions of the earth the agriculture - and thus the Jungsteinzeit - held never (D. h. at least up to the European colonial age) introduction. On the one hand are this wild and polar regions, which are not suitable in principle for the agricultural use. Toothers are it regions, those first of all no kinds suitable for the Domestikation in their Flora and fauna offered as well as secondly by deserts or similar hard-to-travel areas from the development centers of the agriculture were separate and therefore not in possession of suitable cultivated plantsand animals came (like Australia). Today only few nature peoples on a Entwicklungsstufe are before the Jungsteinzeit.

archaeological cultures

within the Jungsteinzeit show themselves (more clearly than in the paleolithic age) „typical “cultures, after more-hundred-year in each caseDuration were replaced, and/or. a new phase occurred. The archaeological finds and find situations exhibit regionally assignable regions similarities within temporal and and suggest the borders of the uniform culture areas.

Central Europe

the earliest well investigatedneolithische culture of Central Europe is the bind-ceramic culture (before 7,500 years. At the end spreads from Moldavia to into that Paris basins, in the north up to the northern edge of the low mountain ranges). Parallel too these predominantly the Löss landscapes occupying culture might itself in enclaves,particularly however at the periphery held mesolithische hunter and collecting tanks. Volume ceramic(s) was replaced in the area today's Germany in the western circulation area from the Rössener culture, in the east of pass volume ceramic(s), the Oberlauterbacher group and the Münchshöfener culture.

Further one: La-Hoguette-group of funnel cup culture Michelsberger culture

Danubi area, South-east Europe

in the middle Danube area set the Neolithikum with the Starcevo - Körös Cris complex in, in Greece with the Sesklo - for culture. The Mittelneolithikum also the Alföld Linearkeramik coined/shaped and/or. the bending culture inNorth Hungary and the Slowakei. The Endneolithikum was certain in Serbia and in the Banat by the Vinča culture, in Hungary by the Theiss culture (Tisza culture). At the transition to the Mittelneolithikum continuity breaks to that on the Balkans and in the danubischen area Tell - settlements off.

China

Central America

South America

  • Valdivia culture
  • Aspero culture
  • Chinchoros culture
  • Chorrera culture
  • El Paraiso culture

Varia

only well-known humans from the final phase of the Jungsteinzeit is that Ötzi, which lived more than 5,000 years ago. Its corpse remained as freezingdried mummy. It had typical Gerätschaften of the Jungsteinzeit such as arrow and elbow with itself and carried already a copper hatchet.

Important archaeological places of the central and final phase thatJungsteinzeit (before 6.500 to 4,800 years) and successors of the temples on the Göbekli Tepe (Turkey) before 11,000 years are the Megalithanlagen and Menhire in Carnac (France), in Skara Brae (Scotland), as well as of Malta temple and Newgrange and Knowth in Ireland.

technology and development

most tools from wood, animal bone or flint were very similar to those from the old and Mittelsteinzeit. Hatchets and axes, which were sharpened through of saws and loops and perforated to the Schäftung, were new. Likewise againwas the occurrence of burned tongefässe. In most regions these containers used usually for provision with stocks stepped also or immediately after that development of the agriculture up, in Japan against it however already far before.

Reconstruction of buildings of stakes

with the permanence beginning developeditself also the building of houses further. In the area of the alps one built huts on meter-high supports („buildings of stakes “) at the bank areas of the lakes; a building method, which was adapted to periodic floodings of the lakeshores. Around the villages one built giant-large fences (Palisaden) to the protectionbefore wolves or other Feinden.Auch in the sea-area of the Jangtse and at the Jangtse delta one built in this way.

In Çatal Hüyük usually rectangular houses, from loam bricks and a wood framework, were built. For an established culture were landed property and its defense ofgreat importance; Oasis cities such as Jericho were surrounded by meter-high walls.

The development of the agriculture and the better supply situation resulting from it led to a rise of the total population. At the same time parts of the group specialized in certain activities. A mental formedand political Führungsschicht (priest, master heads, princes).

Metalle

Während der Jungsteinzeit wurde auch die Metallbearbeitung entwickelt. It was limited however to gediegene (elementarily occurring) metals such as gold, silver and copper. The oldest copper finds originate from Anatolienand Iran and are old over 9,000 years. Due to metalworking the last section of the Jungsteinzeit is called regionally limited copper stone time.

religion and art

Poulnabrone Dolmen, Irland
Poulnabrone Dolmen, Ireland

by the development of crop farming and animal breeding camethe idea of the fertility in the conception of humans a still greater importance too. To sowing tire harvests became similar the succession birth life death into the faith world importantly. The position of the woman, when in the early agriculture substantial Kraft rose, similar to the role more womanlikeFertility divinities in the religion. As in the preceding nature religions forces in the surrounding animal world were assumed. Human being, animal or mischgestaltige Chimären became objects of the admiration.

The various and varied figuration and Ornamentierung of pottery (ceramic(s)) leave individual containers to archaeologists (andso that places of discovery) to a certain group of cultures assign. The way of ceramic(s) becomes now every now and then also determining for the naming (by archaeologists) for the individual cultures (bspw. Bandkeramiker).

literature

of books

  • John Lubbock: The before-historicalTime describes Costenoble, Jena by the remnants of the Alterthums and the customs and customs of the current wild ones, 1874.
  • Vere Gordon Childe: Humans create themselves, publishing house of the art, Dresden 1959.
  • Jared dia. moon: Poor and realm. The fateshuman societies, Fischer TB, Frankfurt/Main 1998. ISBN 3-596-14967-3
  • Steven Mithen: After the ice. A global human history, 20,000-5000 UC, pasture field & Nicolson, London 2003
  • Ernst rehearses: Germany in the Steinzeit. Hunter, Fischer and Bauern between North Sea Coast and alpine region,Bertelsmann, Munich 1991.ISBN 3-570-02669-8
  • J. Mueller: The Impresso culture and the Neolithisierung of the Adriaraumes, Spiess science publishing house, Berlin 1994.
  • Jürgen E. Walkowitz: The Megalithsyndrom. European cult places of the Steinzeit (in: Contributions for the Ur and early history of Central Europe, Bd. 36), Beier andBeran, long white brook 2003.ISBN 3-930036-70-3
  • Jeanette Werning: Earliest pieces of broken glass, earliest rice, earliest millet. To the Neolithisierung in China, in: Jörg hitting a corner ore (Hg.): Archaeological perspectives. Analyses and interpretations in the change, Leidorf, Rahden/Westphalia 2003, S. 103–129. ISBN 3-89646-400-0
  • Daniel Zohary and MariaHopf:Domestication OF plants into the old world. The origin and spread OF cultivated plants in west Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley, Oxford University press, Oxford 3 2000. ISBN 0-19-850357-1
  • Dirk Raetzel Fabian: Göttinger type boards to the Ur and early historyOf Central Europe - Neolithikum, publishing house, Goettingen 1983. New edition 2002, pdf

article in technical periodicals

  • Bruce F. Benz: Archaeological evidence OF teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca, in: PNAS 98 (February 2001), S. 2104-2106. on-line
  • Daniel G. Bradley: Genetics evidence for Near Eastern origins OF European cattle, in: Nature 410 (April 2001), S. 1088-1091.
  • Lounès Chikhi: Y genetics DATA support the Neolithic demic diffusion model, in: PNAS 99 (August 2002), S. 11008-11013. on-line
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Cordaux: Genetics Evidencefor the Demic diffusion OF Agriculture ton of India, in: Science 304 (May 2004) S. 1125.
  • Gordon Hillmann: New evidence OF Lateglacial cereal cultivation RK Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates, in: The Holocene 11/4 (July 2001), S. 383–393.
  • Simcha Lev Yadun: The Cradle OF Agriculture, in: Science 288 (June 2000), S. 1602-1603
  • Dani needle: Processing OF wildly cereal grains into the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis, in: Nature 430 (August 2004), S. 670–673.
  • Katharina Neumann: New Guinea. A Cradle OF Agriculture, in: Science 301 (July 2003), S. 180–181.
  • Dolores R. Piperno: Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and of wildly species OF Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from A mitochondrial genes, in: PNAS 99 (January 2002), S. 535–540. on-line
  • Kevin O. Pope: Origin and Environmental Setting OF Ancient Agriculture into the Lowlands OF Mesoamerica, in: Science 292 (May 2001), S. 1370-1373.
  • Bruce D. Smith: The initial Domestication OF Cucurbita pepo into the of America 10.000 Years Ago,in: Science 276 (May 1997), S. 932–934.
  • Melinda A. Zeder and Brian Hessian: The initial Domestication OF Goats (Capra hircus) into the Zagros Mountains 10.000 Years Ago, in: Science 287 (March 2000), S. 2254-2257.

Web on the left of

see also

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)