King mountain (Prussia)

king mountain (Prussia) was until 1945 political, economical and cultural center of the Prussian province East Prussia. At the end 2. World war the city was taken by Soviet troops. The northern part of East Prussia fell after end of war under Soviet administration. The strongly destroyed city became underthe name Kaliningrad again developed. Due to escape, driving out and Rachepogromen the portion of the German population had disappeared as far as possible.

Wappen von Königsberg
Coat of arms of king mountain


table of contents

geographical layer

the area former king mountain is appropriate for that there to both banks of the delta of the river Pregel, freshness the Haffreached. This again is distinguished by the narrow peninsula the carbon elimination Nehrung from the Baltic Sea. By the Königsberger ship canal to 50 km removed Pillau exists a direct connection to the open sea. On the road and/or. Railway is distant for Berlin about 650 km. The peninsula SAM countrywith its Baltic Sea baths Cranz, Neukuhren, Palmnicken and noise were used of the Königsbergern as local recreation area.

history

early period

for the Steinzeit some prussische villages already were within the later Königsberger of city: Juditten (prussisch: black), Kosse (pr.: smalltrees), carrying home croup-lies (pr.: Clearing and village), bag home (pr.: Kieferharz, village), Laak (pr.: Haselstrauch), Ponarth (pr.: in the proximity of the inundation). Also the later name of the cathedral island Kneiphof is derived from Prussi and means umflutet its, to be inundated. The cathedral island became only during thatMedal time 1327 fastens and settles.

German medal

the country at the Baltic Sea was around the year 1000 n. Chr. from the Pruzzen belonging to the Balten inhabits. 1255 established the German medal on Veranlassung of the böhmischen king Ottokar II.in place of the conqueredand Tvankste destroyed prussischen castle first a wooden castle named Conigsberg, which was replaced 1257 by a building of stones. The castle served for the protection against the heidnischen Pruzzen.

In the surrounding field of the castle three cities developed for Kneiphof , those one in each case named old part of town, praise not andown administration, its attachment, a market and a church received. Generally the year 1255 (750-Jahrfeier 2005) is regarded as a developing year of the entire town. The old part of town was put on 1256 in the area of the later rock fill dam and became after the destruction by the Pruzzen 1263 in the valley belowthe lock mountain again developed. It received the municipal law to 1286 and became 1340 member of the Hanse.

The Kneiphofinsel was since 1322 of religious district, for which between 1330 and 1380 the cathedral was established. After the loss of the Marienburg 1457 the castle seat of the high master becamethe German medal.

Prussia

1525 converted the high master Mark count Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach the medal state into that lay duchy duchy Prussia and inserted the lutherische reformation in the country. 1544 were created the first Evangelist university in king mountain (“Albertina” ) by duke Albrecht.The rector of the High School in Elbing, Willem van de Voldersgraft, came to the Königsberger Albertina and was at the same time an advice of the duke. The Prussian historian Christoph Hartknoch described the life of the advice and rector in its Vita Guilielmi Gnaphei (Acta Borussica III). 1618 became throughSuccession cure prince Johann Sigismund of Brandenburg duke of Prussia.

As also its predecessors had it the Polish leaning sovereignty over the duchy to recognize. By skillful Lavieren between European powers it succeeded to the cure prince Friedrich William of Brandenburg (the “large cure prince”) the full sovereignty over thatDuchy Prussia with the cities old part of town, Kneiphof and praise not, the later king mountain, to attain (contracts of Labiau 1656 and Wehlau 1657, peace of Oliva 1660). Before it had to strike down however the Königsberger rebellion, around far its taxes for its standing army applies toocan, so that it remained strong opposite the Polish king as its leaning man.

1701 were raised the duchy Prussia to the kingdom and cure prince Friedrich III. crowned itself to 18. January in the Königsberger castle church as Friedrich I. to the king in Prussia.

The three cities praise not, old part of townand Kneiphof were combined 1701 to the city king mountain. King mountain was capital of the province East Prussia and particularly in the empire as unofficial second capital (to Berlin) of the total state was often seen.

1708 - 1710 had East Prussia large population losses by the plague. These became under that“Soldier king” Friedrich William I by a forced immigration and economic policy to a large extent again balanced (for example 1732 immigration of the salt citizens Exulanten, the last Protestanten still remaining in the ore diocese Salzburg, who were sold by archbishop Firmian). In the wars Friedrichs of the large one 1740 - 1763 became East Prussiawith king mountain theater of war and 1758 repeat occupied by Russian troops.

1724 were born in king mountain the probably most famous son of the city, the philosopher Immanuel Kant. Kant is to have left its hometown in his life hardly. By it the Königsberger university became a center thatPhilosophy. Around 1800 king mountain with approximately 60,000 inhabitants ranked among the largest German cities.

1730 were born in king mountain Johann George Hamann, which one called the Magnus of the north. He was philosopher and writer. The writer, musician and lawyer E.T.A. Hoffmann became 1776 in king mountainborn.

As itself Friedrich II. 1772 at the first Polish division took part, came the country to the lower Weichsel as west Prussia under the rule of the Hohenzollern. Since one differentiated the provinces west Prussia and East Prussia. Capital of the latters was king mountain.

Also in the Napoleoni warsEast Prussia with king mountain was theater of war (escape and retreat area of the Prussian army and the king after the defeats against Napoleon 1807). After the defeat of the “Grande Armée “Napoleon in Russia the organized liberation movement began against Napoleon from East Prussia (30. December 1812 Military convention of rope rye between the Prussian general Yorck and the Russian commanders). 1829 - 1878 was united the two provinces east and west Prussia as province “Prussia” with king mountain as province capital. After the 1878 carried out separation king mountain became capital of the province East Prussia. Since 1867 was itPart north Germans of the federation, since 1871 it belonged to the German Reich.

King mountain was also administrative seat of the governmental district of the same name and seat of numerous authorities. 1860 became the building of the Prussian east course, the king mountain at Berlin attached and the city an important junction inintra-European traffic made completed. In again-created German realm experienced king mountain an economic upswing.

after the First World War

after the First World War the growth of the city obstructing fortifications were geschleift. By the Versailler peace treaty had been separated East Prussia from the remaining realm area, whichin particular to large economic problems led. These were moderated by a purposeful economic policy (see east fair) and other measures ( see shipping service East Prussia).

In the year 1920 realm president Friedrich Ebert in the Königsberger zoo opened the first east fair, which was regularly held until 1941. 1919 became thatfirst civilian airport of Germany sketched by Hans Hopp taken in Königsberg Devau in enterprise. The opening of the new main station at the southern outskirts of a town in the year 1929 made the transformation possible of the former station area. The former fortifications were converted into a green belt with numerous parks, that finally 602 hectarescovered.

the Second World War and direct post-war period

in the Second World War it came to the German invasion into the USSR to some smaller bomb releases by Soviet airplanes on king mountain, which came with the advance of the German armed forces however soon to succumbing. Afterwards king mountain remaineddue to his distant situation in the northeast Germany at that time long time from the war events exempts, to it at the nights from 26. to 27. August 1944 as well as of 29. to 30. August 1944 was strongly destroyed by British bombers. King mountain burned several days long. Thathistorical town centre, consisting of the quarters old part of town, praise not and Kneiphof was practically completely destroyed, among them the cathedral, the lock, all churches of the city center, the old and the new university as well as the old memory quarter.

The number of the dead ones and missed ones becomes estimated on 4.200.About 200,000 Königsberger had become shelterless. Long king mountain defended itself 3 months, cut off from the remainder of Germany against the Red Army (battle around king mountain). Few weeks before end of the Second World War the city avowed as the “fortress” was taken by Soviet troops. Numerous becameCruelties commits, from which the massacre in the municipality particularly admits Metgethen (massacre of Metgethen) from February 1945 is. The military guidance of the city under general Otto lax one resulted to 9. April 1945. At this time the Russian soldiers already rosethe university place, under which the shelter of lax ones was. The preceding road fight offering no prospects had demanded high losses on both sides.

winner powers had decided Soviet Union to the Potsdamer conference to place the northern East Prussia under the administration of the Soviet Union. To 17. October 1945 arranged the USSR this area of the Soviet republic Russia to and appointed king mountain the administrative seat of the again-created Kaliningradskaja Oblast (dt. “District Kaliningrad”, briefly was common the name Kenigsbergskaja Oblast). At this time were of that approx. 150,000 inhabitants, itself with end of war stillin the city, only about 20,000 ruled remained. Many had died by hunger, diseases and encroachments of soldiers, others under largest difficulties to the west had fled.1946 were renamed king mountain in Kaliningrad.

In October 1947 then with it one began, up to then still inKing mountain and the surrounding area remaining German population toward the west abzutransportieren.


Schloss
Lock
Kaiserbrücke
emperor bridge
Münzplatz
Münzplatz

population

parallel with the political and economic development rose the total population of king mountain continuously. Around 1400 approximately 10,000 inhabitants in the city lived. 12,000 humans died1601/02 with a plague epidemic disease. In the year 1813 50,000 inhabitants in king mountain lived. In the year 1864 king mountain became by exceeding of the 100,000 inhabitant border the large city. By numerous incorporations the total population rose until 1910 to 246.000 inhabitants. After that 1. World war slowed down growth,1925 lived 287,000 inhabitants in king mountain. Until 1933 the number of inhabitants rose by numerous incorporations to 316.000. Briefly before outbreak 2. World war lived 372,000 humans in king mountain.

From the year 1925 a breakdown of the population is well-known after denominations:

in the year 1523 were held the first Evangelist lecture in the Königsberger cathedral. The first catholic municipality after the reformation was created 1616. The first synagog was furnished 1756.

traffic and economics

as the first modern traffic route became 1828the Chaussee to Berlin (the later realm road 1 completed to Berlin. In the following decades the road system became toward Tilsit (1832), Gumbinnen (1835) and Labiau (1853) extends.

The first railway in East Prussia operated to 2. August 1853 from king mountain to brown mountain. 1857 were the Prussian east course to Berlin continuous passably, 1860 became the continuous railroad line after pc. Petersburg opens. 1868 could be finished the eastPrussian south course built by private investors, which continued to lead on Russian side to Odessa. This course company was put under state control 1903 and the national National Railroad management king mountain subordinated. To 19. September 1929 could be opened the new Königsberger main station. One year later was built also a new north station, which served traffic on the peninsula SAM country. To 22. January 1945 left the last course before the surrender the Königsberger main station in RichtingBerlin.

To 26. May 1887 drove the first meterspurige streetcar into king mountain. To 15. October 1943 followed the first Obus - line.

For the Hanseatic city king mountain was the maritime trade of of great importance. This very day one finds in the other Hanseatic cities numerous of references to this oldConnection, so e.g. in Hamburg city halls. Also here an important Fischereiflotte was resident. One fished with sail punts v.a. on the carbon elimination Haff. The joy of some young people to common sails led to 7. February 1855 for the establishment of the first German sail association, sports club RHE, inKing mountain.

After East Prussia after that 1. World war separated from the realm area was, made this necessary the development of the Königsberger of port for the high sea port. Three harbor basins were created, a handels, a industrie and a wood port. Of importance for traffic to the remaining realm area was that Shipping service East Prussia. Likewise after that 1. World war was converted the military airfield already existing 1919 to a civilian airport, from which connections became to maintain to Berlin, Stockholm and Moscow. At the 3. December 1938 knew finally the motorway Elbing - king mountain traffic to be handed over.

The Königsberger telephone network was furnished 1883 and is connected since 1893 with Berlin.

Always the timber economy for king mountain was of great importance. In their consequence two large cellulose factories developed. As port king mountain possessed also one threw and as course junction a Waggonfabrik. Was world-wide uniquethe Bernsteinmanufaktur.

Beside the mortgage bank association bank and the 1895 created north Germans Creditanstalt existed to the eastPrussian landscape as credit institutes in king mountain in addition the 1871 created Königsberger.

important persons

inKing mountain were to 1945 the Wallenrodt library and the Prussia collection at home. Due to the war effects today only still fragment acres in Kaliningrad are to be found.

Further well-known persons: see list of the sons and daughters of the city king mountain

culinary specialities

literature

  • Andrea Ajzenstejn: The Jewish community in king mountain - from the address to the legal equalization 2004. ISBN 3-8300-1350-7
  • Robert Albinus: King mountain encyclopedia, peppering castle 2002 [ISBN 3-88189-441-1]
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Armstedt: History königl. Main and Residenzstadt king mountain inPrussia. Reprint of the expenditure for original Stuttgart 1899.
  • Max prince: Gefilte fish and like it continued, Dt. Paperback Verl. 2004, [ISBN 3-423-13190-X]
  • Fritz Gause: The history of the city king mountain in Prussia, 3.Aufl. Cologne 1996 [ISBN 3-412-08896-X]
  • Adalbert Goertz: Mennonite Baptisms1770 - 1820 in king mountain, East Prussia
  • Jürgen Manthey: KING MOUNTAIN - history of a citizen of the world republic, Hanser 2005, ISBN 3446206191
  • Caspar stone: Old person king mountain, special writing of the association for family research in east and west Prussia No. 91, Hamburg 1998 [ISBN 3-931577-14-7]
  • Michael Wieck: Certification of the fall of king mountain, Beck publishing house 2005, ISBN of 3406511155
  • peoples Frobath: The Königsberger area in the policy of the Soviet Union 1945-1990, Berlin publishing house 2001, ISBN 3-8305-0226-5

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see also: Museum city king mountain




 

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