of these articles presents the Soviet secret service KGB. For the Byelorussian with the same name see follow-upsecretserved KGB (white Russia).
Coat of arms

KGB (Russian Комитетгосударственнойбезопасности Tondokument ? / License, committee for public security) was the name of the Soviet secret service. The KGB developed 1954 from departments of the inland secret service of the ministry of the Interior MWD. Its center had its seat on „the Lubjanka “- place in Moscow.

Wappen des KGB
Coat of arms of the KGB

after the Putschversuch from August 1991, into that thatKGB chairmen at that time General Vladimir Krjutschkow, got general Wadim Bakatin the order was considerably involved to dissolve the authority. To 6. November 1991 heard to exist the KGB on. Its tasks became in Russia of the new FSB (Федеральнаяслужбабезопасности)(Föderaler security agency) taken over. The secret service in white Russia carries further the designation KGB.

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tasks and organization

The major tasks of the KGB consisted of foreign espionage, counter espionage, control and liquidation of regime opponents within the Soviet Union as well as the guard of members of the party and government.

„The Lubjanka “in Moscow

more than other secret services relied the KGBon so-called. “Human Intelligence “, thus by own agents or contact contacts received realizations, whereas the western opponents of the KGB trusted Intelligence “(interception and decoding radiograms) also strongly on photographic reconnaissance as well as” signal. The authority proved therebyin the course of the cold war as susceptible to intentionally strewn wrong information.

From its establishment, and into the 1950er , a substantial, economicalally and politically meaning task of the KGB existed years inside and/or. its forerunner organizations in the “supply” of the GULAG. It participated crucially in the looking processes of the 1930er years (1936-1939), the Stalin cleanings and the “feedback” from soldiers of the Red Army (after the advance on Germany and its occupation in the Second World War) into those generally speaking countryexisting labour camps. A further Soviet-Russian secret service is the army secret service GRU.

acquaintance KGB operations

  • Alger was called is suspected for the KGB to have spied which however never until in the latter be proven could.
  • Robert Hanssen supplied the KGBfrom its position at the FBI with information about the American counter espionage.
  • Aldrich Ames was a KGB mole in the CIA.
  • Ethel and Julius rose mountain were executed, because against their statement one subordinated to them, information about the American atomic program to thatKGB to have passed on.

James Jesus fishing clay/tone, boss of the CIA counter espionage, lived in constant fear that the KGB “at two key positions could install moles”: In the own department as well as their counterpart at the federal police FBI. With two agents would be it thatTo attain KGB possible been control or knowledge of actions against own feeler gauges and protect these thus. In addition the counter espionage had the task to drying-add stranger sources of secret service and moles at these positions would have become approach places for double agents. After unmaskingby Ames and Hanssen, fishing rod clay/tone fears appeared suddenly well justified, after it was considered easy before paranoid.

organization of the authority

of the KGB was divided into head offices. The most important were:

  • The first head office (foreign operations) was for foreign activitiesand collecting secret service information responsibly.
  • The second head office was responsible for political control of the citizens and the monitoring of foreign tourists and diplomats in the Soviet Union.
  • The third head office (armed forces) did not belong actually to the KGB, but to the Ministry of Defense, was but nevertheless in the KGB building at the Dserschinskiplatz in Moscow accommodated. Their tasks existed in the military counter espionage and the political monitoring of the Red Army. You were subordinate for this purpose the military secret service GRU.
  • The fifth head office did not exist from beginningon, but for the discharge of the second head office and took over from there the tasks of control of the Russian minorities, the church and the Intelligenzija was created.
  • The sieved head office built mainly technical equipment to the monitoring and espionage.
  • The respected head officewas responsible for communication. It observed strange communication, became for the other head offices, if it concerned Kryptografie, kept the contact supporting active KGB stations in overseas, and developed telecommunications equipment.
  • The ninth head office placed the bodyguards for high-ranking party officials andtheir families.

chairmen of the KGB and its predecessor organizations

  • GPU political head department within the NKWD People's Commissariat of theInternal
    • starting from February 1922
    • Felix Dserschinski 1922 - 1923
  • OGPU united one political head office
    • starting from July 1923
    • Felix Dserschinski 1923 - July 1926
    • Wjatscheslaw Menschinski July 1926 - May 1934 (died a natural death)
  • NKGB People's Commissariat for public security
    • starting from February 1941
    • Wsewolod Merkulow 1941
  • GUGB head office for public security within the NKWD
    • starting from July 1941
    • Lawrenti Berija 1941-1943
  • NKGB People's Commissariat for public security
    • starting from April 1943
    • Wsewolod Merkulow February 1941 - March 1946
  • MWD - Ministry for internal affairs
    • starting from March 1953
    • LawrentiBerija 1953
    • Sergei Kruglow 1954

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