Kabale and love

Kabale and love is a civil tragedy of Friedrich Schiller, to 13. April 1784 in Frankfurt/Main was uraufgeführt. The drama, in whose center the unfortunate love between the noble Ferdinand and the musician daughter Luise is located, brings up for discussion thatCondition conflict between aristocracy and middle class.

The original title „Luise Millerin “was renamed after the suggestion of the actor Iffland in „Kabale and love “. The piece is considered as one of the large classical authors of German drama TIC and preferentially as school reading is used. 1848 became it of Giuseppe Verdi under the title Luisa Miller tones; the libretto to the opera created the Neapolitaner Salvatore Cammarano.

Table of contents


1784 publishedSchiller its theoretical work „the looking stage as moral institute “. The main thought of this work is the tragedy as Theodizee. The task of the theatre was thus after Schiller to show the order of the world as a world created of God by the higher justice on thatStage is repaired. Schiller in the order for educating of the theatre saw a further field to bring humans by education to the refinement. In addition the theatre should take the function of one „moral institute “and cause thus a Katharsis. The most important function of the theatre saw Schiller howeverin the central role between liberty and necessity, which take the theatre. Thus the fight of the individual with the social, moral and religious obligations on the stage is won idealized by humans.

„Kabale and love “is a typical work of the civil tragedy, one on GottholdEphraim Lessing led back subspecies of the tragedy, which takes place no longer exclusively in the world of the high aristocracy, but also in that of the middle class. Lessings influence can be pursued over „to Emilia Galotti “to Schillers piece. The condition clause is repealed set, the conflictbetween middle class and aristocracy the controlling motive is, political bad states is openly accused.

Beyond that the piece is rooted in the storm and urge. Individual interests and subjective feelings as well as the demand for liberty in relation to the obligations of the condition company are powerful mainsprings for the figures, leadhowever also easily into the disaster.

By Schillers own love for Charlotte of Wolzogen it had become painfully conscious the gap between aristocracy and middle class.

„Kabale and love “was the third piece of Schillers, that in September 1782 from the sphere of influence of the württembergischen duke Karl Eugen to Mannheim had fled; the duke had forbidden Schiller because of its bad departure to the premiere „of the robbers “under detention place to let and to him its literary activity. The unfairness and prince arbitrariness, a whose witness and also victim became he, have themselves in „Kabale and love “struck down:

  • The prodigality at the herzoglichen yard: Although at present Schillers Württemberg was a relatively poor country, Karl Eugen led his yard life after the model of the Versailler of yard. Accordingly complex were the frequent celebrations, balls and hunts, those among other things by pressing the population out and throughSoldier sales were financed.
  • Soldier trade: The sales of „national children “abroad, to Schillers times particularly for the colonial war in America, took place also in Württemberg and served the raising of funds. This soldier trade contained kidnapping from farmer, craftsman and worker sons to foreign rulers, alsoMethods, which did not make stop before use of force and beta exercise means. „The national father “received for it high sums at head funds.
  • The Mätressenwesen: Karl Eugen led for his time a usual, pronounced Mätressewesen. Franziska of Leutrum was later one of the many Mätressen of Karl Eugen, thoseofficial companion of the duke and 1780 its wife. It is the contemporary model of the drama figure lady Milford in Kabale and love. This applies in particular to the positive influence, which Franziska of Leutrum on the duke had, and who itself in the figure of the lady Milfordto regain leaves.
  • Plots: That at present Schillers at the württembergischen yard officiating Minister count Samuel Monmartin had brought its rivals by means of falsified letters to case and had provided the exclusive confidence of the prince.
  • Arbitrary government: With its criticism at the arbitrary procedure of the dominant ones opposite the subjects, on, One can think arrests and Einkerkerungen without each judicial judgement of the arrest from Christian Friedrich Daniel kind of thrust, a journalist and a poet, who had practiced at the dominant conditions criticism.

Contents of

Ferdinand, major and son of the president of walter, a high employee noble one at the yard one, Luise, the daughter of the Musikus Miller, falls German prince into a deadly ending conflict with its on mutuality which is based love. Both the father Ferdinands as well as the old Miller reject a connection of their children.

The president of walter pursues instead the goal, Ferdinand alsoto marry the Mätresse of the duke lady Milford, in order to increase so its influence with yards. Ferdinand revolted however against the plan of its father, quits it its obedience and tries Luise to the escape to persuade. In order to achieve their goal, initiate the president andits secretary worm (at the same time Ferdinands competitor) an insidious plot: Luises parents are groundlessly arrested. From death, then one explains Luise, can her their parents only by a love letter addressed to the yard marshal von Kalb save. Besides Luise must swear an oath on God, to the forcedBrief als ein von ihr aus freiem Entschluss verfasstes Schriftstück auszugeben. This letter is passed on Ferdinand and wakes aimed its jealousy as well as rachsüchtige despair. Luise wants itself thereupon by Suizid from the oath to solve, in order to re-establish before Ferdinand dying the innocence of its love. This project through-crossestheir father, by exerting solid moral and religious pressure on her. Thus it has to oppose only the silence and the lie demanded by the oath to the accusations Ferdinands. Blindly before rage and despair Ferdinand poisons itself and Luise. Dying Luise is released from theirProfessional secrecy, reveals the plot and assigns to it, which again for the moment its death also forgives to Ferdinand its father.

In a Nebenhandlung lady Milford, which holds a central position between aristocracy and middle class, is confronted with the pure and simple love Luises for Ferdinand. Despite their ownLove for it gives it thereupon its marriage intentions up and withdraws itself from the höfischen world.

Figure constellation

lines without arrow: Family or private connection
blackyellow broken lines with arrows: Kabale (conspiracy with or approximately)
red arrows with hearts: Romantic feelings, direction is determining
Black-red broken lines with arrows: Love, which to be achieved boxes yellow by Kabale
is: Noble of high conditions
orange boxes: Civil boxes brown in the service
of the aristocrats: Civil
yellow ones of rings: Marriage rings, Miller and Millerin are married

in the piece stand themselves for two socially defined groupsopposite.

The middle class

the city musi Kant Miller is deeply religious and with a firm place the zunftischen correct of the city, on the one hand self-confidently, unerschrocken and upright a respectable, upright musician, on the other hand one close borders arrests and not freely from rule attitude. Miller is firmly embodied in ständischen thinking,thus it rejects a marriage of its daughter with the noble Ferdinand. However it leaves with the husband choice within the ständischen order free choice to Luise, because it holds the custom, according to which the father selects the married man, for traditional. Opposite its wife it behaves asinstructing Patriarch, while with its daughter tender loving connects it. Its civil self-assurance shows up clearly in the dispute with the president; despite fear it places itself against the president, persisted courageously in its house force. He gives to understand clearly that the spoiled worldthe aristocracy in his eyes morally under the civil world is located.

Mrs. Miller preserves smallcivil ascent hopes regarding Luises relationship with Ferdinand and favours secretly this dear relationship. The moreover one it feels flattered by operating a fine gentleman in their house. From thisReason rejects it worm in the discussion as a son-in-law, plays it however by its Schwatzhaftigkeit and folds in information about the relationship from Ferdinand and Luise to, which know to use these for its plot. Opposite her man Mrs. Miller can maintain ground only with difficulty. Alsoopposite the president it takes a ängstliche and unterwürfige attitude and embodies in this regard the subjects as a farmhand.

Miller's sixteen-year-old daughter Luise as „the most beautiful copy of a Blondine “is presented, „apart from the first beauty of the yard still figure would make “. It is firmly embodied in their family, particularly to their father it has a very close relationship. Luise buildup protected and to the respectableness educated; their thinking is coined/shaped of the Christian faith, the immoral life to yards repels it. The meeting with Ferdinand falls itLife over. In Luise a conflict plays itself off between its love for Ferdinand, the expectation attitude of its father, the social barriers God-wanted for it and their religious conviction.

Worm is the secretary and trusted friend of the president, a characterless plotter, that for wealth and reputation tooeverything is ready. It is the source of the Kabale, from which it promises itself to all different one the hand of the Luise desired by it. By Skrupellosigkeit the social ladder emporgeklommen, step he downward and Katz bending ELT upward.

The aristocracy

invisible and nevertheless towering abovein the background the prince is located as absolutist rulers, who are inconsequential the well-being of its subjects. It arises not personally, but its marriage plans, its yard life and its government acting have influence on the life of all drama figures.

President of walter, Ferdinands father, provided his officeby the murder at its predecessor. Its whole behavior is aligned to strengthen its position with yards and to secure itself the favour of the duke. It subjects humans, value conceptions and feelings, love to this power calculation regards it as ton-arranged Schwärmerei: a marriage is alone dynastischenor serve political goals. Only as Ferdinand, becomes he assigns to him in death its error consciously. It recognizes that humans do not let themselves be moved like chessmen, but follow feelings and value conceptions, which are not subordinated alone to usefulness considerations or power efforts. In regret it places itselfthe law and thus its career terminates.

Ferdinand is passionate a typical representative storm and urge, up-brew-sends, out of touch with reality. As a son of the president the civil Luise is actually as a bride taboo. For it are however not the conditions, but the personal qualities of humansimportantly. In the tradition of the clearing-up he despises the plotters practices of the höfischen world. Thus it complains on the unfairness, the Inhumanität as well as the Amoralität of the absolutist order. It tries to blow up this order and appoints themselves thereby to „nature “and „God “. Its possession thinking andits absolute love for Luise, connected with its emotional acting, lead already early in the piece to its unfounded jealousy on Luise. By the idea of the absolute love possessed, measured it the role of the Rächers on and kill yourself an innocent one.

Lady Milford alias Johanna ofNorfolk, the Mätresse of the prince, takes a central position between the höfischen and civil value order. The orphan fled from England in the German exile answered brought love of the prince to it from emergency and became its Mätresse. This position makes an according to rank life for her possible and satisfiestheir ambition. Also you open this position the possibility of moderating the bad states in the principality and of exerting influence on the prince. Thus also the marriage plan with Ferdinand was contrived not by the president, but by it. Lady Milford carries a longing after genuine love initself; with Ferdinand it wants to leave the country and begin a new period of life. When Ferdinand rejects its love, she tries to force him with all means to the marriage, probably knowing that she cannot win Ferdinands heart. Lady Milford is afraid a possible humiliating and is thus ready, publicly made connection does not admit to recall. It tries to induce Luise by threats and promises to the renouncement of Ferdinand, but its practice-substantial mask breaks; deeply of „the higher virtue “Luises met, terminates it the relationship with the duke and goes exceptCountry. Altogether the picture of a woman, who wanted property, develops but into wasteful and intrigante driving of the yard is merged. Striving for honour and power throws itself a shade on its humanity, in their behavior approximately over the people andtheir servants shows. At the conclusion it makes a clear decision, goes except country and separates in such a way from the involving.

To these participants the cowardly and geschwätzige yard marshal von Kalb, a Hofschranze dependent on president on walter, that comes on outside light the arrangedLife-style of the yard personifiziert. It it is consciously that he does not have an alternative to it as humans without special qualities, to the conscious or unconscious tools closes itself.

Linguistic representation

Schiller uses a high style, pathos and hyperbolas around the zynische to describe cold world of the yard. Thosetrained French passages serve Schiller to expose the yard world with their empty Konversationen and its slope for glossful outward appearances. The language of the president is polished, calculating and instructing arrogantly. „I hold you by your own Schurkerei, like the Schröter at the thread. “The secretary wormcan be constituted as a smaller image of the president. The mode of expression of the yard marshal Kalb can be seen as parallel for the language of the Mrs. Miller. Calf speaks dümmlich, unnaturally and affectedly and seizes themselves with some words. „I in full career home - change thoseDresses - go back - which you say? “

Schiller confronts the direct, often crude to the unnatural language of the yard language of the married couple Miller. Miller is characterized by the crude language of the simple man: „I have yourself fullly eaten [...] “, „skis you to the Satan. “ItsIt underlines opinions with general idioms how: „On the bag one strikes; one means the donkey. “Also Mrs. Miller is to be assigned to the middle class by her language. By wrong handling foreign words, it their reveals the use of different idioms and dialect expressions like „Bläsier “instead of PläsierSwabian, as well as civil origin. A privileged position takes the language of the loving, lady Milford, Luise and Ferdinand. Their language exhibits in purchase to the social level as well as no ständischen moments.

Structure of the drama

the structure of the piece follows a strict system, which alsothe terms „symmetry “and „dialectic principle “to be designated knows. Correspondence and contrast mark contents like also shape of the work. This becomes clear in the succession of the scenes, which contain a regular rhythm in the change of the world of the small middle class with the world of the absolutist yard. Upthis way is confronted „the small world “(rooms the Miller) „to the large world “(hall of the president and/or palace the lady Millford) dialectically and on the other hand a symmetry in the succession of the scenes is obtained. Also for the structure of action of the work the principle of the symmetry applies. AsThe three scenes between Ferdinand and Luise at the beginning (1,4) can example be stated, in the center (3,4) and at the end (5, 4); first emphasizes the secret contrast of the loving, which leave second him in the crucial point of turning become acute, third sealedit in death.


  • Hans Erich Struck: Friedrich Schiller - Kabale and love. 2. revised edition 1998, Oldenbourg school book publishing house, Munich 1998. ISBN 3-486-88643-6
  • Beate north man: Explanations concerning Friedrich Schiller, Kabale and love. Fear for, Hollfeld 2003. ISBN 3-8044-1747-7 /
  • Jens, walter (Hrsg.): Kindlers new literature encyclopedia, expenditure for studyVolume 14 RH-sports club. Kindler publishing house GmbH, Munich

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