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the Kadampa school was first of the Tibetan buddhistischen schools of the new translations of buddhistischer writings from India after Tibet (S.A. Buddhismus in Tibet). Again these schools are called, since they began with the second translation period in the elften century, contrary to the tradition of the old persons translations from the 9.Jahrhundert, which is called Nyingma. The Kadampa school has its origin in the theories of the Indian Panditas Atiśa (982-1054), a famous abbott from Vikramaśila in India and precedes the other lines of the new translations (Sakya, Kagyue and Gelug).
Atiśa held above all three lines and introduced these to Tibet. These three lines are:
- the line of deep philosophy over Buddha Shakyamuni / Manjushri / Nagarjuna;
- the line of the immeasurable activity over Buddha Shakyamuni/Maitreya/ Asanga and
- the line of the transmission of the benediction and practice of Buddha Vajradhara / Tilopa / Naropa.
With Atishas statements played refuge and Bodhichitta a central role. Its persisting in the refuge as the foundation each buddhistischen practice, brought in the surname Zufluchts Lama for it . Besides Atisha possessed a line for the development of a particularly strong Bodhichittas (illuminating spirit), those on its most important teacher: Serlingpa of Sumatra (also as Dharmakirti or Suvarnadvipa admits), as well as on Dharmarakshita and Yogi Maitreya back goes. This later than Lojong become line admits first was kept secret and only generations after Atishas death publicly in Tibet taught and into all Tibetan buddhistischen schools integrated.
Atiśa became of Dschangtschub Je Öd (tib.: Byang chub) asked Ye-shes 'Od to repair the buddhistischen theories in the west Tibets after king Langdharma (gest. 838) it had destroyed to a large extent. Atiśa came 1042 to Tibet and wrote due to the requests of Dschangtschub Je Öd its famous writing: Lamp on the path, which is the origin text of all Lamrim of texts. In Tibet Atiśa met also still the 85 years old scholar Rint Sangpo (Rin chen Bzang po), its gel honouring SAMness it much impressed. As well-known Pandita put Atisha large value on the adherence to the Vinaya - to rules in Tibet. It provided up to its end of life for the restoration of the buddhistischen theory in Tibet and cleaned it of all nichtbuddhistischen practices.
three Kadampa Übertragungslinien
Atisha's main pupil in Tibet were: Ku-sound Tsön dru, Ngo put PE Sherab and Dromtönpa (Drom sound Gyal incoming goods Jungne (1005 - 1054)). Dromtönpa received the complete teachings Atisha's and passed the transmissions on (the mental inheritance Atisha's) in three lines divided to the three noble Kadampa brothers (Geshe Potowa, Geshe Pyangsba and Geshe Gonpaba).
- Geshe Potowa (1031-1106) conveyed the line of the text statement (line of the six of canonical texts),
- to Geshe Gonpaba the line of the stage way (key instructions of the four noble truths) and
- Geshe Pyangsba the line of the verbal core instructions over sixteen the Essenzen.
First Atisha's became legacy at Dromtönpa admits as tradition of the four divinities and three Dharmas, who pointed an assertible application way out of the combination of Sutra and Tantra. Later under the name: Atisha's Kadam tradition, the great legacy of filters göttlichen Dharmas. Atisha is as Indian masters thus the origin of a tradition, which admits gradually than Kadampa tradition later became.
The six canonical texts of the Kadampas are:
- The stages of the Bodhisattva (skt., Bodhisattvabhumi) of Asanga;
- Schmuckstück of the Mahayana Suez-race (skt.: Mahayanasutraalamkara) of Maitreya/Asanga;
- Manual of the training courses of a Bodhisattvas (skt.: Shikshasamucchaya) of Shantideva;
- Leader for the way of life of a Bodhisattvas (skt.: Bodhisattvacharyaavatara) of Shantideva;
- Girlande of rebirth stories (skt.: Jatakamala) of Aryashura, and
- the collection of the words of the Buddhas (skt.: Udanavarga) - the Tibetan Dhammapada of Dharmatrata.
Atishas teachings are more to Suez-race oriented and base particularly on the second training cycle of Buddha Shakyamuni (2. Tricks of the Rades of the teachings). In addition, Atisha was a large Vajrayana master and important master in the transmission of the Kalachakra - Tantra after Tibet. Vajrayana - it kept exercises however very secret.
He wrote its surely most famous work right after its arrival in Tibet: The lamp on the way to illuminating - the stage way to illuminating, called Lamrim, which is common in all four Tibetan buddhistischen traditions just like the Lojong teachings today.
The origin of the Sakya -, Kagyü - and Gelug - school are with these theories of the Kadampa connected tradition. The first Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen was a pupil of Geshe Pyibolas, which was a pupil Geshe Nehuzurpas, which learned Gonpaba again with the Atisha pupil. Accordingly the line of the stage way of the Kadampa was conveyed to the Sakya line. Regarding the Kagyü schools Marpa of the translators met with its third India journey Atisha. Gampopa, a pupil of Marpas pupil Milarepa, learned before it on Milarepa met, six years with a further pupil of Gonpaba and the Lojong and Lamrim teachings integrated later into the practice of the six Yogas of Naropa and the Mahamudra teachings, which he received from Milarepa.
Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), a large Reformator, from whose training statements later the Gelug - school came out, was on the one hand pupil of the Kagyü Lama Gyalwa Kor Khangchen Chökyi Wangpo, from which he received the Kadampa line of the text statement and also pupil of the Nyingma Lama Lhodrag Namkhagyal, from which it received both the line of the stage way, and the line of the verbal instruction. Since the three Kadampa lines became to transfer completely to the Gelug school, one called the Gelug school even newer one Kadampa school.
Dromtönpa (1003/4 1064) let the Kadampa monastery establish Rva sgreng north of Lhasa and to Geshe Potawa established the monastery Poto. The earlier Kadampa school held however no strictly formal organization upright and the monasteries came up in the 14.Jahrhundert into the Gelug school.
as new Kadampa one can designate strictly taken only the Gelug school. The so-called new Kadampa tradition, which arouses the impression in its advertisement to be the continuation of the Kadampa school of the Atisha came out from a selection of Gelug teachings and is no representative of the old-venerable Kadampa tradition.
- Ringu Tulku: The Ri-ME Philosophy OF Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study OF the Buddhist Lineages OF Tibet. Shambhala Publications, 2006, ISBN 1590302869