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the KZ Majdanek - actually KZ Lublin - was the first concentration camp of the IKL in the Generalgouvernement. It was appropriate for a suburb Lublins in the east of Poland in Majdanek . Beside Auschwitz Birkenau Majdanek was the only KZ of the IKL (and/or. starting from 1942 of the WVHA), which was used also as extermination camp.
Table of contents
emergence and conception of the KZ Majdanek
to 17. July 1941 assigned Hitler Heinrich Himmler as Reichsführer SS and a boss of the German police the police safety device of the again occupied east areas in the Soviet Union. Himmler for his part appointed still on the same day brigade leader Odilo Globocnik, the SS and police leader Lublin, its assigned one for the establishment of the SS and police bases in the new east area, an expanded network of militarily fastened SS and police locations inclusively residential areas. Starting point and center of these SS and police quarters those should become city Lublin which can be settled German. The enormous structural drawings for a “German” Lublin should be realized by forced laborers and prisoners.
To 20. July 1941 visited Himmler Lublin and instructed to Globocnik the establishment of a KL from 25-50.000 prisoners to the employment for workshops and buildings of the SS and police. The KZ became actual however, as in the realm usual, from the principal office household and buildings under SS-Oberführer Dr. - engineer Hans Kammler establishes. Kammler gave to 22. September 1941 the building instruction for the first section of the KZs for the accommodation of 5.000 prisoners. By the giantful numbers of Soviet prisoners of war after smashing the boiler around Kiew planning was first changed few days later. Kammlers revised double building instruction for Lublin and Auschwitz Birkenau of 27. September 1941 read now:
- In Lublin and Auschwitz are immediately on 1.10. To establish prisoner-of-war camp with a capacity the design documents left by ever 50,000 prisoners in accordance with the instructions given in Berlin and.
The construction work of the two prisoner-of-war camps Auschwitz Birkenau and Lublin began at the same time one week later. At the beginning of November extended Kammler the planning of the prisoner-of-war camp on 125.000, in December on 150.000, in March 1942 for unbelievable 250,000 Soviet prisoners of war. Of it only a fraction became realized. December 1941 barracks for approximately 20,000 prisoners of war were posed to in the middle of. Under mörderischen conditions the construction work had been performed up to then by approximately 2,000 Soviet prisoners of war. From them in the middle of was November only 500 still alive, of it was 30 per cent work-unable. Starting from in the middle of Decembers were inserted 150 Jews from Globocniks Lubliner hard labour camp Lipowa road into Majdanek. At the same time here a typhus fever epidemic disease broke out . In January/February 1942 the building site was vacant: all Soviet prisoners of war and the Jewish work command were dead.
to action “harvest celebration”
see also action harvest celebration
at the 3. /4. November 1943 under the pseudonym “harvest celebration” the Jews of the district Lublin were murdered by SS-units. The massacre took place in the three concentration camps Majdanek, Poniatowa and Trawniki . Altogether 40,000 to 43,000 humans was killed. Altogether - so in the year 2006 the Polish newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza - in Majdanek 79000 humans were murdered.
Already since at the end of Octobers 1943 dug the passengers of the KZ Majdanek one hundred meters for a long time, six meters broad and up to three meters deep ditches in direct proximity of the camp. In the morning of the 3. November the Jewish prisoners were separated, further Jews became from the external bearings (in particular Lipowa and the so-called. “Airport camps”) and the city Lublin after Majdanek production. They had to undress naked and “dachziegelförmig” - i.e. one behind the other in each case with the head on the back of the predecessor in longitudinal direction - put into the dug ditches. A command from approximately 100 SS-men and policemen went off the ditches and killed the victims by means of neck or shot in the head. After the soil of a ditch was covered with corpses, the next victims had to put in the same form on the dead ones. Each ditch was filled up to the upper edge and covered provisional afterwards with earth. The Exekutionen lasted into the dusk. To the over hue of the shots specially two sound trucks were made available, which played march and maintenance music. The action fell in Majdanek 17,000 to 18,000 humans to the victim, under it nearly all Jewish prisoners. Only 300 female and 300 male prisoners survived the massacre, them had afterwards the clothes of the victims to use and the corpses exhumieren later and burn.
Altogether roughly 1200 SS-people did service there during the existence of the camp. 1975 was placed to 17 by them in the Düsseldorfer Majdanek process before court.
process under denomination
delivers methodmethod methods in Majdanek Hannah Arendt of Lublin, which would point to Majdanek, the following statement Adolf of calibration man from the Jerusalemer: (...) (...) an engine of a Russian submarine would work here and the gases of this engine would be in-led here, and then the Jews would be poisoned. (H.A., calibration man in Jerusalem, chapter. VI). This indication is also with Thomas's sand radiator in its book concerning Berthold Beitz (S. Literature in the article). After the new publication of calibration man documents by Irmtrud Wojak concerned it the period Febr. /März 1942, the engine was a Soviet tank engine (source with Wojak, page 183 and note). Since calibration man in this source speaks of a drive of scarcely 2 hours starting from Lublin, it concerns a mistake; it can have concerned only the extermination camp Belzec, with which the use of tank engine exhaust gases admits is. (Wojak, S. 182) For the KZ Majdanek are testified Gaskammern, in which humans were murdered at first with carbon monoxide gas, later by cyclone B.
at the end of of July 1944 was vacated the camp Majdanek, because the Red Army on the advance was. Before the evacuation of the prisoners all documents were destroyed and the buildings including the large crematorium in fire were set. In the hurry of the retreat the Germans missed however the destruction of the Gaskammern and a majority of the prisoner barracks.
Already in August 1944 western journalists arrived at an inspection after Majdanek. Thereupon representations of the mass murder were set on the title pages of US-American newspapers and into US magazines. The running magazine reported to 28.8.44 for the first time in a full-page article on M. - Heading: Funeral in Lublin. Russians honour Jews, who were burned by Nazis massive guest and. The article contained six photos, under it one of a service for the niedergemetzelten Jews. Am 30.8.44 brachte die New York Times diese Überschrift auf die erste Seite: Nazi mass murder in the camp revealed. Victim of the enormous death factory of Gaskammern and crematoria on 1,500,000 estimated. Had written the article the experiencing journalist William H. Lawrence, which had already been when numerous investigations of crime (the German) in the Soviet Union thereby. Its article begins: I just saw the most terrible place on ground connection - the German concentration camp in Maidanek (way of writing), a true manufacturing plant of death, in which according to estimations from Soviet and Polish authorities to 1,500,000 persons from nearly each country of Europe were murdered in the last three years. It continues to write: I was never confronted with so complete proofs, which occupy each accusation of the investigators of German crimes clearly.Altogether 30 western journalists participated in this journey. They spoke among other things with German officers, those quite frankly additions that this was a place of high-grade systematic destruction. In Majdanek the up to then often disbelieving west found the missing proofs for the Massenvernichtung. Lawrence: After the inspection of M. if I am now ready to give each history over German atrocities faith they are also still so brutally, cruel and spoil. To strange way both Lawrence did and its publisher in the accompanying text to call the victims Jews. Lawrence experienced from German guards that on the point day of death production (3.11.43, action harvest celebration)… by the Germans altogether between 18,000 and 20,000 prisoners in different way, including shooting, Erhängen and gases were killed.
the place of the camp today
today is on the area a memorial place, which was established in October 1944. Since parts of the camp remained, there is an exhibition with archives there.
The still existing parts of the camp are maintained by a society. Also research work was published over the history of the camp in the context of the museum.
some member of the SS, those in the KZ Majdanek physicians were
- SS-Hauptscharführer Dr. Erich green
- SS-Obersturmführer Dr. Heinrich Schmidt
- SS-Untersturmführer Dr. Karl beef
- guard staff:
- For SS-foreman out Franz Bago
- SS-Aufseherin Hermine Böttcher
- SS-Aufseherin Hermine Braunsteiner
- SS-Aufseherin Luise Danz
- SS-Oberaufseherin Elsa Ehrich
- SS-foreman Thomas Ellwanger
- SS-Oberscharführer Anton Endres
- SS-Unterscharführer Johann Fischer
- SS-Hauptsturmführer William barley Meier
- SS-Hauptscharführer Heinrich Groffmann
- SS-foreman Friedrich largely
- SS-Hauptsturmführer Hermann chopping man
- SS-Hauptscharführer Otto Kloppmann
- SS-Oberscharführer Ernst Kostial
- SS-Aufseherin Hildegard laughter ore
- SS-Hauptsturmführer walter long-carry
- SS-Hauptscharführer Emil Laurich
- SS-Aufseherin Charlotte Mayer
- SS-Oberscharführer Erich Mühsfeldt
- SS-Aufseherin Alice Orlowski
- SS-Oberscharführer Hans Perschon
- SS-Oberscharführer Fritz - Heinrich Petrick
- SS-Hauptsturmführer William pure physician
- SS-Obersturmführer Friedrich - Wilhlem Ruppert
- SS-Oberscharführer Nikolaus boat operator
- SS-foreman Theodor Schöllen
- SS-Unterscharführer Arnold Strippel S.A. Bullenhuser dam
- SS-Aufseherin Rosy sweetly
- SS-Obersturmführer Anton Thernes
- SS-Unterscharführer Heinz a many layman
- SS-Oberscharführer Hermann of birds
- SS-Oberaufseherin Else weber
- SS-Hauptscharführer Westel wow
- strange guard staff
- SS-guard Dmytro Sawchuk
- SS-guard Alexander Tityebski
- unknown quantity member of the SS
- SS-Unterscharführer Hen
- SS-Scharführer Melzer
- SS-Aufseherin Redli
- SS-Unterscharführer Terner
- SS-foreman turn
- Dieter Ambach; Thomas's charcoal burner, Lublin Majdanek. The concentration and extermination camp in the mirror of testimonies. Duesseldorf 2004 (= legal contemporary history North Rhine-Westphalia. Volume 12), ISSN 1615-5718
- Günther Schwarberg, the Juwelier of Majdanek, Goettingen 1998, ISBN 3882436255
- Josef Marszalek, Majdanek. Concentration camp in Lublin, Warsaw: Publishing house inter+press, 1984 u.ö, ISBN 8322319347
- Ingrid Mueller Münch, the Mrs. von Majdanek - of the destroyed life of the victims and that murderer inside , Reinbek, Rowohlt publishing house 1982.
- Edward Gryn & Zofia Murawska Gryn, MAJDANEK, 1984. Panstwowe Muzeum well Majdanku.
- Majdanek, Lublin: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1985, ISBN 8303010697
- Wydawnictwo Lubelskie Majdanek, Poznan, 1966
- Irmtrud Wojak of calibration man memoirs. A critical essay Frankfurt/M.: Campus 2001, Fischer TB 2004
- M. Wine man (Hrsg.), the National Socialist storage system (CCP), Frankfurt/Main, November 1990
- Tadeusz Mencel Majdanek 1941-1944 Lublin: 1991 (in it: comprehensive bibliography)
- Tomasz wreath/ring, Janina Kiełboń Archival SOURCEs and the State OF Research Concerning the History OF the Camp RK Majdanek in: “Les archivez de la Shoah, ouvrage collectif sous la direction de J. Fredj ", Paris 1998, S. 521-540
- Barbara Schwindt the concentration and extermination camp Majdanek. Change of function in the context of the “final solution “ peppering castle: King living & Neumann, 2005
- Samek, Tomasz (photographer) in the middle in Europe. Concentration camp Majdanek exhibition catalog (2001) Münster: City museum. Texts by Edward Balawejder, Tomasz wreath/ring and Barbara Rommé. Available over promotion association cathedral Lublin 
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