KZ Kislau

the KZ Kislau was a concentration camp in National Socialist Germany.

The camp was in the hunt and desire lock Kislau with Mingolsheim (bathe) and existed of 21. April 1933 up to the 1. April 1939. The concentration camp remained subordinated for the ministry of the Interior of Baden during the entire duration of its existence and contrary to most other early KZ at the beginning of the Dreissger years was not already dissolved or to the inspection of the concentration camps subordinated.

The lock Kislau gave it already since 1819 a penal establishment. Until 1854 served the lock as branch office of the celebrations restcorroded as state prison of bathing, afterwards as police institute for safe-keeping for women. Since the 80's 19. Century was accommodated on the area also a work house for men, which existed during the entire NS time until 1945 parallel to the concentration camp. In the First World War Kislau was first military hospital, late prisoner-of-war camps. From 1930 to at the end of of 1933 also a branch office for “spirit-weak Mrs.” the pointing punch welfare and institute for care was in the lock.


to 21. April 1933 communicated the Department of State of Baden the opening of the KZ. Cause was the nut tree affair, which served as pretext for the arrest of communists , Social Democrats and also center belonging gene. Those euphemistisch as „protection prisoners “designated victims of the pursuit wave in an auxiliary building of the lock Kislau were accommodated, the passengers of the work house (on average of about 200 men) were in the actual lock building. The director of the work house - Theodor tooth - took over however kommissarisch also the line of the Konzentratioslagers. For the distinction of the associatednesses the men of the work house carried bright clothes, the KZ-prisoners dark-blue. The work services were however often accomplished together by members of both groups. For the concentration camp a capacity was of altogether 70 men was planned, the end of the 30's exceeded however clearly.
From May to June 1933 further 65 prisoners were in-supplied, them ranked all together among „the political ones “, are called it concerned as at the first group also unpopular oppositionals. The highest allocation strength of the KZ was reached 1937/1938 with 173 prisoners.
The conditions in the camp were altogether far better than in most other concentration camps. The passengers had a bearable food supply and medically and seelsorgerisch were cared for. A fortnightly exchange of letters and the weekly attendance of members were usually permitted. The day of the prisoners began at 6 o'clock in the morning. With ten-hour working days the camp passengers in the agriculture, when the kitchen service or reorganizations at the lock building were employed. The work was interrupted by an in-hour lunch time, otherwise the prisoners only 1.5 hours became so-called. „Spare time “been entitled. At 20 o'clock was arranged bed peace.
These conditions decrease/go back to the fact that in Kislau neither the SA nor the SS led the command. Both groups placed the 18 men of the awake troop, camp leader were starting from that 7. June 1933 however former police major Franz Konstantin Mohr. This was a former colonial officer and despised the members of the NSDAP - party formations as Pöbel. These again felt among other things because of the bad payment (1.80 RM per day) overreached, so that the relationship between the superior and its crews was strained. Mohrs conceptions of a prison were still traditionally coined/shaped and had in common with „the account intentions “of the SA or SS few. Thus in Kislau a death was only documented. At the night of 28. to 29. Four SS-men the absence of the camp leader used March 1934, in order to strangle the Social Democrat Ludwig Marum.

Since at the end of of 1934 became Kislau also as interCIM camp to returning German Foreign Legionnaires used, vorgeblich due to health risks, actually applied it however as politically unreliable and überlicherweise 12-wöchentlichen should become trained a detention in the sense of the new ruling powers „“during. Although the treatment got around itself under the Heimkehrern, about 1800 former Legionäre went through since 1936 in such a way designated „preservation camps “up to the outbreak of the Second World War. At the beginning of of 1939 was dissolved the KZ finally and the remaining prisoners after DAK-strikes deportiert. Starting from that 1. April 1939 served Kislau as penitentiary, later above all than alternative solution, in order to catch capacity bottlenecks in the war-damaged prisons Mannheim and Saarbruecken. To 15. Two assigned Himmlers the area examined February 1940, in order to examine the renewed mechanism of a concentration camp. The plans were not carried out however.
In the penitentiary most different groups appeared - so for example „the red Spaniards in such a way specified “, Poland and „Arbeitsverweigerer “. Since end 1942 Frenchmen and Belgians were likewise in-supplied, who had been condemned because of theft or similar offenses.

To 2. April 1945 was occupied the prison by French soldiers and to 18. May dissolved. The tradition of the prison continued to exist however: Until 1970 Kislau branch office of the national penal establishment Bruchsal was, until 1991 belonged it to the JVA Karlsruhe. Since that time the former KZ and prison are again the JVA Bruchsal subordinated. Of the actual concentration camp Gedenkstein in the lock yard reminds since 1985.


  • Angela borrowing EDT: The Kislau northof Baden: Concentration camp, work house and transit camp for Foreign Legionnaires in: W. Benz, B. Thistle (Hrsg.): Rule and force. Early concentration camps 1933-1939, S. 217-229, Metropol publishing house, Berlin, 2002
  • Elizabeth Marum Lunau, Jörg Schadt (Hrsg.): Ludwig Marum. Letters from the concentration camp Kislau, C.F. Mueller, Heidelberg, 1984
  • Julius Schätzle: Stations to hell. Concentration camp in bathing and Württemberg 1933-1945, Frankfurt/Main, 1980

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