To KZ DAK-strike

the KZ DAK-strike with DAK-strike, north of Munich, was the first concentration camp. The building began to 21. March 1933. The camp was prototype and Musterlager for all further KZs. Although it was not an extermination camp,at least 30,000 of its prisoners was shot or died at the conditions beneath human dignity in the camp. Beside the KZ and extermination camps Auschwitz became it the epitome for concentration camps in the time of the national socialism.

Jourhaus of the KZ DAK-strike and entrance of the today'sMemorial place (original building)
area of the today's KZ-memorial place

table of contents

1933-1945

the awake tower B of the KZ-Dachau (April 1945)

to 21. March 1933 created KZ DAK-strike was one of the first National Socialist concentration camps and at the same time prototype and model of all further. Both the fundamental organization form, the storage order and the structural facility - a separately secured camp beside the Kommandaturbereich with housing estates, administration and barracks - became by thatCommander Theodor Eicke developed and later than obligatorily on all further concentration camps explains. Eicke, which in June 1933 its post in DAK-strike began, ascended later to the Inspizienten of all concentration camps and formed the further camps after this model.

At first servedthe camp, in order to lock up political prisoners: above all trade unionist, in addition, liberals and conservative politicians isolated communists and Social Democrat. Since the National Socialist policy of the terror and the destruction spread with the time over ever further social classes, also those becameAfter admissions DAK-strike more varied: into the 1930ern gypsies, Jew, witnesses Jehovas, homosexual one and criminal one were added.

DAK-strike was also a central camp for arrested one from the church surrounding field. After information of the catholic church alone 3000 of clergyman is to have been there.Among them Karl Leisner ( kath.) and Martin Niemöller ( ev.) is to be emphasized.

Alone after the Reichspogromnacht 10,000 Jews were instructed into the camp, most however under the edition for leaving Germany again to dismiss. After the instruction Heinrich Himmlers of 5. October 1942 to make the KZs lying in Germany Jew-free „“in DAK-strike catches Jews into the extermination camp Auschwitz deportiert.

At the 1. April 1938, only three weeks after the connection of Austria, those came with so-called “prominent transport”first 151 of majority admitted after to Austrian DAK-strikes. After beginning of the Second World War the camp filled with Jew from the conquered countries, resistance fighters, or simply only humans, who did not want to accept the conquest of their country unkommentiert.

Gate in the KZ DAK-strikewith inscription “work makes freely”

likewise began into the 1940ern systematic mass murder in the camp. Starting from October 1941 Soviet prisoners of war were deportiert to thousands into the camp and shot there. Starting from January 1942 the SS created altogether about 3,000 „invalid “Prisoners into the lock hard home with Linz where it in the context of the action 14f13 guest became. At winter 1942 cruel medical experiments in the camp began, how they were usual also in other concentration camps.

Altogether were over 200,000 prisoners outmore than 50 states in DAK-strike arrested. Altogether 30,000 murders were registered, several thousands further victims are considered however than surely, in particular by the outbreak of a typhoid fever epidemic disease at the beginning of of 1945 and the following evacuation marches. In connection with the typhoid fever epidemic disease is that“Angels of DAK-strike”, the Sudeten German Pater Engelmar untimely to call, to that, even prisoner, voluntarily for the care of the patients announced themselves and to it was infected and died. As the crematorium of the camp one extended, because that the existing masses thatmurdered humans any longer to master did not know, also a Gaskammer was furnished. The fact that this never was in enterprise had however no human background, because the prisoners shifted of DAK-strike into other camps, in order to murder it there.

Of thatPrisoners occupied positions within the stock management remained from beginning to end of the camp in the hands of the political prisoners, to who to a large extent it succeeded to develop also an internal organization within the prisoners and to brake so the SS-system at least a little.Last camp-oldest Oskar Mueller ( KPD) was, the later hessian employment minister. Pater Johannes Maria Lenz reports that the camp-oldest managed it to against-send two prisoners as scouts of the US army since the murder of all prisoners briefly before stood.

external bearing

thosePrisoners of the camp had to manage not only the camp, but also to perform numerous other work: they schufteten in SS-own crafts enterprises, in road construction, in gravel pits and with the cultivation of moorlands. Starting from 1939 they had additionally for the German armaments industrywork. Starting from 1942 external bearing developed, in which about 37,000 prisoners worked. Starting from March 1944 above all prisoners of war from Eastern Europe should establish enormous underground complexes, in order to resume the German aircraft production underground. However in eleven external bearings with Landsberg at the Lech 30.000 schuftetenSlave worker. Only at the end of of April 1945 these camps before the moving close troops were evacuated, the prisoners on death marches to other places were created.

See also: To list of the external bearings of the KZ DAK-strike

attempts at passengers

as also in other concentration camps,accomplished in DAK-strike attempts at passengers. This were primarily undercooling attempts and elevator attempts, which were more rapidly accomplished under the line of the SS-physician victory mouth. Besides experiments with malaria and other attempts at passengers were made. The people attempts are inArticles Nürnberger physician process described in detail. Hubertus Strughold exposed prisoners such to conditions of temperature and pressure, as they prevail in 10 km height in space. Subsequently, it dissected the victims with alive body.

Released Häflinge of the KZ DAK-strike greet US soldiers
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Release 1945

to 26. 7,000 prisoners a death march had to begin April of far into the south Germany. To 28. The actual SS-Wachtruppen the camp left April. US Army released to 29. April 1945 the camp and about 30,000 prisoners.In run its came it to encroachments of the US soldiers and prisoners on the camp personnel, who were called afterwards the so-called roof outer massacre. The camp served then still long years as living place for refugees.

the today's memorial place

Only in later years, after former prisoners anprangerten after a meeting on the occasion of an anniversary the unbelievable circumstance that humans under these conditions beneath human dignity would have to still vegetieren, became the establishment of the today's Holocaustgedenkstätte tackled.

The exhibition signsalso in frightening way the way of the newcomers by the camp after and reports over a great many single fates to other one. It is again open for the spring 2003 in revised form and to visit. It is additionally to the exhibition the reproductiona barrack to visit, reflects their interior fittings a cross section by the entire existence time of the camp. The original barracks were torn off, due to their ramshackle condition, with establishment of the memorial place. The outlines of the other 32 barracks were after-poured in concrete.

Groups of prisoners

the security guards of the SS use colored angle " for the distinction of the individual prisoners a system< of the so-called colored angles ref name= ">Concentration camps DAK-strike, Comité international de Dachau 1978, ISBN 3-87490-524-1 S. 54< /ref>. These badges in the concentration camps were small triangles outMaterial, which at the prisoner uniform (upper sleeve, upper Hosenbein or left chest range) were attached. They should show already from a distance, to which group the prisoner belonged. Often the angles with a further symbol of a Unterkategorie were combined. These could its:

  • Backdue, characterized by a bar in the same color of the angle, above the same attached (for prisoners to the repeated mark instructed in a KZ were already)
  • punishing company, gekennzechnet by a black circle below the angle
  • Jewish prisoners, gekennzechnetby a second yellow angle, which should symbolize the David star with the “ primary angle”.

The system of the colored angles transferred of DAK-strike from also to other concentration camps.

political prisoners (red angle)

uses for political prisoners inand also later important key positions formed the main part of the prisoners for the early phase of the camp, like e.g. in the prisoner administration (block-oldest, room-oldest, Kapos) occupied. For this counted Social Democrats, communists, socialists, union representatives, journalists or other “political-active” persons. Also almost all arrested clergymen becameof the Nazis as “public enemies” classified and had the red angle to carry; to end of 1944 they were not allowed to hold however - with few exceptions - leading functions in the Häftlingshierachie.

criminal one also “professional criminal” (greener angle)

special offCenter of the 30's strengthened also criminal prisoners were instructed in the camp. Often the role of the foreman (Kapo) was assigned to them. Often the SS of the informer services of criminal prisoners availed itself< ref name= " criminal prisoners ">The concentration camp DAK-strike 1933-1945,Bavarian national center for political education 1994, S. 8< /ref>.

“emigrant” (blue angle)

Bible researchers “a witness Jehovas ( violet angle) in

the year 1933 were forbidden to a large extent the witnesses Jehoves in Germany, because her itself the national socialismrefused, in particular the war service< ref name= " Bible researchers ">Homosexual one and community foreigner, Wolgang Benz in: Dachauer of booklets, No. 14, Nov. 1998 S.6 FF. </ref>. They were considered to the Nazis as “sending messengers of the Jewish bolshevism “and were also because of the international spreading with the centerin the USA a thorn in the eye.

homosexual ones (pink angles)

homosexual prisoners were marked as own group of prisoners and were usually in their own prisoner barrack accommodated.

“Asoziale” (black angle)

the black angle becamefor many person's groups and individuals to be used, those in one of the other groups not be arranged knew< ref name= " Asoziale of prisoners ">Asoziale - which despised pursued, Wolgang Ayass in: Dachauer of booklets, No. 14, Nov. 1998 S.50 FF. </ref>. This “Roma could do &Sinti “its, homeless people, unemployed person/indignant, persons with drug problems in addition, humans in a difficult personal situation in life like e.g. alone-educating, employed mothers.

acquaintance of prisoners

furnace in the crematorium (today part of the memorial place)

Jew

resistance fighter against the national socialism

  • George Elser, the man behind the Hitler assassination attempt1939, of end of 1944/Anfang 1945 up to its murder 9. April 1945

dissident

of clergyman

dead notification
a Gedenktafel

in the KZ DAK-strike gave it an own Priest block. Altogether 2720 of clergyman was arrested (2579 catholic, 109Evangelist, 22 Greek-orthodox, 8 old-catholic, 2 Muslim). The 1780 Polish priests placed the largest portion. From them 868 did not survive the detention. Further nationalities (dead ones in parentheses): German 447 (94); Frenchman 156 (10); Tschechoslowaken 109 (24); Dutchman 63 (17); Belgian46 (9); Italian 28 (1); Luxemburger 16 (6). Altogether 1034 of clergyman in the KZ DAK-strikes

the Franziskanerpater Petrus Mangold ( † 1943 in DAK-strike) died has together with the minister Emil Thoma from Eppingen up to the 3. May 1942 in the camp detentionof DAK-strike a list [1] to all them as there KZ-prisoners well-known catholic and Evangelist clergyman makes, which over couriers outside of the KZ DAK-strike be brought could.

Evangelist ones of clergyman
catholic one of clergyman


In the motion picture film of peoples Schlöndorff the ninth day plays Ulrich Matthes after the authentic collecting main “minister block 25487” from Jean Bernard one Luxemburger priest in the KZ, which is to be enticed from the Nazis to the Kollaboration.

civil politicians

Social Democrat

communist

writer

musicians and composer

lawyers

custodian

Sources

<of references/>

literature

  • Comité international one de Dachau; Barbara thistle: To concentration camps DAK-strike 1933 to 1945. DAK-strike, 2005. ISBN 3-87490-750-3
  • Bruno holy: Men Crucified. London: Eyre & Spottiswood, 1941.
  • Bruno holy: Humansat the cross. DAK-strike - Beech forest. Weitra: Library of the province, [o.D.] (1989), ISBN 3-85252-454-7.
  • Eugen Kogon: The SS-state. The system of the German concentration camps. Frankfurt/Main: Publishing house of the Frankfurt booklets, 1948.
  • Stanislav Zamečnik: That was DAK-strikes.Luxembourg, 2002.To ISBN 2-87996-948-4

see also

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Commons: Concentration camps DAK-strike - Pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 48° 16 ′ 13 " n. Break, 11° 28 ′ 5 " o. L.

 

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