KZ Saxonia living
It is neither locally nor temporally identical to the KZ Oranienburg, that1933/34 in Oranienburg as camps for political prisoners were already established in the middle.
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the concentration camp Saxonia living was built 1936/ 37 on instruction of the SS by prisoners and took a special role under the National Socialist concentration camps. In this Musterlager the training took place later from SS-security guards, in other concentration campswere used.
In approximately 100 external bearings the prisoners carried hard labour out, particularly in the armaments industry. In the summer the district of the former KZ Saxonia living served 1945 as transition military hospital for former prisoners and other victims of the war, due to theirState of health to the homeland to return could not. In August 1945 after end of the Second World War the KZ became Saxonia living of the Soviet military administration (SMAD) until 1950 as internment camp (special camp No. 7) uses.
Under that about 60,000 arrested humanswere LV functionaries of the lower and middle level, armed forces member, young person under “who wolf - suspicion ", opponents of the new political order and completely arbitrarily arrested. After past realizations there mindesten 12,000 prisoners at malnutrition, diseases, psychological and physical weakening died. The special campNo. 1 was closed as last 1950. The Kasernierte people police took over 1950 the area as barracks.
1955 met by a donation mark sales of the Kuratoriums for the structure of national memorial places within a short time two million Marks. Orders for those becameOrganization of a memorial place in Saxonia living assign. Involved the landscape and garden architect Reinhold Lingner and the architects Ludwig Deiters, refuge Kutzat were briefly thousand beautiful and. Renè Graetz created plastics “release”. 1961 became plastics “the accusing” of Fritz Cremer at the lock Oranienburg set up. 1961 were solemnly opened the national reminding and memorial place. Since 1993 the memorial place and the museum belong to the donation Brandenburgi memorial places.
the KZ Saxonia living was established past in the summer 1936 by prisoners from the Ems land camps in the quarter Oranienburg Sandhausen. It received its name because of the close station Saxonia living, which was used because of the small distance by the KZ.
The plant conceived of SS-architects at the drawing board as ideal-typical KZ should give architecturally expression to the conception of the world of the SS and subject the prisoners also symbolically the absolute power of the SS. The prisoner camp was put on in form of an equal-leg triangle. All buildingswere symmetrically around the axle center grouped and on the tower A, which seat of the SS-Lagerleitung, on which referred in the middle of the baseline of the triangle. Before this tower lay the semicircular appeal place, which was enclosed again of barracks fan-like arranged by four rings.Around the continuation of the axle center over the tower A and the storage race outside the SS-Truppenlager was put on, in which the Axialität and symmetry of the prisoner camp and the Kommandanturbereichs continued to a large extent. To the 388 hectare in Oranienburg belonged to comprehensive SS-complex over itoutside extensive housing developments for the higher SS-ranks and their families as well as starting from 1938 to the Lehnitzschleuse established external bearings clinker works.
Between 1936 and 1945 were in the KZ Saxonia living more than 200,000 humans out approx. 40 nations arrests. Prisoners were firstpolitical opponents of the LV regime, then in ever larger number member of the national socialists than rassisch and biologically inferior explained groups and of the states of Europe occupied starting from 1939 increasingly citizens. Ten thousands died by hunger, diseases, hard labour and abusing orbecame victims of systematic destruction actions of the SS or medical experiments. Prisoners were added among other things heavy Wundinfektionen, in order to test the effect from medicines to - children were infected with hepatitis, in order to win realizations over the changes in the liver.
The cellular construction was established 1936 as t-shaped building, which served with 80 cells for solitary confinement, dark detention and mass accommodation as camp prison and special prison of the Gestapo. In the yard of the cellular construction isolated from the remaining camp an earth shelter and devices served stake slopes” for “thatExecution of particularly brutal punishments.
the crematorium was on the industrial yard separated by the camp wall from the prisoner camp and was starting from autumn 1939 scene of destruction actions. In the autumn 1941 here at least 12,000 Soviet becamePrisoner of war murders. 1942 were replaced the provisional crematorium by a new building with crematorium and neck firing plant, in which 1943 also a Gaskammer were furnished.
In order to be able to accommodate new groups of victims, “the small camp became in deviation from „the ideal plan “in the summer 1938”when barrack complex establishes, in which up to their Deportation after Auschwitz in October 1942 most of the Jewish prisoners were accommodated.
on the 1940 shoe put on at the appeal place examine-strain with different floor mats had prisoners of the punishing command by meet-longMarch bed material for the armed forces test.
Prisoners were used first in SS-own workshops and enterprises on that the prisoner camp neighbouring industrial yard to the work, where itself among other things a Schneiderei, a carpenter, a fitter and electrician workshops found. Particularly in the course of the massive employmentmore than 100 external bearings and external commands of the KZ Saxonia living in the proximity of the Rüstungsbetriebe and with citizen of Berlin industrial companies developed for the hard labour of KZ-prisoners in the armaments industry starting from 1942 such as Siemens, DEMAG-Panzer, Henschel Berlin, Daimler Benz, industrial union colors and AEG.
By Marchuntil May 1936 the Heinkelwerke in Germendorf/Oranienburg was established to 1936, since the parent plant was working at full capacity in Rostock Marienehe. In this work likewise an external bearing existed, in which up to 5.000 prisoners from the KZ Saxonia living had to work. In clinker works, oneLarge brick work with own port to the Lehnitzschleuse, bricks for Albert Speers large building project in Berlin were produced. To 22. April 1945 about 3,000 patient, physicians and male nurses, who were left in the camp after the evacuation, of Russian and Polish units becamethe Red Army releases. In the following weeks still at least 300 former prisoners at the consequences of the KZ-detention died. They were bestattet in six mass graves at the camp wall within the range of the dispensary.
From 1942 to 1945 had in the KZ Saxonia living144 Jewish prisoners under obligation foreign currencies, above all English Pound notes in billion height for the action Bernhard falsify, in order to destabilize the enemy.
clergyman in the KZ Saxonia living
among the arrested political prisoners was also numerous of clergyman.Until were in the cellular construction in Saxonia living 230 of clergyman arrested 1941, among them Martin Niemöller of March 1938 to 1941 as “personal prisoners” of Hitler up to its transfer in the KZ DAK-strike, as well as from December 1939 until August 1940 the Jesuitenpater Rupert Mayer.
of Löwenberger country only the first columns. Many prisoners, who had to march on the day between 20 and 40 kilometers, died in wet-cold weather at weakening or of the SS were shot.Coworkers of the international committee of the red cross distributed food parcels on the marches to the prisoners and saved thus many from hunger death. Nevertheless again thousands of prisoners died on the death marches after the evacuation of the camp in April 1945.
In the Belower forest north of joke stick 23 became starting from that. April 1945 in a large camp more than 16,000 prisoners pulled together. For on the past march the dying a memorial place was established here. Starting from that 29. April became thatForest camps dissolved, and the prisoners reached the area between Parchim and Schwerin, where they leave, in the meantime from their SS-Bewachern, on units of the Red Army and US Army on different ways met.
The released prisoners became with prisoners outthe Mrs. KZ Ravensbrück and the external bearing Wöbbelin of the KZ Neuengamme in two barracks in Schwerin accommodated. In May most Western European prisoners could return to their homelands, while prisoners from Eastern Europe pretty often first an examination in campcamp camps overto be been issued to be able had.
commander of camp
- Karl Otto cook
- Hermann Baranowski (“square”)
- walter Eisfeld
- Rudolf Höss
- Hans Loritz
- Anton Kaindl (7. and last commander of camp)
inspection of the concentration camps
as model and training course camps of the SS and concentration campsin direct proximity of the realm capital Saxonia living took a privileged position in the system of the National Socialist concentration camps. This was underlined, when 1938 the inspection of the concentration camps, which were shifted administrative centre for all concentration camps in the German sphere of influence, from Berlin to Oranienburg. ThoseInspection of the concentration camps and the guidance of the SS-Totenkopfverbände pulled in August 1938 into a large staff building south the KZ Saxonia living, which is called because of its characteristic three-flight leagues form “T-building”. The inspection was responsible for the living conditions of the prisoners in the camp.It specified in principle and in individual cases, into which camps the prisoners came, who hard labour they had to carry out and they received which hunger ration.
1945-1950: Soviet special camp
since August 1945 came itto a new use of the former protective custody camp. It began with the transfer of 150 prisoners of the Soviet special camp No. 7 in Weesow with Werneuchen. Except crematorium and destruction plant became nearly all warehouse, above all the Holzbaracken, the camp prison and thoseFarm buildings, again taken in enterprise. Toward at the end of of 1945 the camp was again fully occupied (12,000 persons). In the following year were occasionally up to 16.000 humans without legal basis and under contempting for human beings conditions in the camp locked up. About 2,000 female prisoners lived ina separate range of the camp.
As “zone I” designated former protective custody camps was for German civilians without valid condemnation, interned, intended. In “zone II” mentioned former special camps for allied prisoners of war first Soviet citizens, those were on their feedback inthe Soviet Union waited. The camp was not a labour camp. The prisoners suffered from the forced inactivity, from constant hunger, cold weather, vermin and medically did not treat subsequent illnesses. They died to thousands and in mass graves were verscharrt. Of in the years 1945until 1950 about 60,000 arrested died roughly 12,000, under it also the actor Heinrich George. Starting from 1948 then at least board plays, sport as well as in the meantime also newspapers and the transmission of radio endings were permitted. The special camp was nearly completely isolated from the external world.Belonging one were not informed about the whereabouts and the fate of the holding. After the official conclusion of the Entnazifizierung in the Soviet zone of occupation about 5,000 prisoners became from the special camp No. in the summer 1948. 7 dismisses. With the arrested ones it haditself however not only around members of the NSDAP acted, but also around Social Democrat, many young people and around arbitrarily Denunzierte, as well as around politically unpopular ones, by which opposition was feared against the socialist-communist society system.
Starting from 1948 Saxonia living was as special camps No. 1the largest of three special camps in the Soviet zone of occupation. In the spring 1950 also the last camps were dissolved, from the special camp No. 1 became approx. 8,000 prisoners dismisses. A smaller group was transported into the Soviet Union. That transferred 5,500 prisonersSoviet secret service to the authorities of the GDR. Injustice of the far use of the Nazi KZ camps by Soviet crew power and associated renewed painful dying thousands of humans was hushed up or played down by the SED regime. Some survivor still many years became inGDR penintentiaries such as forest home and Bautzen held. With the operation ofSpecial camps by Soviet crew power the principle of the Gulag had itself - storage system of the Soviet Union on the soil of occupied postwar Germany manifests.
1961-1990: National reminding and memorial place
After the use for many years of the area by the Soviet army, the Kasernierte people police and the national People's Army of the GDR 1956 began planning for the national reminding and memorial place, to 22. April 1961 was inaugurated.
It was limited upand only about 5% of the surface of the former concentration camp covered the range of the former prisoner camp. The “station Z” as well as the shooting ditch, originally part of the industrial yard, were only integrated by transfer of the camp wall into the memorial place. Around the appeal place becamea Ringmauer from cross-shaped concrete elements put on, in which the Giebel of the first barrack ring are suggested.
1976 was set up 200 uniform boards at the four main routes of the death march between Oranienburg and Raben Steinfeld.
starting from 1993: Memorial place and museum Saxonia living
to 26. Septembers 1992 set the barrack 38 in the memorial place of the former KZ Saxonia living in fire for neo-Nazis. The building, in which a “museum for suffering the Jewish comrades” was accommodated, was destroyed.
since January 1993 are the memorial place and the museum Saxonia living part of the donation Brandenburgi memorial places, one from the Federal Republic of Germany and the country Brandenburg together financed donation of public right. The donation has the task, at terror, warto remind and despotism. It is to co-operate with local initiatives and education carriers, energize research, to attach contacts abroad in and as well as to other memorial places and scientific mechanisms. To the donation beside the memorial place the reminding and memorial place Ravensbrück belong to Saxonia living, the museum of the death march in the Belower forest, as well as the documentation place penintentiary Brandenburg to the Havel. As branch office of the memorial place that is attached 1981 furnished museum of the death march in the Belower forest with joke stick.
end 2001 opened the memorial place Saxonia living in a museum new building a new permanent exhibition for the history to Soviet special camp No. 7/Nr. 1 (1945 - 1950). In the framework of the complete reorganization and reorganization of the memorial place Saxonia living the place of the memory received a new face.The repair works became the ceremonies on the occasion of 60. Anniversary of release in April 2005 to a large extent finally.
special exhibition „bitter-sweetly “
to 60. Anniversary of the establishment of the Soviet special camp Nr.7/Nr.1 in Saxonia living became a special exhibition innew museum opens (12. August 2005 - 31. August 2006):Bitter-sweetly, history (n) of hunger: Zuckerdosen from the Soviet special camp Nr.7/Nr.1 Saxonia living 1945 - 1950.
with repair works in the memorial place Saxonia living became in the past yearsnumerous small aluminium boxes saved. For the first time an exhibition dedicates itself in detail to these everyday life articles, which served many prisoners of the Soviet special camp starting from 1947 for the keeping of sugar and jam rations.
They document central of aspects of the detention everyday life in the special camp: Lack nutrition and massive Verhungern, butalso human isolation and forced inactivity. Some Zuckerdosen carry the engraved signature marks of their owners. The exhibition tells life stories of 16 former prisoners of the special camp, whose doses came after over 50 years again to the daylight. The Biografien with theirdifferent historical and political would background suggest the heterogeneity of the prisoner company. Altogether the Soviet secret service in Saxonia living kept 60,000 humans imprisoned: Interned, condemned one, former German armed forces officers and foreigner. Over 12.000 of them died.
- Harry Naujoks, MarthaNaujoks (publisher) (Hg.):My life in the KZ Saxonia living: 1936–42. Memories of the former camp-oldest. Pahl Rugenstein Nachf. 1989. ISBN 3891443218
- Günter rotten: From the memory to the Monument. The developing history of the national reminding and memorial place Saxonia living. Edition Hentrich, Berlin 2001. ISBN 3894681853
- Günter rotten, Alfred Reckendrees (Hrsg.): Release of the KZ Saxonia living 1945. Edition Hentrich, Berlin. 1996. ISBN 3894682132
- Günter rotten: Murder and mass murder in the concentration camp Saxonia living. Metropol, 2005. ISBN 393641193X
- federal center for political education: Memorial places for the victimsthe national socialism. A documentation. Berlin 1999
- Sepp cock, light Carola gardner Scholle: Branch office Heinkelwerk. Publishing house new life, Berlin. 1963. (B0000BIZEO)
- Inge Lammel, Günter rotten: Saxonia living song book. Edition Hentrich, Berlin. 2000. ISBN 3894681624
- Erika Riemann: “The loop in Stalins beard.A girl caper, eight years detention and the time thereafter. “Piper, 2004.ISBN 3492240933 (personal history over the stay in sowj. Punishing camp 1946 to 1954)
- Stephan Jegielka: The KZ-external bearing Genshagen. Structure and perception of the hard labour in a Rüstungsbetrieb 1944/45. Tectum,Structure, Marburg 2005.ISBN 382888895X (study of an external bearing of the KZ Saxonia living)
- federal center for political education: Against forgetting - prisoner everyday life in the KZ-Sachsenhausen 1936-1945. CD-ROM. Bonn, 2005. Part number 1806.
- Günter rotten, Ines realm (Hrsg.): “Soviet special camp No. 7/Nr.1 in Saxonia living(1945-1950) “. Catalog of the exhibition in the memorial place and museum Saxonia living, Berlin 2005.ISBN 3938690135
- January von Flocken/Michael Klonovsky: “Stalins camp in Germany 1945-1950, documentation of witness reports”, Ullstein 1991. ISBN 3550074883
- Adolf citizens: “The devil workshop the money counterfeiter workshop in the KZ Saxonia living”, Hentrich& Hentrich, December 2004.To ISBN 393347180
Web on the left of
- http://speziallager.thomas-ney.com/ history of the concentration and special camp Saxonia living
- the men with that pink angles - homosexual ones in the concentration camp Saxonia living
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Coordinates: 52° 46 ′ 2 " n. Break, 13° 15 ′ 45 " o. L.