To KZ DAK-strike
the KZ DAK-strike with DAK-strike, north of Munich, was the first concentration camp. The building began to 21. March 1933. The camp was prototype and Musterlager for all further KZs. Although it was not an extermination camp,at least 30,000 of its prisoners was shot or died at the conditions beneath human dignity in the camp. Beside the KZ and extermination camps Auschwitz became it the epitome for concentration camps in the time of the national socialism.
to 21. March 1933 created KZ DAK-strike was one of the first National Socialist concentration camps and at the same time prototype and model of all further. Both the fundamental organization form, the storage order and the structural facility - a separately secured camp beside the Kommandaturbereich with housing estates, administration and barracks - became by thatCommander Theodor Eicke developed and later than obligatorily on all further concentration camps explains. Eicke, which in June 1933 its post in DAK-strike began, ascended later to the Inspizienten of all concentration camps and formed the further camps after this model.
At first servedthe camp, in order to lock up political prisoners: above all trade unionist, in addition, liberals and conservative politicians isolated communists and Social Democrat. Since the National Socialist policy of the terror and the destruction spread with the time over ever further social classes, also those becameAfter admissions DAK-strike more varied: into the 1930ern gypsies, Jew, witnesses Jehovas, homosexual one and criminal one were added.
DAK-strike was also a central camp for arrested one from the church surrounding field. After information of the catholic church alone 3000 of clergyman is to have been there.Among them Karl Leisner ( kath.) and Martin Niemöller ( ev.) is to be emphasized.
Alone after the Reichspogromnacht 10,000 Jews were instructed into the camp, most however under the edition for leaving Germany again to dismiss. After the instruction Heinrich Himmlers of 5. October 1942 to make the KZs lying in Germany Jew-free „“in DAK-strike catches Jews into the extermination camp Auschwitz deportiert.
At the 1. April 1938, only three weeks after the connection of Austria, those came with so-called “prominent transport”first 151 of majority admitted after to Austrian DAK-strikes. After beginning of the Second World War the camp filled with Jew from the conquered countries, resistance fighters, or simply only humans, who did not want to accept the conquest of their country unkommentiert.
likewise began into the 1940ern systematic mass murder in the camp. Starting from October 1941 Soviet prisoners of war were deportiert to thousands into the camp and shot there. Starting from January 1942 the SS created altogether about 3,000 „invalid “Prisoners into the lock hard home with Linz where it in the context of the action 14f13 guest became. At winter 1942 cruel medical experiments in the camp began, how they were usual also in other concentration camps.
Altogether were over 200,000 prisoners outmore than 50 states in DAK-strike arrested. Altogether 30,000 murders were registered, several thousands further victims are considered however than surely, in particular by the outbreak of a typhoid fever epidemic disease at the beginning of of 1945 and the following evacuation marches. In connection with the typhoid fever epidemic disease is that“Angels of DAK-strike”, the Sudeten German Pater Engelmar untimely to call, to that, even prisoner, voluntarily for the care of the patients announced themselves and to it was infected and died. As the crematorium of the camp one extended, because that the existing masses thatmurdered humans any longer to master did not know, also a Gaskammer was furnished. The fact that this never was in enterprise had however no human background, because the prisoners shifted of DAK-strike into other camps, in order to murder it there.
Of thatPrisoners occupied positions within the stock management remained from beginning to end of the camp in the hands of the political prisoners, to who to a large extent it succeeded to develop also an internal organization within the prisoners and to brake so the SS-system at least a little.Last camp-oldest Oskar Mueller ( KPD) was, the later hessian employment minister. Pater Johannes Maria Lenz reports that the camp-oldest managed it to against-send two prisoners as scouts of the US army since the murder of all prisoners briefly before stood.
thosePrisoners of the camp had to manage not only the camp, but also to perform numerous other work: they schufteten in SS-own crafts enterprises, in road construction, in gravel pits and with the cultivation of moorlands. Starting from 1939 they had additionally for the German armaments industrywork. Starting from 1942 external bearing developed, in which about 37,000 prisoners worked. Starting from March 1944 above all prisoners of war from Eastern Europe should establish enormous underground complexes, in order to resume the German aircraft production underground. However in eleven external bearings with Landsberg at the Lech 30.000 schuftetenSlave worker. Only at the end of of April 1945 these camps before the moving close troops were evacuated, the prisoners on death marches to other places were created.
attempts at passengers
as also in other concentration camps,accomplished in DAK-strike attempts at passengers. This were primarily undercooling attempts and elevator attempts, which were more rapidly accomplished under the line of the SS-physician victory mouth. Besides experiments with malaria and other attempts at passengers were made. The people attempts are inArticles Nürnberger physician process described in detail. Hubertus Strughold exposed prisoners such to conditions of temperature and pressure, as they prevail in 10 km height in space. Subsequently, it dissected the victims with alive body.
to 26. 7,000 prisoners a death march had to begin April of far into the south Germany. To 28. The actual SS-Wachtruppen the camp left April. US Army released to 29. April 1945 the camp and about 30,000 prisoners.In run its came it to encroachments of the US soldiers and prisoners on the camp personnel, who were called afterwards the so-called roof outer massacre. The camp served then still long years as living place for refugees.
the today's memorial place
Only in later years, after former prisoners anprangerten after a meeting on the occasion of an anniversary the unbelievable circumstance that humans under these conditions beneath human dignity would have to still vegetieren, became the establishment of the today's Holocaustgedenkstätte tackled.
The exhibition signsalso in frightening way the way of the newcomers by the camp after and reports over a great many single fates to other one. It is again open for the spring 2003 in revised form and to visit. It is additionally to the exhibition the reproductiona barrack to visit, reflects their interior fittings a cross section by the entire existence time of the camp. The original barracks were torn off, due to their ramshackle condition, with establishment of the memorial place. The outlines of the other 32 barracks were after-poured in concrete.
Groups of prisoners
the security guards of the SS use colored angle " for the distinction of the individual prisoners a system< of the so-called colored angles ref name= ">Concentration camps DAK-strike, Comité international de Dachau 1978, ISBN 3-87490-524-1 S. 54< /ref>. These badges in the concentration camps were small triangles outMaterial, which at the prisoner uniform (upper sleeve, upper Hosenbein or left chest range) were attached. They should show already from a distance, to which group the prisoner belonged. Often the angles with a further symbol of a Unterkategorie were combined. These could its:
- Backdue, characterized by a bar in the same color of the angle, above the same attached (for prisoners to the repeated mark instructed in a KZ were already)
- punishing company, gekennzechnet by a black circle below the angle
- Jewish prisoners, gekennzechnetby a second yellow angle, which should symbolize the David star with the “ primary angle”.
The system of the colored angles transferred of DAK-strike from also to other concentration camps.
political prisoners (red angle)
uses for political prisoners inand also later important key positions formed the main part of the prisoners for the early phase of the camp, like e.g. in the prisoner administration (block-oldest, room-oldest, Kapos) occupied. For this counted Social Democrats, communists, socialists, union representatives, journalists or other “political-active” persons. Also almost all arrested clergymen becameof the Nazis as “public enemies” classified and had the red angle to carry; to end of 1944 they were not allowed to hold however - with few exceptions - leading functions in the Häftlingshierachie.
criminal one also “professional criminal” (greener angle)
special offCenter of the 30's strengthened also criminal prisoners were instructed in the camp. Often the role of the foreman (Kapo) was assigned to them. Often the SS of the informer services of criminal prisoners availed itself< ref name= " criminal prisoners ">The concentration camp DAK-strike 1933-1945,Bavarian national center for political education 1994, S. 8< /ref>.
“emigrant” (blue angle)
“Bible researchers “a witness Jehovas ( violet angle) in
the year 1933 were forbidden to a large extent the witnesses Jehoves in Germany, because her itself the national socialismrefused, in particular the war service< ref name= " Bible researchers ">Homosexual one and community foreigner, Wolgang Benz in: Dachauer of booklets, No. 14, Nov. 1998 S.6 FF. </ref>. They were considered to the Nazis as “sending messengers of the Jewish bolshevism “and were also because of the international spreading with the centerin the USA a thorn in the eye.
homosexual ones (pink angles)
homosexual prisoners were marked as own group of prisoners and were usually in their own prisoner barrack accommodated.
“Asoziale” (black angle)
the black angle becamefor many person's groups and individuals to be used, those in one of the other groups not be arranged knew< ref name= " Asoziale of prisoners ">Asoziale - which despised pursued, Wolgang Ayass in: Dachauer of booklets, No. 14, Nov. 1998 S.50 FF. </ref>. This “Roma could do &Sinti “its, homeless people, unemployed person/indignant, persons with drug problems in addition, humans in a difficult personal situation in life like e.g. alone-educating, employed mothers.
acquaintance of prisoners
- Bruno begging home, since 1938, 1939 dismiss and emigriert
- Viktor Frankl Psychotherapeut from Vienna, Austria
- David Ludwig Bloch painter, November 1938 in the connection of the “realm crystal night”
- George Elser, the man behind the Hitler assassination attempt1939, of end of 1944/Anfang 1945 up to its murder 9. April 1945
in the KZ DAK-strike gave it an own Priest block. Altogether 2720 of clergyman was arrested (2579 catholic, 109Evangelist, 22 Greek-orthodox, 8 old-catholic, 2 Muslim). The 1780 Polish priests placed the largest portion. From them 868 did not survive the detention. Further nationalities (dead ones in parentheses): German 447 (94); Frenchman 156 (10); Tschechoslowaken 109 (24); Dutchman 63 (17); Belgian46 (9); Italian 28 (1); Luxemburger 16 (6). Altogether 1034 of clergyman in the KZ DAK-strikes
the Franziskanerpater Petrus Mangold ( † 1943 in DAK-strike) died has together with the minister Emil Thoma from Eppingen up to the 3. May 1942 in the camp detentionof DAK-strike a list  to all them as there KZ-prisoners well-known catholic and Evangelist clergyman makes, which over couriers outside of the KZ DAK-strike be brought could.
- Martin Niemöller, since 1941, 4. May 1945 releases
- Paul Richter, Pfarrer from Wilsdruff in Saxonia, since March 1942, † 13. To August 1942 in the KZ DAK-strike
- Alexander crease man (Alexander crease man), Polish clergyman, † 4. To May 1942 in the KZ DAK-strike
- Edmund Friszke (Frischke), PolishMinister from radome, since that 14. December 1940 up to release
- Alois Andritzki, priest from the diocese Meissen, Häftlgs. - Number 27829, since October 1941, † 3. To February 1943 in DAK-strike
- Pater Theodor Averberg, Member of the medal community of the Steyler of mission acres, Häftlgs. - NR. 50046, since 30. July 1943, releases through ehem. Fellow prisoners on the evacuation march April 1945, † 31. July 1973 in Everswinkel/Westphalia
- Pater Josef Averesch, member of the medal community of the Redemptoristen, Häftlgs NR. 27651, since 19. September 1941, 28. March 1945 dismisses, † 20. July 1949 in Hörstel/Westphalia
- Pater Werner bark-gets, Jesuit, Häftlgs. - NR. 26890, since 8. August 1941, † 18. To July 1942 in DAK-strike
- Jean Bernard,Minister from Luxembourg, arrests May 1941 until August 1942, dismisses
- the blessed Titus Brandsma, † 26. July 1942
- William brown, priest from Frankfurt/or, Häftlgs. - NR. 15332, 11. December 1935 to (?), 2. Arrest 16. August 1940; 1941 Transport in the KZ beech forest, further fate unknown
- Anton fount field, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 63120, since 6. February 1944, releases 29. May 1945 † 14. March 1980 in reading fount/Westphalia
- Pater Franz Dabeck, member that Medal community of the Steyler of mission acres, Häftlgs. - NR. 37036, since 25. Septembers 1942, dismiss 27. March 1945
- Alfons Duschak, priest from the diocese Meissen, since? ,
- Gottfried of angel, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 22638, since 14. December 1940, transfers 28 in May 1942 to the special court Oldenburg for condemnation and two-year detention in the penintentiary Hamburg-Fuhlsbuettel, †. May 1961 in chapels/Rhine country
- Anton Fränznick, since 1942, † 27. January 1944
- Reinhold Friedrichs, priestfrom the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 27182, since 12. Septembers 1941, dismiss 5. April 1945, † 28. July 1964 in Münster
- Pater Alkuin stroke ore gas man, Franziskaner, Häftlgs. - NR. 38595, since 6. November 1942, dismisses 5. April 1945,
- Josef Helmus, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 41408, since December 1942, dismiss 5. April 1945, † 11 November 1966
- Heinrich hens, priests from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 29133, since 30. January 1942, dismiss 5. April 1945, † 2. November 1967
- Bernhard Hürfeld, Priester from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 63117, since (?) 1945, dismiss (?)1945, † 12. October 1966
- Josef Kentenich, founder of the international Beautiful place movement, since 13. March 1942, 6. April 1945
- Johannes becomes lumpy, priests from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 28961, since 25. Decembers 1941, dismiss 6. April 1945, † 13. May 1970
- Heinrich Kötter, priest outthe diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 28828, since 20. November 1941, dismisses 6. April 1945, † 15. June 1973 in borrowing refuge/Westphalia
- Michał Kozal († 26. January 1943 in the KZ DAK-strike), Polish bishop, blessedly spoken
- Pater Anton crow heath, memberthe medal community of the heart Jesu Missionare in cathedral Hiltrup (Hiltruper of mission acres), Häftlgs. - NR. 35599, since 2. Septembers 1942, dismiss 6. April 1945, † 21. May 1974 in Hiltrup with Münster/Westphalia
- Karl Leisner, deacon from the diocese Münster, 17. December 1944in the KZ secretly to the priest, Häftlgs geweiht. - NR. 22356, since 14. December 1941, 4. May 1945 releases, † 12. August 1945 in Planegg with Munich at the consequences of the serious diseases Josef Lodde,
- Pfarrdechant in Coesfeld, tightened in the KZ, Häftlgs. - NR. 41551, since 31. December 1942, † 28. To February 1943 in DAK-strike
- Karl Maierhofer, priest from Vienna, Häftlgs. - NR. 34950, 26. August 1939 to (?), (?) Transport in the KZ beech forest, further fate unknown
- Pater Petrus KarlMangold, Franziskaner, kommissarischer Provinzial in south duck gau, monastery Mährisch Trübau, since 6. June 1941, † 18. To July 1942 in DAK-strike
- Pater Albert Maring, Jesuit, Häftlgs NR. 30516, KZ Saxonia living since summer 1941, KZ DAK-strike since 19. June 1942, † 8. To April 1943in DAK-strike
- Pater Elpidius Josef Markötter, Franziskaner from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 27720, KZ Saxonia living since January 1941, KZ DAK-strike since 26. September 1941, 5. April 1945, † 28. June to 1942 in DAK-strike
- Matthias Mertens, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 29753, since 17. April 1942, dismisses 9. April 1945, † 1. February 1970 in Kassel
- Josef Meyer, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR.30219, since Whitsuntide 1942, dismiss Green Thursday 1945, † 24. July 1974 in Goch/Niederrhein
- William Meyer, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 26204, since 6. June 1941, dismisses 29. March 1945, † (?)
- Pater Maurus Münch, Benediktiner from Trier, of October 1941 to (?) 1942
- William upper house, priest from the ore diocese Paderborn, Häftlgs. - NR. 27826, since 10. October 1941, deceased 20. To September 1942 in the KZ DAK-strike
- Heinrich Oenning, priest outthe diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 26985, since 22. August 1941, dismisses 13. January 1942, † 12. November 1977
- Pater Anastazy Pankiewicz, Polish Franziskaner, † 1942 in the KZ DAK-strike, blessedly spoken
- Pater Otto Pies, Jesuit, since 1941, dismiss March 1945, leader of release actions for former fellow prisoners on the evacuation march at the end of of April 1945
- bishop Gabriel Piguet, archbishop of Clermont/France, since? ,
- Bernhard Poether, Priester from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 24479, KZ Saxonia living since December 1941, KZ DAK-strike since April 1941, † 13. To January 1942 in DAK-strike
- Robert Regout, Netherlands Jesuit, † 28. December 1942
- Pater Engelbert Rehling, member of the medal community of the Oblaten, Häftlgs NR. 28963,since 26. December 1941, fled on the evacuation march 27. April 1945, † 25. November 1976 in Aachen
- Fritz Remy, priest from the diocese Meissen, Häftlgs. - NR. 22704, since 14. April 1942, dismisses 29. January 1944,† 22. September 1967 in become baggy/Rhine country
- Josef Reukes, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 27833, KZ Saxonia living since 9. June 1942, since 10. October 1941, releases through ehem. Fellow prisoners on the evacuation march April 1945, †31. December 1961
- Johannes Rothe, priest from the diocese Meissen,
- Hermann Scheipers, priest from the diocese Meissen, Häftlgs. - NR. 24255, 28.03.1941 to 27.04.1945, fled on the evacuation march, author of the book “burr migrations - priests under two dictatorships”,if Münster lives since August 1983 in the retirement in the diocese, lives now in Ochtrup/Westphalia
- Laurenz Schmedding, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 58284, KZ DAK-strike since 19. November 1943, dismisses 10. April 1945, † 21. March1972 in Westphalia
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations cutter, since 22. November 1940, 29. March 1945 dismisses
- Aloys Scholze, since May 1941, † 1. September 1942
- Benno Scholze, priest from the diocese Meissen,
- Pater Augustin Franz Karl SchulzeHessing, Benediktiner from the abbey Gerleve with Coesfeld/Westphalia, Häftlgs. - NR. 27835, since 10. Octobers 1941, dismiss 27. March 1945, † 29. July 1975
- Pater Emil Schumann, member of the medal community of the heart Jesu Missionare, Häftlgs. - NR. 28808, KZ DAK-strike since 5. December 1941, releases May ], † 2. June 1982 in Mühlheim a.d. Ruhr
- Pater Gregor Theodor Schwake, Benediktiner from the abbey Gerleve with Coesfeld/Westphalia, church musician, Häftlgs. - NR. 60931, since 2. January 1944, dismisses 10. April 1945, † 13. June 1967
- Erich Selzle, priest from Gmünd, Häftlgs. - NR. 21997 (after the 2. To arrest in DAK-strike) 27. September 1939 to (?), from there commitment into the KZ duty living; To retransferral in the KZ DAK-strike 1940 up toRelease ]
- Johannes sunshine, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 30224, since 1942, dismiss 1945, †
- Hermann Stammschröer, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 27837, since 10. Octobers 1941, dismiss 10. April 1945, † 7. October 1957
- Gerhard Storm, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 32281, since 23. July 1942, † 28. To August 1942 in DAK-strike
- Emil Thoma, minister from Eppingen, since 10. September 1941, to?
- Pater Engelmar untimely, member of the medal community of the Marianhiller mission company, since? , To male nurses in the mark typhoid fever barrack, † 1945 in DAK-strike
- William weber, priest from the diocese Münster, Häftlgs. - NR. 64053, KZ DAK-strike since 19. February 1944, dismiss 10. April 1945, † 2. February 1963
- Dr. Bernhard Wensch, Jugendseelsorger from the diocese Meissen, first in the KZ Oranienburg, since that 7. November 1941 in the KZ DAK-strike, † 15. August 1942 in DAK-strike
- August Wessing, minister and Dechant of Hoetmar/Westphalia, Häftlgs. - NR. 37138, KZ DAK-strike since 2. October 1942, † 4. To March 1944 in DAK-strike
- Jakob Anton Ziegler, since 12. December 1941, † 12. May 1944
- Johannes Zietsch, priestfrom the diocese Meissen, since? ,
- Johannes Carpenter, Priester from the diocese Meissen, since? ,
In the motion picture film of peoples Schlöndorff the ninth day plays Ulrich Matthes after the authentic collecting main “minister block 25487” from Jean Bernard one Luxemburger priest in the KZ, which is to be enticed from the Nazis to the Kollaboration.
- Fritz support, since 01. April 1938 to?
- Alois dog hammer, since 21. June 1933, 6. July 1933 dismisses
- Alfred Maleta
- Alfons fermenting brook
- Leopold Figl, since 1938, 8. May 1943 dismisses
- Josef of fields, Augsburger of realm tag delegates and later Members of the Bundestag
- Ernst Heilmann, to 1933 of leaders of the parliamentary group of the SPD in Reichstag, September 1939 after KZ beech forest shifted, there to 3.4.1940 with a poison syringe murders
- Franz Olah, later Minister of the Interior Österreichs, prisoner from 1939 to 1945
- Alfreds Schmieder, Dresden local politician, † 1943 in DAK-strikes
- briefly Schumacher, since July 1935, 1939 shifted after KZ again fin-vouch and since 1940, 16. March 1943 seriously ill dismisses
- Alfred Andersch one, 1933 6 months
- Hans Beimler short time April 1933 to it to flee could. In August 1933 abroad its brochure appeared In the murderer camp DAK-strike, the first authentic report over the conditions in a fascist KZ.
- Emil Carl brook since 1937, 1938 shifted after KZ beech forest
- Adolf Maislinger since 1942, 1945 releases
- Oskar Mueller, since 1939, 1945 released
- Karl Wagner, since 1939, 1945 shifts after KZ beech forest
- Raoul Auernheimer of 01. April 1938 to? , released.
- Fritz green tree of 24. May 1938 to 23. September 1938, shifts beech forest after KZ.
- Bruno holy of 01. April 1938 to?
- Heinrich Eduard Jacob of 01. April 1938 to 23. September 1938, shifts beech forest after KZ.
- Fritz Löhner Beda of 24. May 1938 to 23. September 1938, shifts beech forest after KZ.
- Law Soyfer,of 23. June 1938 to 23. September 1938, shifts beech forest after KZ.
musicians and composer
- Comité international one de Dachau; Barbara thistle: To concentration camps DAK-strike 1933 to 1945. DAK-strike, 2005. ISBN 3-87490-750-3
- Bruno holy: Men Crucified. London: Eyre & Spottiswood, 1941.
- Bruno holy: Humansat the cross. DAK-strike - Beech forest. Weitra: Library of the province, [o.D.] (1989), ISBN 3-85252-454-7.
- Eugen Kogon: The SS-state. The system of the German concentration camps. Frankfurt/Main: Publishing house of the Frankfurt booklets, 1948.
- Stanislav Zamečnik: That was DAK-strikes.Luxembourg, 2002.To ISBN 2-87996-948-4
- Dachauer of processes
- list of the LV concentration camps
- DAK striking song
- work makes roof outer fair
Web on the left of
|Commons: Concentration camps DAK-strike - Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Website of the KZ-memorial place DAK-strike
- reorganization of the documentation in thatTo KZ-memorial place DAK-strike
- Gedenkstättenpädagogik in Bavaria
- faces of the storage race - Dachauer of prisoners in postwar Europe
- interview with max of Mannheimer
- working group for the study of the Dachauer contemporary history registered association.
- A time witness on Videofilmen
coordinates: 48° 16 ′ 13 " n. Break, 11° 28 ′ 5 " o. L.