KLM

of these articles treats the Netherlands airline KLM. For the KLM row in the ice hockey, see KLM row.
KLM
establishment: 1919
IATA - Code: KL
I.C.A.O. - Code: KLM
call signal: KLM
seat: Amstelveen/Schiphol
firm structure:
Alliance: SkyTeam, before it KLM nwa
fleet strength: 104
goals: 99

The Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. (KLM, translation: Royal airline) is simultaneous the largest Netherlands airline and the oldest still existing airline of the world. Homeland airport and aviation spider of the line are Amsterdam air haven Schiphol. 2004 fused the KLM with the air France to Air France KLM. For legal reasons the two societies must operate however until 2008 separated further.

Chairman of the airline is Leo van Wijk. In the financial year run off 2003/2004 the KLM obtained a profit of approx. 21 million euro. KLM busily over 30.000 coworkers and fliesover 300 goals world-wide on (all numbers without air France). In Germany Berlin/Tegel, Bremen, Duesseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hanover, Cologne, Munich, Nuremberg, Münster/Osnabrück and Stuttgart by KLM and/or the daughter KLM town center hopper are served. In Switzerland the airline flies the national airports Zurich and Geneva several timesdaily on.

The Logo of the KLM is a representative, light blue crown with a likewise light blue KLM signature on white background. Often the Logo emerges also in a reverse color pattern (white Logo on light blue background).

Table of contents

history

the pioneer time

the 1918 educated royal Netherlands aviation commission was concerned after end of the First World War with the possibilities for the use of air traffic. ThatThis commission the suggestion for a aviation exhibition submitted pilot and businessman Albert Plesman, the 1918 under the name ELTA (Eerste Luchtverkeer Tentoonstelling Amsterdam, too German: First air traffic exhibition Amsterdam was aligned). From the exhibition lively, the idea, a national airline resulted in the life at the aviation commissionto call.

KLM became to 7. September 1919 based. As a chairman Albert Plesman was selected, to who as one of the fathers of the KLM and thus also niederländsichen aviation is considered. Second “father” was the aircraft manufacturer Anthony Fokker, that the technical know-how for the order placed andfor the KLM designed custom-made airplanes. The capital was placed by different Netherlands businessmen. With the establishment to the society by queen Wilhelmina was lent the Netherlands also the descriptor „koninklijk “. The KLM is the oldest still existing airline of the world.

To 17. May 1920 foundthe first flight with a DeHavilland D.H.16 instead of. It led from London to Amsterdam and had two British journalists as passengers as well as some English newspapers as freight on board. At first the society did not possess own airplanes, these by the British enterprise AT&T was placed. Soon that gotEnterprise however also own machines, which come naturally from Fokker.

As national airline the KLM the task was assigned to develop the air traffic to the colony Niederländsich India ( today Indonesia). Thus one already began in the year 1927 with the first flights from Amsterdam to Batavia (today Jakarta). Accomplished starting from 1930 the flights regularly as airline service and in such a way became the Amsterdam Batavia - distance the then longest airline connection world-wide.

1934 - the victory „of the Uiver “

1934 aroused KLM in various regard attention. For the first time the society decidedagainst a product of Fokker and the Douglas ordered DC-2 for the annoyance of the joint founder. Although these airplanes were installed with Fokker, Fokker short time stepped out later of the enterprise. KLM was both for the DC-2 and for the successor DC-3 of European Erstkunde.With it a business relation for many decades began between the KLM and the California manufacturer. Thus KLM became the only society, which operated all airplanes from the DC row of the DC-2 up to the DC-10. The DC-2 proved as very popular and loosened the Fokker machines fast on thatBatavia distance off. In October this yearly participated the KLM with one of these airplanes in the MacRobertson air running between the English mild-resounds and Melbourne in Australia . The DC-2 with the name “Uiver” (Netherlands for stork ) got that under the command of Koene Dirk ParmentierVictory in the Handicap valuation as well as the second place in the speed valuation. Additionally accepted the society with Fokker XVIII flights over the Atlantic after Curaçao and Paramaribo .

the KLM in the Second World War

Eine DC-3 in orangefarbener Lackierung aus dem Aviodrome Museum
a DC-3 in orange lacquer finish from the Aviodrome museum

The Netherlands tried to remain neutral during the Second World War. Thus the airplanes of the KLM were orange painted for better recognition in a sharp. After the assault of the armed forces in the year 1940 KLM stopped traffic starting from Schiphol and fled with some few machinesto England. Many airplanes, among other things some DC-2 and DC-3, were captured by the armed forces and both supplied to the Air Force and Lufthansa. A former KLM DC-2 belonged even to the all-last airplanes of Vorkriegs Lufthansa and remained up to the last war day in Scandinavia inEmployment. KLM however continued its flights in Netherlands India as well as in the Karibik and received from the British government the order to keep the connections between Bristol and Lisbon as well as Bristol and Gibraltar upright in the war years.

the post-war period

after secondWorld war did not lose the KLM anything from its pioneer spirit. The Netherlands government placed an amount from 23 million gulden to the acquisition of a new fleet to the order. The backbone for intra-European traffic formed again the DC-3. For the main lines former military transporters of the type became DC-4/C-54 forcivilian purposes reequipped. At the 21.Mai 1946 KLM became the first airline, which approached New York from the European mainland again. 1947 was purchased for Lockheed Constellations, whereby KLM appeared again as European Erstkunde. Nevertheless KLM ordered also again the competition products of Long Beach, i.e. those DC-6 and the DC-7. 1960 followed already the first jet passenger plane, Douglas a DC-8. In the 60's the piston motor machines displaced Douglas DC-9 also on short distances.

the 70's

the region age 1971 with first Boeing 747 were rung in. Was KLM this time even world-wide Erstkunde for the improved version Boeing 747-200B. Also this airplane was supplemented by a product of the house McDonnell Douglas, whereby KLM Erstkunde for the passenger version of the long-range aircraft DC-10-30 became. For maintenance of the new large-capacity aircraft and the training of personnelfor these machines partnerships with other operators of the DC-10 and the 747 were created. From this the KSSU group, consisting of the KLM, developed SAS, Swissair and the French UTA. The KSSU group is one of first borderspreading co-operation between airlines and is considered as a forerunnerthe today usual aviation alliances. With arrival of the DC-10 1972 also a new color pattern was introduced, which (2004 were easily revised it) ziert to today the airplanes of the KLM.

In this time KLM carried out also much development assistance. The society helped with the structure of the international airlines of Indonesia (Garuda), the Philippines (Philippine airlines) and Venezuela (VIASA). Backbone of the long-distance fleet of these airlines were at the beginning of rented DC-8 and DC-10 of the KLM.

In the 70's it came to a tragic misfortune: To 27. March 1977 pushed oneBoeing 747-200 the KLM when starting of the airport Tenerife - north with Boeing 747-100 the PanAm together. 583 humans died. Until today this is the tragic misfortune in the history of the civil aviation.

recent history

1988 signed KLM inAgreement with the airline Northwest Airlines, which forms thus the longest existing transatlantsiche aviation alliance. For several years KLM was involved also in Northwest Airlines. Shortly thereafter the society became Erstkunde for the combi version of the new Boeing 747-400, after partner Northwest as Erstkunde for thosePassenger version arose.

1991 dared KLM again a courageous step and eliminated due to demand lacking the roofridge Class on the DC-10 - machines, which served the distances between Amsterdam and the Karibik. The enormous increase of the efficiency on these distances led later to the fact that those roofridgeClass on all KLM - flights one eliminated. KLM is thus one few international flag the carrier, which offers only two transport classes on its flights.

A short term partnership with Alitalia in the year 1998 ended two years later with a complaint and a counter suit, with thatKLM was verplichtet in the year 2002 for the payment by 150 million euro at the national Italian airline. Today both airlines are again partners in the context of the SkyTeam - alliance.

The for the time being last mark of European Erstkunde KLM became with Boeing 737-900.

Fusion and co-operation

after the fusion with air France in June 2004 are operated both airlines until at least 2008 independently under the roof common getting thing. The fusion was approved only under certain editions. So the societies various Slots at its homeland airports Paris /Charles hadde Gaulle and Amsterdam deliver and the frequencies on some distances (z. B. reduce after Caracas by attitude of the KLM flights). Although the new enterprise is dominated by the air France, the KLM may lead further the descriptor „koninklijk “(royally). This dominance of the air France, thosein the new getting thing 81% of the portions, was in the Netherlands for a long time a discussion topic holds. Together air France KLM at passenger kilometers is seen the fourth largest airline of the world and the largest of Europe. Based on the obtained conversion the new airline reserves even the first seat world-wide.To 8. December 2004 decided the French government to reduce their stock share from at present 44.1% to 18,35%.

In the framework the fusion KLM joined alliance in September 2004 the Skyteam - around air France, exactly the same as the US partner of many years Northwest Airlines. Inthe new marriage also partnerships with other airlines were brought in, among them Continental Airlines (the USA), for Kenya Airways (Kenya), Martinair and Transavia (both Netherlands). At the last three societies KLM portions holds and is in case of the Transavia (100%) even majority owner. KLMalso a partnership maintained with the society air Exel, which carried in the meantime the name KLM Exel. It does not concern a subsidiary, how often one states.


fleet

KLM fleet

current one fleet

at present exists the fleet outthe following types of aircraft (conditions: At the end of September 2005, airplanes of subsidiaries are here not contained):

interesting here is the fact that Boeing 737 of the third generation received the Boeing code “K2” the Transavia during the older 737 and the large-capacity aircraft the “06” the KLM to have. The detailed name for theseAirplanes thus e.g. reads. Boeing 737-406, Boeing 737-9K2 or Boeing 777-206ER.

fleet planning

celebration are ordered:

  • 5 further airbus A330 -200 than medium-term replacement for of ILFC the leased Boeing 767-300ER.
  • 2 Boeing 777 -200ER for distribution in the year 2006

long-term are thoseMcDonnell Douglas MD-11 by further Boeing 777-200ER to be replaced.

historical fleet

the following well-known airplane samples of the KLM were operated, are however meanwhile superseded:


subsidiary company

KLM town center hopper

see KLM town center hopper

KLM Asia

by a law of the People's Republic of China, which did not permit airlines, which approached Taiwan, to approach also the People's Republic of China KLM saw itself forced to create for the Taiwan distances its own enterprise. For this purpose 1995 the KLM Asia was created, which 5 Boeing 747-400 Combis with additional „Asia “- signature operates.Similar societies were created also by other European airlines. KLM Asia flies KL “the KLM Royal Dutch Airlines under the 2-Letter-Code „.

KLM Alps

the Austrian air Engadina created 1998 the KLM Franchiseunternehmen KLM Alps. KLM Alps maintained among other things airline connections between Friedrichshafen and Vienna. 2001 were renamed KLM Alps in air Alps, since that time the short-lived KLM daughter is history.

KLM cargo

KLM cargo operates three Boeing 747-400ERF as full freighter. Additional capacities are rented by other societies, among other things of Martinair Holland. Basis of this airlineis likewise Amsterdam/Schiphol.

accidents of incidents

Teneriffa (Spain)

27. March 1977
Due to bad visibilities (incident fog), unsatisfactory communication devices as well as technical and human problems during the machines involved and the air traffic control collided a starting Boeing 747the KLM as well as a Boeing 747 the PanAm rolling away from the runway.

With this largest airplane disaster of civilian aviation 583 humans died. From the flight accident investigation reports it follows that none the responsible persons in the Tower and also in the two machines a clearDebt at the disaster to assign was. All involved ones committed serious errors. The American and Spanish investigation report saw the principal debt however with the KLM, while the Netherlands investigation report did not call mainguilty. With consideration of all negative eventualities (fog, uncommonly high density of traffic on the airport lotRodeos, since the two misfortune machines and different one had been rerouted because of a bomb threat on their goal airport there, unsatisfactory communication), which led to the collision of both machines, is probably to be particularly emphasized the following: The Tower knows the PanAm machine on, the exit 3 on the runway tootake. The machine would not be to be taken however technically at all been able this exit. The air traffic control had however only experience with substantially smaller machines, which used usually this airport and problem-free could have passed this exit. The PanAm machine surveyed these due to the fogExit and could point out thus the Tower not that they could not pass this exit. The KLM machine was finally at high time pressure, was ready for launch and could not because of the fog the PanAm machine not see. When the KLM machine asked for start release, it came on thatRadio frequency to an overlapping effect, when the Tower warned the release refused and the PanAm machine at the same time that she is still on the runway. The KLM captain meant however start release to have understood and accelerated his machine. When the two machines had visual contact, the PanAm crew triedto evade, the pilots of the KLM machine tried to pull up their airplane. The alternate attempts failed, with the airplane collision died to 335 humans on board the PanAm machine (61 survivors) as well as all 248 KLM passengers and crew members, among other things the chief pilot of the KLM, flight captain Van Zanten. Both machines burned out completely. Asthe fire-brigade arrived and still strong fog prevailed, began it only the KLM machine to delete; the PanAm had not been noticed yet. Also the Tower did not know (no ground based radar) that the machine had collided with another. Thus the PanAm machine was found only later,where still survivors with the fire had to fight. It is to today heaviest airplane misfortune in the history of civilian aviation.

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see also

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