|of these articles is concerned with the city Cologne. For the warship of the same name, see Cologne (ship).|
|Cologne coats of arms||map|
|Land of the Federal Republic:||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|landscape federation:||Rhine country|
|surface:||405.15 km ²|
|inhabitants:|| 975.907 (30. June 2005)|
|Population density:||2,393 Einwohner/km ² (2004)|
|height:||37.5-118.04 m and. NN|
|postal zip codes:||50441-51149 (old: 5000)|
|Preselections:|| 02 21|
0 22 03 (Porz without polling)< /br> 0 22 32 (Meschenich)
0 22 33 (High churches, Rondorf)
0 22 34 (Lövenich, pastures, Mars village)
0 22 36 (Godorf, cock forest, Immendorf, trade area Rodenkirchen, Sürth, white)
|geographical location:|| |
Coordinates: 50° 56 ' 33 " N, 06° 57 ' 32 " O 50° 56 ' 33 " N, 06° 57 ' 32 " O
|municipality key:||05 3 15 000|
|official Website:||city koeln.de|
|mayor:||Fritz Schramma (CDU)|
(31. December 2004)
|Debt conditions:||2.56 billion € (2003)|
|Unemployment ratio:||13.5% (28. February 2005)|
|age structure:|| 0-18 years: 15.8%|
18-65 years: 67.5%
starting from 65 years: 16.7%
Cologne (until 1919 also Cöln, completely in former times Colonia, among the Romans only oppidum ubiorum, then CCAA, Colonia Claudia era Agrippinensiumand in the vernacular Kölle) is on inhabitants and surface referred the fourth largest city of Germany and the largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city is well-known due to their 2000-jährigen history, their cultural and architectural inheritance and its internationally meaning meetings.
1850the number of inhabitants exceeded for the first time the border of 100.000, with which Cologne became the large city in the today's sense. 975,907 persons were announced in the middle of 2005 with Erstwohnsitz in Cologne - this represents the official number of inhabitants. Including the Zweitwohnsitze counts the city administration however1.022.627 inhabitants, why the city calls itself as town with millions of inhabitants. Officially town with millions of inhabitants was Cologne only in the years 1975 and 1976, due to incorporations, which were cancelled in the meantime again.
Cologne became important because it since itsEstablishment by the Romans as metropolis of lay and then church power in its history always played a gentleman-out-rising up role. This west important by its situation at the intersection was supported - east trade routes with the envelope of goods on thatRhine with the transition from the Dutchman to the upper land navigation. Cologne became in such a way an important trading class place and is today traffic junction with the Germany far highest railway traffic volume (among other things in Cologne main station, the marshalling yard Gremberg and the largest container and envelope station of theInland Cologne Eifel gate). The Rhine harbour ranks among the most important inland ports of Europe. Before the strongly industrialcoined/shaped city has 20 in the last quarter. Century completes a structural change to the service sector: Today Cologne is considered as medium, technology and science metropolis.
Cologne ranks among thatlarge university towns, whose 85,183 written students constitute a population portion of approximately 8.5 per cent. With a foreigner portion of 17,2% (175,515 humans, conditions: At the end of of 2004) is considered to Cologne in addition as multi-cultural center, which accommodates one of the largest Turkish municipalities of Germany. The varietyat cultural, religious and ethnical groups by a high measure of tolerance and liberality in the population one accompanies. Thus the city is considered also as a center of stifling-lesbian culture.
geographical location and climate
the cityextends over 405,15 km ² (linksrheinisch 230.25 km ², rechtsrheinisch 174.87 km ²). Cologne is appropriate for 50° 56 ′ 33 " northern latitude and 6° 57 ′ 32 " of eastern length. The highest point lies 118.04 meters (in the king forest), lowest 37.5 meters (in the Worringer break) overthe sea level.
Cologne lies in the Cologne bay, as the Tallandschaft between the stages of the Bergi country and the Eifel is called immediately after withdrawal of the Rhine from the Rheini slate mountains. This favorable situation provides a climate for Cologne,by several characteristics is characterised:
- By the Eifel barrier the city, in particular for their linksrheinischer part, is appropriate in the protection and rain shade of west hoists, which in addition a foehn effect can cause.
- At the same time an air heating up is favoured by small air interchange with the surrounding countryside. ThoseCity center of Cologne, in which over warming additionally in the city arises, is considered as the warmest place of North-Rhine/Westphalia.
- With it connected regularly a high air humidity , in particular in the summer for loading, is stifling weather due to the evaporation of the Rhine water with small air interchangeensures and is responsible for numerous thunderstorms.
Spaciously Cologne lies in the Übergangszone from the moderate sea-climate to the continental climate with mild winters (January means: 2 °C) and moderately warm summers (July means: 18 °C). The middle yearly precipitation amounts to 676 mm and lies therebyrelatively low. In the year 2005 Cologne with an average temperature of 11,9 was °C the warmest city of Germany, still before the Freiburg of Baden with 11,7 °C. Also for this reason the Cologner calls his city gladly “northernmost city of Italy”.
Cologne lies mostly in the range of the Niederterrassen, which rise from the Rhine like broad stairs easily. The underground developed to a large extent in the Tertiary period, partly only in the quart acreand consists of differently laminated river sediments. An exception forms the extreme east of the city, which already ranks among the base of the rheinischen slate mountains.
The ground condition is coined/shaped by the fruitful soils of the washing land level on the Rhine and the release areas in the west as well asthe rather inferior soils (heath, forest) in the east of the city, which already changes into the Bergi country. The differences in Mikroklima and ground condition are explainable by the fact that Cologne ranks among the surface-largest cities of Germany.
Cologne and thatRhine
The Rhine, after which withdrawal from the slate mountains calls south of Cologne Niederrhein, steps with Godorf into the cityand it leaves with Worringen. The downward gradient of the Rhine amounts to about 0.2 parts per thousand. Thus the Rhine mirror lies in Godorf 8 meters more highly than in Worringen.
The worst flood ever registered occurred in February 1784, when after an extremely long and cold winter a temperature jump used. ThatRhine had frozen over and the thaw as well as the breaking open ice provided at this time firmly for a record level of 13.55 meters (to the comparison: the normal level amounts to 3.48 meters). The tides, on which heavy Eisschollen floated, devastated far parts of the development of the banksand all ships. Individual buildings, under it also buildings of attachments, collapsed due to the Schollengangs. 65 dead ones were to be deplored. The rechtsrheinische Mülheim was completely destroyed.
In 20. The three century floods 1926 , 1993 and 1995 reached century level conditions up to 10.69 meters. WidthParts of the old part of town were flooded. In more recent time a flood protection concept plans the establishment of sheet pile walls, which protect the old part of town up to a level of 11.30 meters against inundations. The work should be final in the 2.Quartal 2006. With a water levelof 6.20 meters the flood mark I is reached. Ships may drive only with decreased speed and only on the middle current third. With reaching the flood mark II (8.30 meters) ship traffic is completely stopped. Reaches the level the mark ofThe flood plan of the city Cologne plans 10.70 meters to release disaster alarm. With a Rhine level of 11 meters more than half of the city surface are flooded.
However the Rhine showed already several times also the exact opposite: the Niedrigwasser. To 20. September 2003 around 8:00 clock reached the Rhine level the record mark of 0.80 meters. Thus the low value was fallen below from the year 1947. However the level means 0.00 meters that the 150 meters broad channel in the center of the riverstill 1 meter depth of water has. The inland waterway craft travel had to accept strong restrictions, however not as completely on the Elbe was adjusted.
Which quantities of water move depending upon level by the city, the following list makes clear: 0.80 m (lowest water level): 630 m ³/s; 3.48 m (normal water level): 2,000 m ³/s; 6.20 m (flood mark I): 4,700 m ³/s; 8.30 m (flood mark II): 7,200 m ³/s; 10.0 m (flood protection in old part of town, Rodenkirchen and village): 9.700 m ³/s; 10.69 m (floods in January 1995): 11,500 m ³/s.
following cities and municipalities border on the city Cologne. They are called in the clockwise direction, beginning in the northeast:
Leverkusen (circle-free city), Bergisch Gladbach and Rösrath (Rheinisch Bergi circle), Troisdorf and Niederkassel (Rhine victory circle), Wesseling, Brühl, Hürth, impudent ones and Pulheim (all Rhine Erft circle), Dormagen (Rhine circle Neuss) and Monheim (circle Metz man).
getting pasture, Mülheim, master home within the quarters between different “Veedeln “ (kölsch for quarters), their inhabitant frequently to village communities reminding social connections and contacts maintain.
Flora and fauna
Cologne had expanded green areas, which arrange within the urban compression range as parks, into which outlying districts mostly managed forests are. Besides existalso several protected areas, for instance the Worringer break in the extreme linksrheinischen north of Cologne, a former, today verlandeter Rhine arm. It offers a homeland for rare animal and plant types and a characteristic Auen and forest landscape. Rechtsrheinisch are mainly open forest and heath landscapes.
The fauna exhibits a very high number at culture concluding. Beside pigeons, mice and rats, which are pervasive and are already noticed locally as troubles, also Rotfüchse immigrated in important number to the city. They are meanwhile even into find the city center, where they use allotments and parks as district.
For the cage attitude to Germany originally brought and then escaped, green parrots (Halsbandsittiche) became domestic, obviously in the city quite probably in of Cologne green beltsfeel and several colonies formed. On the Melaten cemetery for example numerous this Neozoen lives. The people's highschool offers occasionally guidance for trees with parrot colonies.
major items see history of Cologne. This article contains also a table to the incorporations of the city.
Cologne is the oldest of the German large cities: The name Cologne, at the Roman time Colonia Claudia era Agrippinensium (CCAA), goes on the RomanEmpress Agrippina back. The wife of Claudius was born on the Rhine and left the “Oppidum Ubiorum” (Ubiersiedlung) in the year 50 n. Chr. raise to the city. In the Roman time it was governor seat of the province Germania Inferior. Around 80 n: Chr.Cologne with the Eifel water pipeline received to one of the longest Roman aquaducts at all.
Also in the early Middle Ages Cologne was an important city. Around the year 455 Franconias conquered the before Roman city. To beginning 6. Century principal place of an independent Frankish partial kingdom,if it came up afterwards in the realm Chlodwigs, however strong self-sufficiency in the area of the Ripuarier retained. The Roman population lived long time parallel to the Frankish conquerers in the city. In the course 6. to 8. Century came it to onecomplete Akkulturation between the two population parts. Franconias transferred rapidly cultural achievements of the Roman urban population, for example in the range of civil engineering or the glass production. Toward end of the Merowingerzeit Cologne was Residenzstadt. At the latest starting from karolingischer time was the bishop and/or. Archbishopof Cologne one of the most important persons in the realm. Under the Ottonen Cologne played an important role with the approximation of the holy Roman realm of German nation and the Byzantine realm, since the empress Theophanu, native Greek and wife of Otto II.,there as Reichsverweserin resided. Starting from that 10. Century used a series of establishments of pin, which rang in the Roman building of churches. In the consequence Cologne under the guidance achieved more importantly, also politically experienced archbishops an unquestioned rank as religious center. The transferthe Gebeine of the holy three kings by the archbishop Rainald of Dassel in the year 1164 made the city a Pilgerziel of first rank. Cologne became in the high Middle Ages largest city of Germany, so that also the city attachments had to be several times extended: Offthe year 1180 (documents of 27. 7. and 18. 8. 1180) the then most spacious Stadtmauer of Germany was built and placed about 1225 finished. The 12 gates (7 enormous double tower gate castles, 3 enormous tower gate castles and two smaller double tower gates (see Ulrepforte)) -into the semicircular Stadtmauer integrates - should remind of „the himmlische Jerusalem “. Since that 12. Century led Cologne beside Jerusalem, Konstantinopel and Rome the designation „Sancta “in the city name: „Sancta Colonia Dei Gratia Romanae Ecclesiae Fidelis Filia “- holyCologne von Gottes grace, the Roman church faithful daughter. It was decided to establish an unequalled large and impressing place of worship in order to give to the Reliquien an appropriate framework. The Grundsteinlegung Cologne cathedral took place 1248.
in the year 1259 received the pile right , which Cologne citizen a purchase option of all secured and to the prosperity of the Cologne citizenry contributed for the goods transported on the Rhine in such a way to Cologne. The fights for many years of the Cologne archbishopswith the Patriziern ended 1288 provisionally by the battle with Worringen, with which the army of the archbishop was subject von Berg against that of the count and the Cologne citizens. From now on the city did not belong any longer to the ore pin and the archbishopit was allowed to only enter to religious actions. The official collection to the free realm city however still lasted until 1475. Starting from 1500 Cologne belonged to the Niederrheinisch Westfäli realm circle.
The dreissigjährige war left the city intact. This was partially because of the fact thatthe city by cash payments to consulting troops of FE storages and conquests redeemed itself. Cologne earned trade at the war by weapon production and - magnificently.
With occupation by the French troops 1794 during the French revolution ended the history „of the holy one Cologne “. As the whole linksrheinische area became the city of France annektiert and 1798 into the Roerdepartement integrated, whose capital was Aachen. In the year 1815 the city Cologne and the Rhine country the Kingdom of Prussia was incorporated. Cologne became in the runder folgenden Jahrzehnte nachBerlin zur größten und wichtigsten Stadt in Preußen. In the year 1880 after 632 years the building Cologne cathedral was locked - at least passing, because also today repair work still is after the Second World War and because ofEnvironmental damage at the rock necessarily. Because these work is probably never locked, the cathedral is called also “the eternal building site”.
end 19. Century could itself the overful city after the building of the outside fortress ring by purchase andLoops of the Stadtmauer, barriers and bastions in the Rayon extend. The settlement „of the new city “(Cologne new city north, Cologne new city south) manufactured the contact to the fast growing surrounding municipalities and created the condition for the incorporations. Of the outline thatold Stadtmauer remained only few exemplary buildings due to an intervention of the Prussian culture Ministry spared.
In the Second World War became the city by British (at night) and American (during the day) Flächenbombardements too over 90 per cent destroys; the number of inhabitants was reduced from formerly 800,000 to 40.000.From January to March 1945 in Cologne 1800 in and foreign resistance fighters in war final phase crimes of the national socialists were murdered.
Only 1959 attained Cologne again the number of inhabitants of the Vorkriegszeit.
In the year 1975 Cologne reached a number of inhabitants of more by the regional reorganizationas one million and time beside Berlin, Hamburg and Munich was the fourth town with millions of inhabitants of Germany for some. With separating Wesselings 1976 sank the number of inhabitants however again under the million-border.
Up to Deutz belonged the rechtsrheinischen urban districts of Cologne to1802 to the duchy mountain; they were therefore predominantly reformed denomination. The today's old part of town formed the free realm city Cologne, the remaining urban districts was part of the Kurfürstlichen of ore pin Cologne; both remained catholic.
see also for this the major item: Religionsin Cologne
historical is Cologne like the entire Rhine country, apart from Bergi country and coined/shaped by the Niederrhein, catholic; so are approx. 40% the inhabitant catholic, 20% Evangelist, 10% (predominantly immigrants) Muslim, the remaining30% others or without religion.
At the latest since 313 Cologne is bishop seat (ore diocese Cologne). The bishop church of this time is not well-known. The Cologne cathedral applies only since the gothic as the landmark of the city. The Roman church of theBenediktinerklosters largely pc. Martin and the city hall tower contributed the silhouette of the city up to the completion of the cathedral to the German empire considerably.
Cologne had after the transfer of the alleged Gebeine „of the holy three kings “( the ways from that Morning country) to 23. July 1164 fast rank as one the most important Pilgerstädte in the holy Roman realm of German nation. The first journey of the freshly crowned emperors and kings led from Aachen to the shrine of the holy three kings. The Pilgermassen brought much money also into the city, which led itself also to a strengthened settlement and a precipitous rise of the urban population. (In the Middle Ages Cologne was the largest city of Europe.) the archbishop Philipp I. from Heinsberg left, build its successors make a precious gilded shrine starting from 1248 a new cathedral, went to its establishment ever more slowly in front due to disputes with the town councillor and driving of the prince bishop out from its Residenzstadt, following on it, and finally completely to succumbingcame (more information to the building under Cologne cathedral). Not around the trade, developed Cologne also for the center of the Reliquienhandels , since medieval humans hoped, by the possession of a holy article or bone holy ones of the release shift of one/ oneto come more near. This meaning of the city brought in the names „holy Cologne for it “.
The meaning of the religion shows up also in the Stadtwappen, on those the three crowns of the holy three kings and the 11 tears of the holy Ursulaand their companions, who are to have suffered martyr death in Cologne, are represented.
As one of the numerous high points „of the holy Cologne “in millenium-long Christian and/or catholic history surely is the 20. World youth day of 15. August to 21. August 2005to mention. Approximately 26,000 Freiwillige from 160 states welcomed guests from 196 states in the cities Cologne, Bonn and Duesseldorf. To this large event „of the recent catholic church “were up to the conclusion fair on the Marienfeld, a shut down open mining near thatSuburb impudent one, over 1.000.000 humans in Cologne region.Pope Benedikt XVI. its first Pontifikalreise undertook after its office introduction and visited the city of 18 to this cause. August to 21. August. On this occasion it confirmed again thatTitle „holy Cologne “.
1183 know the archbishop the Jew its own area too, in thatthey to some extent in peace to live could. This quarter in the old part of town, which could be closed also with own gates, was outlined by the portal lane, the Jew lane, under Goldschmied and Obenmarspforten. It was exclusively the Jew reserved. Hereby was firstGhetto in Cologne production. The Mikwe from this time is to be visited under a glass pyramid on the city hall free area in the old part of town. However the Jews were gradually expatriated, and between 1424 and the end of the 18.Jahrhunderts was allowed itself withoutPermission Cologne advice no Jew in the city stop. In the time of the national socialism the Jews, who were allowed to again settle under Prussian rule, with that were driven out urge for emigration. The synagogs in the bell lane, in the Roonstrasse,on the Mülheimer liberty and been in the grain road as well as a praying hall into Deutz be-end the Novemberpogrome 1938 into fire. The remaining Jews became after 1941 in Sammellagern of the away IX (one ehem. Prussian fortifications at the edge thatCity) and on Cologne fairgrounds locked up and later deportiert. 8000 Cologne Jew was murdered by the national socialists and their willing aids.
The today's synagog municipality Cologne has again over 4857 members. It possesses a cemetery, a primary school, a kindergarten, oneLibrary, Sportverein (Makkabi), a koscheres restaurant, a youth centre and an old people's home with Seniorentreff. The municipality is led by two Rabbinern. Its 1959 again developed large synagog stand in the Cologne Roonstrasse.
ways of thehigh portion of immigrants from Turkey and its descendant, as well as because of the central situation in the old Federal Republic, the most important Turkish furnished Islamic organizations of Germany their seat in Cologne and environment (Kerpen).
places of pilgrimage
The city Cologne is not only place of pilgrimage because of the holy ones of three kings, but also because of the holy Albertus Magnus in pc. Andreas. In addition still the blessed Adolph Kolping, the father comes associates into the Minoritenkirche, Johannes Duns Scotus, an important philosopher, likewise in the Minoritenkirche, Edith stone (Theresia Benedicta A Cruce), philosophies and nun in the time of the national socialism, the black nut/mother of God in the copper lane as well as Maria of the Hl. Hermann Josef inKapitol and the Hl. Pantaleon.
to inhabitant development
see major item inhabitant development of Cologne
Cologne was brief into the 1970er years due to incorporations, which had taken place due to particularly for this purpose the issued „Cologne law “, town with millions of inhabitants: in the course thatlast incorporations to the 1. January 1975 was reached the total population of one million - historical highest level. After the city Wesseling however to the 1. July 1976 was again separated, sank the number of inhabitants again under the million-border. To 30. June 2005 amounted to„the official number of inhabitants “for Cologne after updating of the national office for data processing and statistics North Rhine-Westphalia 975,907 (only main domiciles and after alignment with the other national offices).
in Roman time led the admiral thatRhine fleet the urban administration. Later the Roman Munizipalverfassung was introduced. Since the city was seat of an ore diocese, the archbishop attained later the complete exercise of power in Cologne. Doch versuchte die Stadt, sich vom Erzbischof zu lösen, was ihr schließlich im 13. Century succeeded (starting from 1288 in fact free realm city). Already starting from 1180 also an advice of the city is provable. Starting from 1396 the 22 Gaffeln were the political backbone of the city administration. They selected the 36köpfigen advice, that again 13 personsin addition-select could. The composition of the advice changed half-yearly, as half of the members was replaced in each case. The advice selected annually 2 mayors. After the French crew 1794 1798 the Munizipalverfassung was introduced. After the transition at Prussia 1815 became simultaneous Cologne 1816 a circle-free city and seat of a district, which was only dissolved with the circle reform 1975. At the point of the city a mayor stood since 1815, furthermore there was further an advice. 1856 became the PrussianCity order of the Rhine province imported.
During the time of the national socialists the mayor was used of the NSDAP. After the Second World War the military government of the British zone of occupation used a new mayor and 1946 introduced it the municipal constitution after British model.Afterwards there was a “advice of the city” selected by the people, whose members one calls “city delegate”. The advice selected at first from its center the mayor as chairman and a representative of the city, which was honorary active. The moreover one the advice selectedstarting from 1946 likewise a full-time director of upper city as directors/conductors of the city administration. 1999 were given up the double head in the city administration. Since that time there is only the full-time mayor. This is a chairman of the advice, director/conductor of the city administration and representative of the city. Itsince that time directly by the people one selects. Three further stand for the mayor mayor inside and mayors to the side, who are placed by the strongest parliamentary groups of the advice. See also list of the mayors of Cologne.
political traditions and developments
The long tradition of a free realm city, which for a long time excluding catholic coined/shaped population and the centuries-old contrast between church and middle class (and within its between Patriziern and craftsmen) has in Cologne its own political climate produced, which is noticeable this very day.Different groups of interests are formed frequently due to social Sozialisation and therefore over party borders away. The relations network, which connects politics, economics and culture among themselves in a system of mutual complaisances, obligations and dependence, developed from it, is called also Cologne Klüngel. This has frequentlyto an unusual Proporzverteilung in the city administration led and artete sometimes into strong corruption out: The 1999 uncovered „garbage scandal “over bribes and inadmissible party donations brought not only the entrepreneur to light courage Trienekens in detention, but left nearly the entire guidance personnel to thatlarge parties fall.
If the city was connected for the center due to their catholic tradition in empire and Weimar Republic firmly, soon the political majority from the CDU changed to the SPD to the war. This governed over 40 years long, partly alsoabsolute advice majority. Due to liberals traditions Cologne was also always a center of the FDP, because of her tolerant social climate also the Green. Both parties make - with changing success - increasingly the majorities for the people's parties contentious.
advice thatCity Cologne
in Cologne town councillor sit 90 advice women and councilman. The directly selected mayor has right to vote and leads the meetings. At present the Greens (15 members) sit in Cologne advice the CDU ( 29 members), SPD (28 members ), alliance 90/Die, FDP (7 members), the citizen movement per Cologne (4 members), the Party of Democratic Socialism (3 members), Cologne citizens the alliance (2 members), REP (1 member) as well as the list „together against social robbery “(1 member). The advice possesses 19 committees, a senior agency anda foreigner adviser.
The last election results for the advice of the city Cologne were as follows:
|A party||1984 in %||1989 in %||1994 in %||1999 in %||2004 in %|
|Party of Democratic Socialism||-||-||-||2.14||2.96|
the ColognerMayor Fritz Schramma (CDU) had to cooperate since his choice in the year 2000 with so far four different advice majorities: After the black-yellow coalition failed because of questions of substance, the CDU parliamentary group up to the local election co-operated 2004 with the Greens. By new majority conditions(the CDU lost over 12 per cent points) this advice alliance could not be continued, so that a large coalition formed. At the end of of 2005 failed these because of a subordinate personnel question, so that since then SPD and the Greens co-operate. They are dependent on the fact that missingVoices to Red-Greens an advice majority depending upon resolution by other councillors to be delivered.
parallel to the elections of the town councillor in each of the nine urban districts after the defaults of the Gemeindeordnung of North Rhine-Westphalia one district agency each is selected. Thisrepresent the interests of the districts and the quarters belonging to it opposite the town councillor. In questions of smaller meaning, which do not work beyond the district borders, they have power of decision. Details regulate the main statute of the city Cologne.
The coat of arms of the city Cologne (see also Cologne coats of arms) shows the doppelköpfigen realm eagle, the sword and Zepter holds. It reminds of the fact that the city belonged in the Middle Ages since 1475 officially as free realm city to the holy Roman realm of German nation.The eagle has two heads, because the Roman emperor was the German king at the same time.
That sign has the colors red and knows, the colors of the Hanse. Cologne did not only belong to this federation of the buyers and cities as important commercial metropolison, but - together with Luebeck - co-foundress of the German Hanse and thus one of the oldest Hanseatic cities were in Germany.
The three crowns are since that 12. Century the national emblem of the city; they remind of „the holy three kings “, of themReliquien 1164 the Cologne archbishop Reinald of Dassel from Milan along-brought and in a golden shrine behind the high altar of the cathedral to be kept.
Of the very popular cult of the holy Ursula the eleven black flames remind, since that16. Century in Cologne Stadtwappen emerge. Ursula was after the legend a bretonische princess, who was murdered on the return trip from a Pilgerreise to Rome with its companions by the Hunnen, which besieged at that time straight Cologne. The eleven or 11.000legendary virgins are symbolized in the Stadtwappen by the eleven drop-shaped Hermelinschwänze, which again to the coat of arms of Brittany - which homeland Ursulas - to remind could, which consists of Hermelinfell.
to partnerships between cities Cologne to the six European cities,the 1958 for the first time a ring partnership in the life called. This immediately after establishment of the EEC act taken place should underline the European solidarity, as one city each from each member country at that time with all locked a remaining partnership between cities. 1993 became the partnership betweenthe cities involved affirms Cologne, Turin, Lüttich, Esch sur Alzette, Rotterdam and Lille again.
by thosecities and municipalities eingemeindeten took over Cologne also their partnership relations with the cities Benfleet/Castle POINT (England), Igny (France), Diepenbeek (Belgium), Brive la Gaillarde (France), Dunstable (England), Eygelshoven (The Netherlands) and Hazebrouck (France).
culture and objects of interest
in the Middle Ages became Cologne an important church and an important artistic and edukativen center. The Cologne cathedral is the largest gothical churchin Northern Europe and accommodates the three-king shrine, in which the alleged Reliquien of the holy three kings is kept, therefore the three crowns in the Stadtwappen. The Cologne cathedral - 1996 explained as the world cultural heritage - is the head landmark of the city andserves as unofficial symbol. Cologne was heavily destroyed in the Second World War. Today Cologne is also a cultural metropolis with many important museums, galleries, art fairs as well as alive art and music scenes. In addition Cologne, together with Hamburg and Berlin, is considered to that as centerHomosexual scene. In Cologne the largest GayPride finds (formerly: Christopher Street Day) of Germany instead of.
in Cologne reside numerous theatres. The city is carrier of the “stages of the city Cologne “with Schauspielhaus and opera house (based 1822). Further well-knownStages are:Arkadas theatre, Artheater, studio theatre, Casamax theatre, Cassiopeia theatre, Comedia, free workshop theatre, Gloria theatre, Hänneschen theatre (doll plays of the city Cologne), horizon theatre, Cologne artist theatres, Klüngelpütz Kabarett theatre, musical of cathedrals, Piccolo theatre, doll theatre Lapislazuli, Senftöpfchen theatre, studio stage Cologne, theatre at the cathedral, theatre at the Saxonia ring, theatre of the cellars, the theatre in the building tower, theatre in the yard, theatre low-red, theatre house Cologne and the folk theatre Millowitsch.
in Cologne are famous Sinfonie and chamber orchestras at home. The Gürzenich orchestra was created 1857 on the occasion of the inauguration of the of the same name Cologne concert hall as a successor organization „of the musical society “. Since 1888 the city is carrier of the orchestra. It plays in thatOpera Cologne and gives also numerous concerts, for example in the Cologne Philharmonic Concert Hall. Well-known directors of music of the orchestra were Conradin Kreutzer, Hermann Abendroth and Günter wall.
The second famous Sinfonieorchester is the WDR symphonyorchestra. This orchestra became 1945 as follow-on equipment1926 the created orchestra of the realm transmitter Cologne based. At chamber orchestras are to be called: Camerata Cologne (based 1976), Capella Clementina (based 1964 as Cologne chamber orchestras), Cappella Coloniensis (in working group of the WDR), Collegium Aureum (based 1964), Concerto Cologne (based 1985) and Musica Antiqua Cologne (based 1973).
At famous choirs are to be mentioned: Philharmoni choir Cologne, based 1947 of Philipp Röhl, Cologne cathedral music, consists of 4 choirs (Cologne cathedral choir (boy choir), girl choir to Cologne cathedral, Domkantorei Cologne,Vowel ensemble Cologne cathedral). The cathedral choir was again-created 1863, Cologne chamber choir, 1970 of Peter Neumann, was created the Cologne broadcast choir, based 1955, and the Cologne Kantorei, based 1968 of peoples Hempfling.
In addition there is a very various in CologneScene of “free” (i.e. not at church municipalities bound) choirs, which very different background and emphasis by program has. In order to call only some: There the lesbian gay choir is the tactless ones, the French-German choir Cologne, the first Cologne Barbershop choir and many differentwith partial fantasyful names, e.g.: Outrageously, the sirens, the Liederlinge and Haste of tones.
The university for music Cologne as of Europe the largest college of music contributes to the musical life of the city substantially. For children and young persons the Rheini school of music at several offersLocations in Cologne surface covering music instruction on. An important play place for music is the Philharmonic Concert Hall with a broad spectrum of classical music over music of the present up to jazz and popular music. The Cologne arena, the E-work in Cologne Mülheim, the palladiumand the live music resound are beside the dance well in the Rhine park (free light stage) further much-visited places of event. In the transmission halls of West German broadcast (WDR) in addition and Deutschlandfunk regularly concerts take place. The WDR maintains not only the Sinfonieorchester mentioned above, but alsoone bend volume, which as one to the best bend volume of Europe applies. The jazz house in the city garden has a rich program of all kinds of play of the jazz. And even in the old ballroom medieval Cologne, the Gürzenich, still music is specified.
Onefirm size in Cologne is the people music coined/shaped by the Karneval. People music is to be seen only conditioned following general people music. It is sung nearly constant in dialect, thus in Kölsch. Vary the style directions of Hit over Pop and skirt. There is no second region, which bring annually so many regional songs out, and hardly another city, which will more frequently besungen in Germany probably. It concerns not always only Karnevalslieder. SomeGroups keep themselves rather reserved to the Karneval, others only partly work in this field. In recent past also one formed A-cappella - for scene.
Some sizes, which made themselves earned around the Cologne music scene, were in the pastfor example Willi Ostermann and Willy cutter and are at present for example the Bläck Fööss, which to Höhner, BAP, bring, meadow Guys etc.
under the numerous Cologne museums with hochkarätigenCollections are the museum Ludwig (modern trend and present art), the Wallraf Richartz museum (art of the Middle Ages to 19. To emphasize century) as well as the Roman-Germanic museum (art, decoration and everyday life articles from the Roman and merowingischen epoch).
Further museums and institutes for exhibition in Cologne:
- Agfa photo Historama (Historical photography)
- German sport & Olympia museum
- cathedral vault Cologne
- smell museum in the Farina house
- Erzbischöfliches diocesan museum
- money-historical museum
- IMHO FF chocolate museum (chocolate museum)
- Käthe Kollwitz museum
- Kölni art association (present art)
- Kölni city museum arsenal (urban history)
- museum for applied art (Cologne)
- museum for East Asian art (art and arts and craftsfrom Japan, China and Korea)
- museum Schnütgen (Sakralkunst of the Middle Ages)
- Rautenstrauch Joest museum (people customer)
the old part of town of Cologne and adjacent ranges were destroyed to a large extent by air raids in the Second World War. WithReconstruction the road process and the historical street names were maintained frequently, the land development however usually took place in the style of the 50's. Thus far parts of the city of post-war architecture are coined/shaped; between them are individual buildings, received remainedor due to their meaning reconstructed are.
remainders of Roman buildings are in the entire city area, partly underground in multi-storey car parks, cellars or, with an elevator attainable, under Cologne city halls. Aboveground remainders of the Roman Stadtmauer can , for example the Roman tower, to be visited.
meaning medieval buildings of everyday are received and/or. again developed: Examples are the city hall, the pile house, the Gürzenich and the Overstolzenhaus, oldest received residential building of the city.Parts of the powerful medieval Stadtmauern are likewise received, among them also several city gates like the Eigelsteintor and the Stadtmauer at the Hansaring (apart from the earlier location of the city prison bell finery), the Severinstor, the cock gate or the Ulrepforte including the Stadtmauer toSaxonia ring and wake-snatch. The pictorial March in quarter consists only partially of medieval built volumes. Many buildings were more or less style-fairly again developed after the Second World War.
the fortress ring lies in the today'sand served outside urban districts the city attachment of the Prussian time. Within the outside green belt can be visited this very day some the Forts. The new city is circular one around the historical old part of town urban extension put on, itself from the broken off medieval Stadtmauer toto the internal fortress ring extends. It became from 1880 to approx. 1920 delighted and was the largest of their time in Germany. Once it was a closed ensemble with all style directions of historicism over art nouveau up to the expressionism, could however aftersubstantial war damage and ungezügelter outline rage in the post-war period only partly their charm receive. Today it is no more pure populated area, but center of most diverse cultural and business activities (Mediapark, galleries, tavern quarters of etc.). The original shape leaves itself in some road coursesreconstruct still well: For this count the southern part of the town (Ubierring, old person citizen STR. - mainly art nouveau), the university University of (Zülpicher road, Rathenauplatz - mainly historisierende wilhelminische houses) and individual Patrizierhäuser in the Belgian quarter (Aachener STR., Lütticher STR.). - In the northern new city those placesChurch pc. Agnes a successful example rheinischer neo-gothic style.
between the world wars
under the mayor at that time Konrad Adenauer some important buildings developed in the twenties in Cologne. The fairground with the saliently conspicuous fair tower is inStyle of the brick expressionism establishes, whereby the buildings have a skeleton from reinforced concrete and of dazzling clinkers consists the ornamentale front. In the same style the Hansahochhaus at the city center ring was built. At the time of the arranging celebration 1924 it was the highest houseEurope. An example of the architectural style of the new Sachlichkeit is the these CH house, which became university in the style of the work federation to 1929 established. In the twenties the building of settlements in Cologne experienced a proper boom: Whole quarters such as Zollstock and elevator houseby housing cooperatives mostly after the ideals concerning town construction of the time and according to the principles of the garden city were often established.
In the time of the National Socialist dictatorship Cologne should receive an appropriate framework as gau capital: The outline of the half old part of town was planned andthe entire quarter Deutz, in order to create place for marching-up routes and a gigantic gau forum on the right Rhine side. As receive-worth classified old part of town area until 1939 and a large flight corridor in west east direction by the city center was completely reorganized was struck. For the executionthe projects did not come it by the war any longer.
post-war period and new developments
after Cologne 1945 only a rubble desert was, took over the American, later the British military administration first steps for reestablishmentthe city. The complete, auto+fair new building of the city center soon given up in favor of a compromise settlement, which the road system with the tradierten, narrow cut of properties maintained, but broad routes by the city center planned. The creation of favorable dwelling was the center of attention, thusthat the townscape postwar Cologne by architecturally inconsequential, hastily established renting houses frequently very homogeneously presented itself. Nevertheless individual style screen end and trailblazing projects stand out from this time, which made Cologne in the fifties the Mekka of the modern town construction. Toomentions is the organization of the cathedral place with the blue gold house, that of William Riphahn arranged complex from opera and Schauspielhaus and the west east axle, which were already out-arranged end of the forties with light pavilions and work-in-disguised multi-storey buildings. The building complex of the Gerling- Insurance was very disputed due to its stylistic idiom from the thirties against it. 1967 were converted the high road, of Cologne most well-known shopping street, as the first road into Cologne into a pedestrian precinct.
The sixties and seventies gave above all architecture to Colognefrom naked concrete, which caused sometimes irreparable damage to the townscape. Only in the eighties the Cologners deliberated themselves slowly quality: Toward the building of the telecommunication tower one turned Colonius strengthens the revaluation of the city center too. That Museum Ludwig, the Philharmonic Concert Halls and the Rhine bank tunnel connected the city since 1986 by responding a framed bank promenade again with the Rhine; at the same time by the building of undergrounds the city center ring was relieved and inaugurated in new organization 1987. In the ninetiesThe MediaPark on the area of the goods station as well as the Cologne arena followed years. The Wallraf Richartz museum and the department store building describing lane 65-67 („metropolitan city house ") are current examples of a rather careful transformation of the city center.
The all outstanding thing of Cologne landmarks is the gothical cathedral pc. Peter and Maria, the largest building of churches of the gothic at all. Up to its completion about 600 years passed; onlyin Prussian time it was finished placed. Here the Reliquien of the holy three kings is kept, who made Cologne a Pilgerziel of first rank. They are in the splendidly arranged three-king shrine (late 12. Century /1. Half of 13. Century) in thatVault of the cathedral keeps.
Culture-historically not less important those are altogether twelve Roman churches in the city area: Pc. Severin, pc. Maria Lyskirchen, Basilika pc. Andreas, St. Aposteln, pc. Gereon, pc. Ursula, pc. Pantaleon, pc.Maria in the Kapitol, largely pc. Martin, pc. George, St. Kunibert and pc. Cäcilien. Most of them were heavily damaged in the war; only 1985 were final the reestablishment.
In the city center are in addition the gothicalChurches Minoritenkirche and pc. Peter as well as the baroque churches pc. Maria Ascension Day, pc. Maria in the copper lane, pc. Maria of the peace and the Ursulinenkirche pc. Corpus Christi. The Protestanten were allowed to only celebrate public services in Cologne starting from 1802. To thisThey got purpose conveyed by the Frenchmen the gothical Antoniterkirche. Similarly it behaves with the Kartäuserkirche, which 1923 changed into Evangelist possession. The Trinitatiskirche in the proximity hay market is first as such established Evangelist churchin the linksrheinischen Cologne. In the quarter Mülheim, which belonged at that time to the duchy mountain, was however already established 1786 the peace church. Two buildings of predecessors were destroyed.
Pc. Engelbert in Cologne Riehl is the first modern building of churches of Cologne.
Two church ruins still are in the townscaperepresented: Old pc. Alban in the proximity of the city hall with a sculpture in the former church ship, sketched by Käthe Kollwitz, and the remainders of pc. Kolumba. Here in the fifties around one receive remained Marienfigur the chapel pc. Mariain the rubble establishes, the completely destroyed church kept only provisionally secured stumps of the surrounding walls. 2005 were established on these ruins the new diocesan museum, whose new building stresses the integration of the remnants clearly.
In the new city and the suburbs it givesstill numerous further Sakralbauten, among other things several small Roman and gothical churches, in addition, examples of the modern building of churches. Buildings particularly worth seeing are described in the articles of the respective quarters.
Cologne has altogether eight Rhine bridges, of it two railway bridges and six road bridges:
- The Hohenzollernbrücke coins/shapes with its steel elbow construction the panorama in the city and is besidesto most traveled railway bridge of Europe
- the south bridge the Hohenzollernbrücke should as elbow bridge of the goods traffic relieve.
- The Rodenkirchener motorway bridge in the south and
- the motorway bridge Cologne Merkenich - form Leverkusen the Rhine crossings Cologne motorway circuit.
Four very differently arranged road bridges steertraffic inside city over the Rhine:
- The Severinsbrücke, a cable-stayed bridge, was occasionally crowned of an art installation Cologne action artist of the hectar Schult neon lights. This was a world ball, which however not substantial, but after the samples ofLengthening and degrees of latitude only one Gitterkonstruktion was, on which neon lights evenly specified in form of the continents in different colors were attached. Additionally a red shining neon figure rose up in out of the location of Cologne on the world ball as only excrescence of the balla euphoric float out. Nowadays the thing stands on the roof linksrheinisch close of the DEVK building which was because of the Rhine bank. One knows the ball from the zoo bridge, if one drives from on the right of to Linksrheini, on the side right in driving direction wellsee.
- The zoo bridge is a Kastenträgerbrücke, which was likewise used 2000 for an art action, when in their box ten thousands Kölschgläser were developed - for the visitors this was to be crossed additionally an unusual kind the Rhine.
- The Mülheimer bridge is as suspension bridge establishes, while
- the Deutzer bridge is a continuous girder bridge. The latter was already inaugurated after the destruction of all Cologne bridges in the war 1947 as new building again. Later it extended with a bridge beside-posed resemble profile however in prestressed concrete construction way.
see also: Category: Building in Cologne
park and green areas of the city
Cologne possesses linksrheinisch two green belts - the inside and the outside. The internal green belt is seven kilometers long, several hundred meters wide anda surface of 120 hectars has. The internal ring of forts of the city had to be torn off after the First World War in the context of the Versailler contracts, so that this large urban green belt could develop here. From fill of rubble of the Second World War resultedinside green belts the today closely bewachsene, 25 meters high Herkulesberg. The internal green belt accommodates 25 tree species, meadows and several water surfaces.
The outside green belt developed likewise after the omission of a military plant, the outside fortress ring. The partially tree-coveredlargest Cologne green belt should originally enclose nearly the entire city, which was never realized for economic reasons. 800 hectars of green area developed nevertheless into the 1920er year.
The 5 hectars (original: 11 hectar) large city garden the oldest is and probably alsoone of the most beautiful parks in Cologne. The 175 years old plant as landscape park and possesses for over 100 years also a restaurant with beer garden was put on. There today also a jazz club is to be found.
In the people garden old over one hundred yearsin the Cologne south take place in the warm season nightlong grill happenings, for which often Trommler and other instrument valleyists appear themselves. Also small and road artists are to be found here. In addition the park is place for many cultural meetings, then become for examplespecified in the Orangerie of plays.
The green area at the Aachener Weiher, lain on a hill , is in particular with students a popular meeting place. The gentle hill resulted - like also the Herkulesberg - from fill of rubble of the Second World War. Sincethat 7. August 2004 reminds a new name of the victims of the war:Hiroshima gnawing ASP AI park. The cathedral city is since 1985 member of the international city alliance against nuclear weapons, the “Hiroshima gnawing ASP AI alliance in such a way specified”.
To the interesting parks in Cologne belong also the Blücherparkin the quarter Bilderstöckchen and the Vorgebirgspark in Raderthal, those, although arranges both very different, at the beginning 20. Century after the plans of the garden architect Fritz Encke were put on. The Klettenbergpark in the quarter of the same name became between 1905 and 1908 in a formerGravel pit as elevator park put on. The Fritz Encke Volkspark in Raderthal is despite the losses (partial land development into the 1950er years) one of the most important plants of the 1920er years.
The struggle race put on with the urban extension after 1881 was equipped, so with numerous park-similar plantsat the Saxonia ring, emperor William ring, Hansaring, Ebert place and Theodor Heuss ring. Changed after the Second World War the plants or to a large extent removed and only the western part of the park at the Theodor Heuss ring with Weiher is still nearly in the original condition.
In the Cologne north is the local recreation and sport area Fühlinger lake.It consists of seven connected lakes and a Regattabahn. The area offers itself for bathing, swimming, dipping, fishing rods, Windsurfen, Kanufahren and rudders. U-shaped around raincorrode-branch-strain running road frequently by Inline Skatern one uses.
- Football: 1. Fiber plastic Cologne, Fortuna Cologne, Viktoria Cologne uvm.
- Ice hockey: Cologne sharks
- basketball: Rhine energy Cologne
- cycle racing: Eagle Cologne, PSV Cologne
- hand ball: VFL Gummersbach
- baseball: Cologne Cardinals, Cologne Dogers
- American football: Cologne Centurions, Cologne Chargers, Cologne Falcons
- bath min clay/tone: UC black-and-white Cologne
- Hockey: Red white Cologne , Cologne and Marienburger sport club (MSC)
the Rhine energy stadium ( Müngersdorfer stadium) is black-and-white of Cologne football arena.
particularly on weekend tummeln itself in the city centerNative one and tourist, young person and student in numerous discotheques, night clubs, bars and Lounges, which might cover each taste and purse. Points of main approach are thereby the old part of town, the Kwartier Latäng (Cologne student quarters) around the Zülpicher and the Luxemburger road, the Friesenviertelin the proximity of the Friesenplatzes, as well as the southern part of the town at the Chlodwigplatz and the old person citizen road. In addition possesses Cologne with “pasha” in honour field the largest joy house of Europe.
KarnevalThe Cologne Karneval - „the fifth season “- begins to 11.11. at 11.11 o'clock on the age market. After a short, but violent prelude the Karneval to New Year inserts a break. Then the actual “session “begins, which lasts up to ashtray Wednesday with the traditional fish meal. ThisParting from the multicolored Karnevalstreiben becomes by the so-called.Nubbelverbrennung around midnight rung in by Karnevalsdienstag on ashtray Wednesday.
during the Karnevalssession, whose length is determined by the Ostertermin (40 days after ashtray Wednesday - to take in account without Sundays- is Easter and Easter is on first Sunday after full moon in spring - thus variable), meetings and balls with omitted Karnevalsprogramm find and - float. „The official “Sitzungskarneval finds its trailer shank predominantly in the older and more conservative public. Above allto the “splendor” - meetings appears themselves the local Polit and Geldprominenz.
In the last decades a reaction was established to the traditional Sitzungskarneval, which Karneval “Cologne of the “fixed committee one controls predominantly. Their sign is the Stunksitzung, meanwhilethe turnover-strongest meeting of the Cologne Karnevals also over 40 meeting days in the Cologner “E-work”. In addition come still the stifling-lesbian pink meeting, its different Sprösslinge and the tavern movement “Loss sing more mer”, each year already before Karneval of thousands of humans when “a singing”for the new songs the session joins in.
The session culminates in the road and Kneipenkarneval, with which also the younger Karnevalsbegeisterten through-celebrates gladly the nights. This begins on woman nearly night, thus Thursday before rose Monday, and shifts the city at the Rhinefor the next 6 days into a kind state of emergency, in which the public life (authorities, schools, business) comes to a large part to succumbing. In this time also the numerous Karnevalszüge in the individual boroughs takes place, their largest thatRose on Mondays course in the city center is.
A characteristic is the spirit course: In the year 1991, as because of 2. The Gulf War the official Strassenkarneval and with it also the rose on Mondays course, lived the old tradition of the spirit course failed. Thus follownichtorganisierte Gruppen demÄäzebär, der die kalte Jahreszeit vertreiben soll. Since then each Karnevalssamstag the Cologne spirit course took place, which pulled at night by different quarters of the city. Where it permitted security, for this by the city the road lighting was switched off.The spirit course 2006 was called off first because of shortage of money, took place however, after various calls to “wild removals” in the Internet, but. The slogan for 2006 was: “US dr Lamäng. Jeister at the Engk? “(Completely spontaneously. Spirit at the end?)
- music and
- fireworks on the Rhine Christopher Street Day (CSD
- ) or also ColognePride regular meetings of Cologne Karneval of Cologne lights, largest lesbian and gay parade in Germany, always on the first weekend in July (2006 however of 14. until 16,7.), supplements ofa two-week master program
- ring celebration, internationally meeting occupied large music meeting at Cologne
- rings with free entrance the Cologne Marathon in September (runner, Handbiker, Inliner)
- international Cologne Comedy festival with 120 meetings
- MusikTriennale Cologne festival with music 20. and 21.Century (every three years)
- Lit.Cologne, 5-tägiges Literaturfestival
- C/O Pop / Cologne on Pop, festival for electronic Popkultur
- round around Cologne, international cycle racing classical author
Cologne is coined/shaped by a long culinary tradition,locally available resources again and again with imported, partly exotic elements enriched. Due to the outstanding position in the international trade in in former times time herring, shells, in addition, many spices in the kitchen were here already used. In the Middle Ages, as salmonplentifully in the Rhine present were, was considered this fish as arm people meal, while herring was a Zierde of the civil kitchen. The rheinische herring-tap with apples, bulbs and cream witnesses this very day of it. Also shells rheinischer kind are hardly to be excluded from the catering trade.
as usual in the Rhine country, is gladly combined sweet and Herzhaftes. The good soil and the climate provide besides for a prominent role of vegetable in the Cologne kitchen. Sweet-sour classical authors thatKöl kitchen are originally on basis by horse meat prepared and with plentiful addition by raisins provided the Rheini sour roast, and simpler skies un the Ääd, the blended potato and apple mash, to which gladly roasted Flönz (blood sausage) is handed. Highlyin the course Wirsing and asparagus are located as fine season vegetable.
a special role in Cologne play the brewing houses: These were originally expenditure for beer of the Cologne breweries, however to the main offerer of kölsch civil kitchen developed. Beside the mentioned courts are here deftigeMeals such as Krüstchen, Hämchen, to receive Haxe and Rievkooche. Due to the manufacture expenditure the latters are handed frequently only on certain days. Like are also Tatar, Köl caviar or Halver cock as small Happen to the Kölsch, that herealways freshly from the barrel comes and by the Köbes into 0,2-Liter-Stangen one serves.
Pastry specialities are cap, cap almonds and Krapfen as well as a multiplicity at covered and uncovered cakes, which are garniert mainly with apples and plums. Gesüsst becomes sometimes also Carrot herb, which is very popular also as Brotbelag.
- Kölnisch water original Eau de Cologne
- level Cologne
- Cologne aerial ropeway
- the “inclined tower of Cologne “
- people observatory Cologne
- the most important roads andPlaces were described under “important roads and places by Rhine Ruhr “.
economics and infrastructure
the economy in Cologne is coined/shaped by the foodstuffs industry, the automotive manufacture, the chemical industry and the media. In addition, thattertiary sector with research, administration, fair, insurance, banks and the centers of large industrial companies are important in that and for the city. In addition the tourism comes.
- the Anuga, a trade fair of the food production and food industry
- the Photokina, the most important trade fair of the photo industry
- the KIND Cologne, a trade fair for modern trend art
- the international bicycle and motorcycle exhibition (IFMA)
the cityCologne is traffic-moderately well attached. In the southeast of the city, in the urban district Porz, is the airport Cologne/Bonn. It is one of the envelope-strongest German freight airports (over 650.000 tons in the year 2005), the European stroke of UPS and the most important spiderfor cheap flier (9.4 millions Passengers 2005). Since 1994 it carries the name Konrad Adenauer airport. The airport Cologne/Bonn is beside the airport Leipzig-resounds the only German airport, which does not possess restrictions of night flight. 139 air targets in 38 countries are offered.
The following federal motorwayslead by the city or closely to it past (Cologne motorway circuit):
A 1 tri he Cologne Dortmund, A 3 Frankfurt at the Main Cologne upper living, A 4 Aachen Cologne Olpe, A 57 Cologne Duisburg, A 59 Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf and A 555 Bonn Cologne. Furthermore by the city the federal highways lead B 8, B 9, B 51, B 55, B 59, B 264, B 265 and B 506.
the Cologne main station is the western turntable of Germany of international rail long-distance traffic. Ofhere lines lead Neuss in all directions to Trier (Eifel course) , Aachen (developed road Cologne Aachen) , Paris as well as Moenchengladbach , Neuss across mountain home (Erftbahn) , - Krefeld across Dormagen (linksrheinisch), Duesseldorf/Ruhr district (rechtsrheinisch), Wuppertal, Bergisch Gladbach, Gummersbach (Oberbergi course), victories (triumph-strain) and Frankfurt/Main (high-speed distance covered Cologne Rhine/Main) as well as ever a linksrheinische and a rechtsrheinische line toward the south (to Bonn).
See also list of Cologne stations
thatpublic local passenger traffic (ÖPNV) serve rapid-transit railway - lines, the metropolitan railway - and Buslinien of the Cologne transporting enterprises as well as Buslinien of other public transport companies. All means of transport in Cologne are usable at uniform prices within the traffic group Rhine victory (VRS). This is with the neighbouring Traffic group Rhine Ruhr tooths.
Approximately 1200 Cologne taxis are available around the clock.
A characteristic is the Rhine express course, the only aerial ropeway for the crossing of a river in Germany.
Put on on the occasion of the Bundesgartenschau 1957, and at that time still without later“under it-built” zoo bridge (urban motorway).
Cologne is seat of numerous institutions, mechanisms and supraregional well-known associations as well as authorities and bodies of the public right, under it
- office for the military shielding service
- Federal Office for goods traffic
- Federal Office for protection of the constitution
- Federal Office forthe civil service
- federal agency for external trade
- federal police station Cologne
- Bundesinstitut for sport science
- Federal association of the German industry (BDI)
- Federal association of German banks e. V.
- Federal union of the German employers' associations e. V. (Federal Employers Association)
- Federal union of the local central associations
- office for federal administration
- federal center for health clearing-up (BZgA)
- German theatre association -Federal association of German theatres
- German singer federation e. V.
- German city day
- German Institut for medical documentation and information (DIMDI)
- fee introduction center of the public broadcasting corporations in the Federal Republic of Germany (GEZ)
- chamber of trade to Cologne
- office for army
- the welfare army in Germany - religious community D. o. R.
- General customs office Cologne
- Chamber of Commerce and industrie (IHK) to Cologne
- circle military spare office Cologne
- church Zusatzversorgungskasse of the federation of the Diözesen Germany
- Kolpingwerk Germany, Kolpingwerk Europe and Kolpingwerk internationally
- office for Air Force
- landscape federation Rhine country
- Air Force guidance command of the German Federal Armed Forces
- Malteser emergency service
- regional finance offices Cologne (federation) and Rhine country (country)
- officer applicant test center (OPZ) that German Federal Armed Forces
- office for personnel of the German Federal Armed Forces
- advice of the municipalities and regions of Europe/German section
- Customs Office
Cologne are seat of different courts:
- Higher regional court Cologne
- regional court Cologne
- district court Cologne
- revenue court Cologne
- Higher Labor Court Cologne
- labor court Cologne
- Administrative Court Cologne
- social court Cologne
are universities at present eleven national and private universities in Cologne with numerous different courses of studies. They coin/shape the picture of the city Cologne as one of the three largest university cities. Cologne has the call as multi-cultural city also, because aboutThe tenth inhabitant student are, who originates out completely not only from Cologne, but Germany and the world.
Cologne is beside Berlin, Hamburg and Munich with approximately 30,000 to 40,000 persons employed in this range onethe largest and most important medium locations in Germany. However the WDR employs 3,500 coworkers in Cologne. It has its head office in Cologne also, just like the television stations RTL and various Radiosender as well as different smaller disk label.
Important medium mechanisms in Cologne are for example the academy of art for media Cologne, the international film school Cologne and the GAG Academy for regenerating Comedians. In addition the country North Rhine-Westphalia operates a film promotion. Particularly in „the Belgian quarter so mentioned “many small film production companies are settled, those usually howeverturn, but larger film production companies with individual services and technical equipment support.
Larger medium areas in Cologne are for example the Media park at the Hansaring (20 hectars, 174,000 m ² office surface), which was established 1999 on the area of a former marshalling yard. Inthe modern buildings in the Media park, under it the 148 meters high Cologne tower, about 250 companies with approximately 5,000 persons employed are settled, from whom well 60% are in the medium and data communication area active.
A further important medium area is the medium center Mülheim. On parts of a former factory site approximately E-work many artists and agencies has itself settled around the large meeting-resounds. Also some TV-Studios are to be found there, in those and. A. for Sat.1 one produces.
In addition is in the northwestthe city (on the area of the former military airport Butzweilerhof) the Coloneum, Europe of largest Studiokomplex with a surface of 35 hectars and 20 of Studios (25,000 m ²) with up to 30 meters of Deckenhöhe. In the southwest of the city between Cologne and Hürthis in addition a large Studiokomplex of ending mol, in which many shows for RTL and Sat.1 are produced.
honour citizen of Cologne [work on ]. See for this the list of the honour citizens of Cologne. In June 2002 the “Initiativkreis appointed alternative honour citizenry” for the first time with the catholic minister Franz Meurer an alternative honour citizen of Cologne.
sons and daughters of the city
of city books and Atlases
- German city Atlas; Volume II, 2. On behalf the Kuratoriums for comparative city history e. V. and with support of the German research council, hrsg. by Heinz Stoob †, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Jürgen Lafrenz and Peter Johannek. City briefcase Cologne, authors: Hansgerd Hellenkemper, Emil Meynen.Dortmund Altenbeken, 1979.ISBN 3-89115-317-1
- Cologne, the historical topographic Atlas, hrsg. of Dorothea Wiktorin among other things. Emons, Cologne 2001, ISBN of 3-89705-229-6
- of Prussia cities - memorandum to the 100-jährigen anniversary of the city order of 19. November 1808; hrsg. on behalf the executive committee of the Prussian one City daily of Professor. Dr. Heinrich silver-slide, Berlin, 1908
- Rheini city book; Volume III 3. Volume from “German city book. Manual of urban history - on behalf of the working group of the historical commissions and with support of the German city daily, the German standard ware and of theGerman municipality daily, hrsg. by Erich Keyser. Stuttgart 1956.
- Curdes, Gerhard; Ulrich, Markus: The development Cologne urban space - the influence of examples and innovations on the form of the city.Dortmunder selling for building and planning literature, Dortmund1997, ISBN 3-929797-36-4
- Dehio, George: Manual of the German art monuments: North Rhine-Westphalia I. Treatment. of Claudia Euskirchen, Olaf Gisbertz, Ulrich shepherd and others Einl. by Udo Mainzer. Munich 2005. XXX, 1312 S. with 150 sketches & plans, glossary, index, LN. ISBN 3-422-03093-X
- Kier, Hiltrud: Small history of art of Cologne. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47170-6
- Martin Rüther: Cologne in the Second World War: Everyday life and experiences between 1939 and 1945, representations - pictures - sources. With Beitr. of Gebhard Aders. - Cologne: Emons2005, 960 S. (the LV documentation center of the city Cologne, Bd =Schriften. 12), ISBN 3-89705-407-8
- shoe, Christian: Cologne of 85 quarters. History, data, facts, names. Of A such as old part of town to Z such as village, Cologne library 10. Emons publishing house 2003, ISBN 3897052784
- Stelzmann,Arnold; Frohn, Robert:Illustrated history of the city Cologne, 11. improved edition. Bachem, Cologne 1990 (1. Edition 1958), ISBN 3-7616-0973-6
- Treeck, Bernhard van: Street kind Cologne. Edition Aragon (Germany), Moers 1996, ISBN 3-89535-434-1
- Wolff, Gerta: The Roman-Germanic Cologne -Leader to museum and city. Bachem, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-7616-1370-9
- Cologne, Merian number 7. July 1988.
- Baedeker alliance travel guide Cologne 9. Aufl. 1994
Unterhaltsames over Cologne
- Jürgen Becker: Biotope for Bekloppte -A reader for Immis and homeland deer. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1995, ISBN 346202423X.
- Friedhelm Biermann: Three kings, eleven thousand virgins and some more more - a unterhaltsamer excursion by Cologne centuries. Emons, Cologne 2001, ISBN 3897052288.
- Hanns DieterHüsch:Cologne. Owls, Freiburg 1993, ISBN 3-89102-235-2.
- Falko Rademacher: Cologne for Imis - a manual by the strangest city of the world. Emons, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3897052490.
- Thomas's R. P. Mielke: Colonia, novel of a city - two thousandYears Cologne history maintenance SAM tells. Lübbe, mountain. To Gladbach 2003, ISBN 340414855X
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