Coffee

of these articles is concerned with the beverage coffee, further meanings under coffee (term clarifying)
coffee plant with matures fruits
roasted Kaffeebohnen
Kaffeedose first class Feinster Hochlandkaffee intershop Sonderfüllung VEB Kaffee- und Nährmittelwerke Halle/Saale
coffee box roofridge class finest high land coffee intershop special filling VEB of coffee and feeding central works resounds/Saale

coffee /ˈkafɛː/(türk. kahve out arab. قهوة qahwa„energizing beverage “; also:Wine) is a black, koffeinhaltiges hot beverage, which is made of roasted (roasting coffee ) and gemahlenen Kaffeebohnen. Roasting and meal degrees vary depending upon kind of preparing (S. and). Coffee contains the Vitamin Niacin.

The Kaffeebohnen become from Steinfrüchten of different plant types from the familythe Rubiaceae won. The two most important kinds of the coffee plant are Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) with many sorts/Varietäten. Depending upon kind of the coffee plant, to sort of the Kaffeebohne and the cultivation place there are different quality classes. Thus coffee from Robusta beans is considered asinferior opposite the out pure Arabica, these bean sorts have only different characteristics and price formation factors.

Coffee is world-wide cultivated today in over 50 countries.

As rarest coffee places to the Indonesian copy Luwak is considered to the world: Creeping cats eat coffee cherries and separate beans, from their taste characteristicsby fermentation in the intestine of the animals changed.


Table of contents

to history

origin legend and after

discovery 1671 of Antonius Faustus Naironus in its book De saluberrima potione cahve legend brought to paper is once to Hirten from Kaffa to have noticed that a part of the herd of goat, thosefrom a bush with white blooms and red fruits had eaten, until into the night inside lively around-jumped, while the other animals were tired. The Hirten deplored themselves over it with monks close of the convenient monastery. When a Hirte tried the fruits of the bush, placedit also with itself an animating effect firmly. With investigations of the monks in the grazing place they discovered some dark-green plants with cherry-like fruits there. They prepared from it a Aufguss and could from now on without the used sleep need to deeply into the night inside awake be, prayand talk with one another.

It is accepted that the province Kaffa is in Ethiopia the country of origin of the coffee. There it became already in 9. Century mentions. From Ethiopia the coffee probably arrived in 14. Century by slave traders to Arabia. Was roasted and drunk he howeverthere probably only starting from center 15. Century. The cultivation of coffee brought in a monopoly role for Arabia . Commercial centre was the port Mocha, also Mokka mentioned, the today's aluminium Mukha in Yemen.

The äthiopische kind of preparing and/or. Coffee tradition is probably the ursprünglichste: After roasting the beansin a large iron pan these are zerstampft roughly husbands or in the mortar. The grinding stock becomes with water and sugar in the so-called. Jabana (a bulgy Tonkrug similarly a Karaffe) boiled up and in small bowls serves.

spreading

with the ascent of the osmanischen realm became ever more popular the beverage. The first Café developed in Persia. In public coffee houses one met in small Asia, Syria and Egypt for the benefit of the beverage. Augsburger physician Rauwolff 1573 in Aleppo already became acquainted with the benefit of coffee and reported 1582 over it. Further messages over the coffee arrived by Prospero Alpino 1592 to Italy.

the first Cafés in Europe

in Istanbul is to have emerged coffee 1517 for the first time (by Sultan Selim after the conquest of Egypt); anyhow there 1554 became - afterviolent opposition of church and state - which opens first European coffee house.

1645 had Venice, 1650 Oxford and 1652 London such a mechanism. In France developed around 1659 first coffee houses in Marseille. Paris followed 1672, after an Armenian in pc. Germaina Kaffeebude had impacted. The first actual Paris coffee house was however the Café Procope, which was opened to Coltelli around 1689 by the Sicilian Francesco Procopio de'.

First Viennese the coffee house opened 1683, after in the fight against the Turks 500 bag coffee had been captured.(Establishment by George Franz Kolschitzky, poles, that into Turkish shank was guessed/advised.) to Germany the coffee obviously arrived over France, and it was poured out for the first time 1673 in Bremen. Here then 1697 of Bremen the coffee house in the house Schütting developed. 1675 one knew coffeealready to yards of the large cure prince, but only 1721 the first coffee house were established here. In Hamburg 1679 a coffee house, which was created by an Englishman, in Regensburg 1686 , in Leipzig developed 1694.

In 17. Century became the coffee plant into Dutch coloniesspread and Holland secured a supremacy in the trade.

cultivation

goods the coffee plants first only in Africa and Arabia spreads, then one came soon on the idea to cultivate it into other suitable regions.

First cultivation outside of Africa and Arabia happened through van Hoorn, who let first attempts employ as a governor of Netherlands east India 1690 ( after other sources already 1658 ) in Ceylon and 1696 ( or 1699) on Java. The plants used there originated from Arabia. From these Plantagen 1710 several copies arrived to Europe andin different botanischen gardens, z were cultivated here. B. in Amsterdam, where a coffee bush was pulled for the first time on European soil.

1718 brought the dutchmen the coffee to Surinam, the Frenchmen to 1725 after Cayenne, 1720/1723 after Martinique, 1730 after Guadeloupeand toward end 18. Century already belonged the coffee to the most common cultivated plants in the Tropics. This is to be due also to the propagation of the European colonies, without which the today's world-wide spreading of the coffee is not to be understood.

coffee places

  • has Arabica coffeea world market portion of approximately 60% of the produced coffee. This bean sort, which contains only half of the Koffeins in the comparison to the Robusta bean, is particularly because of their flavour likes and become famous.
  • Robusta has approx. 36% portion of the world production. Optically this bean sort differs througha straight cut in the bean cut curved of the Arabica with. By the Farmern this sort becomes particularly because of their ruggedness and their shorter maturing time (opposite the Arabica) estimated.
  • Excelsa is considered to 1904 at the Chad lake as bean rare piece, was found. Has from all bean sorts thatstrongest stature. Above all the ability to prosper and also in rain-poor years a satisfying yield gain on drier soil well, distinguishes it. Nevertheless only approx. 1% portion of the world production.
  • Stenophylla the particularly kleinblättrige plant from west Africa (French Guayana and Sierra Leone) sea-height can be cultivated in up to 700 m. In Sierra Leone with this sort the well-known “Highland Coffee” are manufactured. The beans are round and large, the fruits schwarzwerden with maturing.

benefit

coffee cups

the coffee was originally muchexpensively, therefore only well-off citizens and Aristokraten could afford the aromatic beverage. Honoré de Balzac drank always very much strong coffee, in order to remain awake; he worked mostly twelve hours on the day. Ludwig van Beethoven had angewöhnt itself it to pay exactly 60 Kaffeebohnen off overto brew from this a cup of Mokka.

From Johann Wolfgang von Goethe came the idea, one is the beans to distill. With the shifting of the thought the chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovered the Koffein.

The expensive and rare coffee became from poorer social classes and in crisis periods throughSpare products such as Muckefuck, Malzkaffee or Zichorie replaces. That today little spread expression genuine bean coffee developed for demarcation in relation to that likewise spare products called coffee.

In some countries the afternoon benefit of coffee was established coffee as own meal.

economic meaning

10 Staaten produzieren 78,4 % der weltweiten Ernte von Kaffeebohnen
10 states produce 78.4% of the world-wide harvest of Kaffeebohnen

world production 2005

Brazil were a largest coffee producer of the world with 2,179 millions Tons become green to Kaffeebohnen, which approx. 28.2 per cent of the world harvest constituted, the 2005 with 7,72 millions Was appropriate for tons per year.

Thoseten largest coffee producers 2005
country tons coffee
Brazil 2.179.270
Viet Nam 990,000
Indonesia 762,006
Colombia 682,580
Mexico 310,861
India 275,400
Ethiopia 260,000
Guatemala 216,600
of Honduras 190,640
Uganda 186,000

(source: FAO ACT 2006, see Web on the left of)
The most important principal client countries are world-wide the USA, Germany, France, Japan and Italy.

trade

the coffee industry in Germany is an oligopoly: six offerers (Tchibo, Aldi and. A.) divide 85% of the market. The German Grossröstereien concentrates thereby in Hamburg area. That Hamburg port is not only for Germany,separate even world-wide the largest place of transshipment for raw coffee.

By a purge of the coffee price, at which above all also the oligopoly mentioned had relevant portion, 2001 the price for coffee had sunk on a level, which had been undercut in the before-going 50 years never:In the annual average for 500 g coffee only 3.28 euro had to be paid to 2001.

Beginning with at the end of 2001 the coffee price changed again into an easy upward trend. Since at the end of of 2004 now the coffee prices rise again more strongly. Thus became in the international trade in accordance with the monthly means of theComposite index of the coffee exporter federation internationally Coffee Organization after coffee prices of usually far over 100 US cent per Pound (lb) in, the 80's and memo 90's 70's in September 2001 a low of only 41.17 US cent per Pound measured; the twelve monthly means of theYearly 2005 nevertheless recovered against it values between 78,79 (Septembers) and 101.44 (March) US cent per Pound.

Beside the risen consumption, which led to a balanced market, 2004 Hedge funds and other speculative investors contributed , those at being to the rise since endand/or. Coffee stock exchanges the price float upward. Thus the number of the acted and also pending goods date contracts increased clearly.

Even the smallest portion of the price and of it again only a small part paid by the final consumer remains traditional with the workers and farmers in the cultivation countryhang. In the fair trade, when its classical product coffee applies, is tried, to consider this difficult economic situation of the producers during the entire commercial process and create fair conditions. This led so far to another distribution in the creation of value chain, but also to altogether higherPrices for the consumer of since years stably approximately five euro. By the current price history this more expensive coffee - with a past market share in Germany of under a per cent - becomes now competitive and traditional with far rising prices even clearly more favorably than thatacted.

As is the case for the oil and gasoline over 50% the lion's share of the coffee price goes along to the state: Ex and import duties, coffee-expensively and value added tax can be reduced at any time in favor of small coffee farmers and free trade. “Trade Agreements” a avowed goal general of the Agreement on Tarrifs and trade was fairthe World Bank. A reduction of the tariff and the taxes would normalize the Verhätnisse for producers and free trade again.

consumption

the largest coffee consumption of the world have the fairings. Each inhabitant of Finland consumed 1998 11.3 kg (2004 11.6 kg) coffee, which altogether 1737Corresponds to cups per year and/or 5 cups per day and person.

The USA have the largest total consumption, 1998 amounted to it roughly 1.148.000 t (Finland: 58,000 t). Converted to the individual inhabitant of the USA, these numbers correspond 4.2 kg and/or. 646 cups per year (1,8per day).

Each German on the average drinks 4 cups coffee on the day, corresponds 160 litres and/or. 6.7 Kilos per year. Thus coffee is still before beer the most popular beverage of the Germans.

In Germany coffee is subject and kaffeehaltige goods additional to use of you, that coffee-expensively. The annual incomes from this tax amount to approximately 1 billion Euro.

preparation and consumption

the kind of preparing of coffee changes depending upon culture, national customs or personal taste. In principle five kinds of preparing can be differentiated:

  • With in Germany, that Switzerland and the USA wide-spread filter coffee simmering water is filtered by coffee powders in a filter bag. This procedure was invented 1908 by Melitta Bentz.
  • Among other things in Italy Espresso is drunk, with the water under high pressure (9-15 bar) by the feingemahlenen coffeeone leads (extraction) and, the Crema forms a foam from coffee oils.
  • With the preparation of Turkish coffee (Turkey, Balkans countries, in Greece or in Greek restaurants Greek coffee) the very finely gemahlene coffee with plentifully sugar becomes andWater in particularly, an easily conical Kupferkesselchen conceived for it boiled up, that so-called. Ibrik or Cezve /ʤɛzvɛ'/(see Mokka).
  • One managed press stamp can in France very popular method of the coffee cooking by means of the French press or. Similarly as with the Turkish coffee thereby that becomesCoffee powder directly into the hot water given, and after a while by means of a metal filter separated.
  • Soluble coffee is coffee powder, which is prepared only by addition by hot water and without further preparing steps be drunk can. Soluble coffee is manufactured, by coffee after one the aboveMethods one prepares and one extracts from the prepared coffee then the water again.

On basis of these five basic preparing there are today hundreds of coffee prescriptions and thousands of prescriptions, the coffee uses. For many kinds of the preparation there are special coffee machines.

Coffee mostly does not become howother beverages than more normally Durstlö taken. Coffee drunkards often expect an energizing effect. According to a study to the University OF Scranton of active US-American chemist Joe Vinson of August 2005 serves coffee, apart from the traditional consumption of fresh fruit and vegetable, as an important source of Antioxidantien. Those are secondary plant components, which reduce indirectly the cancer risk.

roasting middle roasting

= American ungeröstet roasting, breakfast roasting strong roasting
  • = French roasting brightens kinds of the coffee roasting different
  • roasting stages - of light roasting = pale
  • or Zimt up to Italian roasting -, Viennese roasting
  • double roasting = Continental roasting, French roasting
  • Italian roasting = Espresso roasting
  • torrefacto (Spanish for roasted) = roasting under sugar with gift, particularly in Spain common. In such a way roasted coffee is added to 20% - 50% to the conventionally roasted (tueste natural), the resultmezcla (Spanish for mixture) one calls. One mezcla 70/30 z. B. 30% consist café torrefacto of 70% tueste natural and. This kind of roasting reduces acid and Bitterkeit of the coffee.

kinds of preparing (selection)

Germany
  • ice coffee - cooled coffee with vanilla ice-cream
  • Irish Coffee - strong coffee with whisky, impactsuspects and sugar
  • coffee HAG - koffeinfreier coffee (coffee HAG® is a mark of the company Kraft Foods)
  • white coffee - filter coffee, half milk, half coffee
  • Mokka / Turkish coffee - a strong, sweet, black (SSS) coffee, in the burettewith coffee set serves - the opportunity offers to following coffee sentence vintages. The Turkish coffee is gladly prepared also in Austria.
  • Pharisäer - black coffee with Rum, sugar and with plentiful impactsuspects covered to camouflage (in order the Rum).
  • Rüdesheimer coffee - coffee with Weinbrand flambiert, alsoImpactsuspect, vanilla sugars and Schokoladestreusel
  • Schwaten or chatting - weak coffee with sugar and 2 cl grain per cup (north German speciality)
Austria (and area of the former monarchy)
coffee with impact waiter
  • Almkaffee / mountain coffee - coffee with Eidotter, fruit liquor and waiter
  • conventional Meier - Austrian; with Marillenlikör and Impact waiter
  • of large ones of brown ones - double Espresso with milk in large cup
  • of small of brown ones - simple Espresso with milk in small cup
  • of Doppelmokka - strong coffee in large Mokkaschale a tension adjuster
  • doubles - large Mokka in the handle glass with impact upper hood - the upper hood held the coffee at waiting periodslonger warmly, with this mixed he was cooled down in addition, fast and drink ready if a cart-load for those Lohnkut lined up
  • to ice coffee of English kind - a third coffee, a third ice, a third of waiter
  • ice coffee Viennese kind - firm coffee ice from Eidottern, cream and coffee alsoImpact waiter
  • Fiaker - a large black one in the glass with much sugar and a Stamperl Slibowitz or Rum (Vienna)
  • Franziskaner - clears Melange with impact waiter and Schokostreuseln
  • of squirting - black coffee with Rum or Weinbrand
  • Granita di Caffé - finely roughened ice with strong black gezuckertemCoffee poured over
  • Häferlkaffee - coffee in the Häferl (and not in a cup), filter coffee
  • Intermezzo - small Mokka, with hot chocolate and cream de Cacao mixed and impact upper hood with chocolate (possibly. Mokkabohnen)
  • coffee Kirsch - coffee with Kirschwasser
  • coffee upper Meier - black coffee, on overa spoon back a layer strongly cooled waiter touched down (Vienna)
  • coffee is operated - coffee with 2/3 milk and 1/3 coffee (Vienna)
  • Kaisermelange - Mokka with Eidotter, also with honey and Cognac (Vienna)
  • Kapuziner - black coffee with a shot milk (Vienna)
  • Katerkaffee - more strongly blackerCoffee, which is gesüsst with pieces of sugar, which one abraded before at a lemon bowl.
  • Consul - black coffee with something impact waiter (Vienna)
  • Kosakenkaffee - small Mokka in clamp-suppl.-read, mixed with red wine, Wodka and liquid sugar
  • Maria Theresia - Mocca with a shot Orangenlikör
  • Marghiloman -Mokka with Cognac
  • Mazagran - cold ones gesüsster coffee with ice bits and Maraschino or Cognac
  • Melange - half coffee, half milk
  • Mokka squirted - Mokka with Cognac and Rum
  • Othello - hot chocolate with Espresso
  • Piccolo - small black ones with impact
  • Sanca® - koffeinfreier coffee (Sancaa mark) bowl
  • (rl) is somewhat bright Austrian as a brown one (
  • Vienna) large one of black ones ( also large Mokka) - brown - half coffee, half milk bowl
  • (rl ) gold - coffee with milk; double Espresso without milk in large cup
  • of small of black ones (also small Mokka) - Austrian;simple Espresso without milk in small cup
  • of Separee - coffee and milk are separately served (Vienna)
  • Sperbertürke - doubly strong Turkish” with Würfelzucker more boiled up Turkish
  • coffee “passed - Turkish coffee, with that was again out-passed the sentence
  • rushed into Neumann - impact waiter becomes on the soilfor the empty bowl stored and with hot coffee “rushed into”
  • Hungarian coffee - strong gesüsster coffee is placed on the ice, then blended with cooled of impact waiter and in the glass serves
  • to extending - the dosage of a small black one with the quantity of water of a large black one one prepares (Vienna) orwith approximately double quantity water of prepared Espresso
  • of white with skin - light Melange (bright white coffee), which is not served to verquirlter milk with hotter, on which a skin forms (Vienna)
  • for Viennese Melange - Melange, with gushed milk in the glass serves (Vienna)
  • Zarenkaffee - stronger Espresso, on which a hood from gushed Eidotter is put on mixed, with sugar and Eidotter. The favourite coffee of the Russian Zaren
Switzerland
coffee - CLOSE UP
  • coffee crème - coffee with coffee cream (cream)
  • bowl - white coffee
  • coffee mélange - coffee with impactsuspects, frequentlyimpactsuspect separately in a dished plate serves
  • Luzerner coffee, coffee Lu (t) z, coffee Träsch - teefarbener, thin coffee with plentifully sugar and Träsch - in the coffee glass serves
  • coffee finished - coffee with still more liquor (mostly with Kirsch) - likewise in the glass
France
  • Café outer lait - variant of a stronger Cappucino with little milk foam, in the German linguistic usage one however mostly means the French variant of the white coffee
  • Café Brulot - Weinbrand or Cognac with sugar flambiert and with coffee up-poured
  • Café Crème - coffee with cream or milk, thoseby steam one up-foams
  • Café Filtre - coffee, which is filtered with a put on filter directly into the cup. Less concentrates than the Espresso
  • Café nature - coffee without milk
  • Café Royal - like Café Brulot
  • CAN pool of broadcasting corporations - coffee with Mark (grape/cluster liquor): A sugar cube becomeswith Marks of praying up ELT and into the mouth put, the coffee with liquor and cream mixes and over the sugar cube drunk.
Italy
Italian Espressokanne of Alfonso Bialetti. The octagonal form is characteristic.
  • Caffè slat - Italian variant white coffee, ever to the half hot milk andEspresso
  • Caffè shakerato - Espresso with ice cube in the Cocktailmixer cuts up and up-foamed, possibly. with Amaretto, vanilla flavour or Grappa
  • Cappuccino - one third each Espresso, hot milk and milk foam, often with cocoa powder and/or Zimt covers
  • Cappuccino con panna - Cappuccino with impactsuspect instead of up-foamed milk
  • Chocolaccino - Cappuccino with rubbed chocolate covers
  • Corretto - Espresso with Weinbrand, e.g. Corretto con Grappa, Corretto con Fernet…
  • Doppio - double Espresso
  • Espresso - very strong coffee without milk and sugar, with that the water under high pressure (9 bar) by thatvery finely gemahlene coffee flour is pressed, a cup has about 25 ml
  • slat Macchiato - “dirty milk” - up-foamed warm milk with a carefully admitted Espresso Lungo - (in Italy) actually only to the breakfast or simply only in the morning one drinks.
  • Lungo - Espresso,that the double quantity of water was used
  • Mischio - mixture from coffee and cocoa with impactsuspect
  • Ristretto - Espresso with very little water (15-20 ml instead of the usual 25 ml)
Spain
café in Spain with a Espressomaschine from a dark roasting is usually prepared andbecame thereby in the German linguistic area as Espresso and/or. Browner designates.
  • Café solo - black
  • Cortado - with a shot milk or milk foam, mostly in cups, sometimes also in the glass or with gesüsster Kondensmilch (see also: Cortado)
  • Café con leche - white coffee, mostly toHalf café, for the half of milk (often up-foamed)
  • Café americano - filter coffee, sometimes also a Café solo with water of extended
  • Café con hielo - to café is served a drinking glass with ice cubes, over which after that the coffee is given to sugars.
  • Carajillo - with oneShot Likör, Brandy (Cognac) or Rum. Preparation: Sugar is mixed, ignited in the glass with the alcohol and up-poured with strong coffee (Espresso). As decoration Kaffeebohnen and a piece are given to lemon bowl to the glass
  • Bombón - from the region Castellón de la Plana -Kondensmilch (leche condensada) is up-poured with Espresso and served in a small glass, so that the two layers are recognizable. Before drinking one agitates.
Portugal
  • Bica - strong, black coffee, drunk from small cups
  • Pingo (Bica Pingada) - Bica also little milk
  • Galão - Portuguese white coffee, drunk from a glass
hand-made traditional preparing implements for Turkish and Greek coffee
Turkey (and Balkans countries)
  • Türk Kahvesi Turkish coffee
  • Turkish coffee - not filtered; with coffee powder as sediment, mostly two times boiled up, with first boiling up the foam is distributed on the cups.
Greece
  • Greek coffee - two and/or. three-way boiled up strong coffee, similarly Turkish Mokka
  • Café frappé - with ice cubes more served, coldly up-foamed instance coffee.
The USA
  • Iced coffee - on a glass with pieces of ice hot, strong and gesüsster coffee is given
to South America
  • Café Americano - Espresso,with hot water or liquor was extended
  • Café de olla - coffee, which is prepared with spices such as Zimt and drunk then coldly

partial gives it different view from country to country, which designation applies to which kind of preparing.

Malzkaffee (ugs. Muckefuck) becomesCoffee mentioned, contains however Malz and resembles coffee geschmacklich only little (z. B. Caro coffee). It is a Surrogat for coffee and is suitable, since it does not contain Koffein, also for children.

coffee set as budgetary appropriations

after the Aufbrühen can the coffee set because ofits high nitrogen - content still as good garden - fertilizer to be used. Its high content of potassium, phosphorus and other mineral materials is good for the plant development. Many gardners swear on coffee set as rose fertilizers.

Coffee set is also a outstanding hand detergent for strongly gotten dirty andstressed hands. By the granular structure it works easily sanding and the oils makes a subsequent greasing redundant. The sanding effect of the coffee set finds also with the cleaning of with difficulty attainable places application, how they are present for example with bottles or thermal cans.

Coffee set is among other thingsalso a outstanding worm fodder for the worm attitude of rope worm (Lumbricus terrestris) or compost worm.

Reading in particular the coffee set forming with Mokkazubereitungen serves itself in the people mirror-image guessingism for true legends over the future and “Kaffeedomantie “is called.

physiological effects of the coffee

thatCoffee is well-known due to its Koffeingehaltes for its aufmunternde and easily anti-depressive effect, by blocking the effect of the sleep-promoting messenger material adenosine. There are however also effects, which are generally unknown. Coffee has an effect calming down first. In practice it is well-known thatone better falls asleep, if one lies down in the first 15 minutes after the coffee drinking, because the sleep center in the brain is better supplied with blood. If one hesitates however to for a long time, one misses the reassuring effect of the coffee and the Koffein begins to work; now is itnearly not possibly to fall asleep. This method of the calming becomes z. B. in hospitals applied. With older humans coffee fights the waste of the respiration rate when falling asleep, which can improve their sleep quality.

In order to be able to exhaust the aufmunternde and concentration-promoting effect of the coffee fully, it is after oneArticle in the technical periodical Sleep (volume. 27, No. 3) more meaningfully, many small sips coffee over the day (and/or. the night) distributes coffee to itself to take, as a large cup in the morning. In this way a clearly more effective effect of the Koffeins finds on the sleep centersin the brain instead of. The strategy to distribute the coffee consumption evenly on a longer period is particularly useful for persons, who must work at night: Them it falls to remain so more easily awake and their concentration ability maintain.

The concentration-promoting effect could in the Magnetresonanztomografen visibly madebecome, then became active in particular the brain areas Frontallobus and the front Cingulum, in which the short time memory is located.

is coffee really injurious to health?

In the opinion some physician can be injurious to health the excessive benefit of coffee: it is the insulin mirror, the blood pressure and the blood sugar increase, drain the body and damage so altogether the cardiovascular system. Apart from mostly older investigations this point of view, shows lately however ever more studies that coffee is possibly not at all as unhealthy as so far assumed, on the contrary even health-promoting supportsCharacteristics exhibits. Thomas's Hofmann, director of the institute for food chemistry at the Westfäli William university in Münster said: “The statement that coffee is generally harmful, is today no longer durable, in former times one partially negative effects of individual coffee contents materials on the general complex coffee transferred “.

That2003 a recommendation had taken national heart back, lung and Blutinstitut of the USA, after which patients with high blood pressure should drink at the most moderate quantities coffee. The Harvard School OF publicly Health in bad clay/tone supported this estimate: In the journal OF the American Medical Association presented Wolfgang Winkelmayera study with data of 150.000 women. One did not find referring to a connection between coffee consumption and high blood pressure thereby. In another study of Trine Ranheim and Bente Halvorsen became in individual cases however an increase of the Cholesterinspiegel after the benefit of not filteredCoffee proven. The filterable Diterpene Cafestol and Kahweol cause this effect.

Many of the positive effects of coffee are attributed to the Antioxidantien contained in it. According to an US-American study from the year 2005 is the source for health-promoting Antioxidantien from the daily food, most important with distancethe luxury coffee - from which it can be however only derived that the Americans take probably too little fruit and vegetable to itself ([1]). Due to the comparable nourishing habits it is to be accepted that also in Germany coffee represents a main source for Antioxidantien. Newer studies (department OFNutritional Sciences, University OF Toronto, 2006) show besides a genetic connection for the consequences of the coffee consumption. Depending upon gene variant it can quick slow Elimination of the alkaloid Koffein thereby to or come, which again effects on a Infarktrisiko can have.

promotesCoffee heart diseases and diabetes?

Due to the partially contradictory data situation to this topic 2005 were accomplished by American researchers the so-called CALM study (C offee A lp L ipoprotein M etabolism study), with that the effect of koffeinhaltigem and entkoffeiniertem coffee on heart, Blutkreislauf and metabolism after the high standards of a clinical examination were examined more in detail for the first time. The surprising result: koffeinhaltiger coffee did not have any negative effect on the measured parameters such as blood pressure, pulse frequency, Body measure index (BMI), blood sugar mirror, insulin quantity and different blood fat values (Gesamtcholesterin, HDL, LDL and/or. Apolipoprotein B). On the other hand the Lipoproteinwerte and the content rose clearly at free fatty acids - both factors of risk for Arteriosklerose - in the blood and also the mirror at LDL Cholesterin („bad Cholesterin “) were frequent in consequence at the group, which had drunk the entkoffeinierten coffee,increased. However entkoffeinierter coffee did not have only negative effects on all pro gangs: with over-weighty persons with a BMI of more as 25, however with the normalweighty participants, the regular benefit did not increase also the quantity of the “good” HDL Cholesterins by more than 50 per cent ([2], [3]). Two further large-scale studies, an American on over 45.000 men ([4]) and a Finnish Kohortenstudie also over 20.000 female and male pro gangs, came clearly in the end that regular coffee consumption does not bring a risk for koronare or cerebral vascular diseases with itself.The authors of of the Finnish study found the highest mortality even with to men, those at all no coffee drank and also with the women sank the mortality rate continuously with the coffee consumption ([5]).

During with the large-scale CALM study no influence of coffee on the blood sugar andInsulin mirror to be determined could, reports scientists of the Duke university in Durham (the USA) in the technical periodical diabetes Care (Bd. 27, S. 2047, 2004) that Koffein in combination with a meal let the blood sugar mirror around almost 50 per cent and the insulin mirror rise with diabetes around 20 per cent([6]). The researchers concluded from the fact that Koffein continues to impair the energy metabolism of Diabetikern, disturbed anyway, still. However the rehearsing and number with 14 study participants was very small and in addition pure Koffein in cap form, not coffee (when beverage) was given.

The findings that coffeeand/or. Koffein the sensitivity of the body for insulin reduces and the blood sugar value to rise leaves, contradicts against it also the results of a further large epidemiological study with more than 120,000 participants (Annals OF Internal Medicine, Bd. 140, S. 17, 2004). It was shown that menmore than six cups coffee per day drink, smaller a risk for diabetes, around fifty a per cent, mellitus type 2 had, with women reduced the risk by almost thirty per cent ([7]). Which factors are not responsible for this effect could the scientistsclarify last valid. So on the one hand contents materials of the coffee can be possible like Koffein, potassium , magnesium or Antioxidantien, on the other hand one it could also be that the life habits of the many coffee drunkards differ from those of the other pro gangs in so far not well-known way.

myth:Coffee works draining!

In the press, in addition, by some physicians it is often maintained that coffee extracts and thus to the liquid supply be added may not water from the body. This is however in the opinion the German society for nutrition (DGE) and the society for nourishing medicine andDiätetik e. V., to the newer studies appoint yourself, scientifically not durable ([8], [9], [10], [11]). The DGE in addition literally: „The beverage coffee is an important part of the daily total water supply. In the liquid balance coffee in all rule can soas every other beverage to be treated. History of the coffee as liquid robbers been based on a mistake, is thus a Mär “([12], [13]).

There are older) studies the one effect of coffee, draining at short notice, to also show (mostly could, these goes howeveron the one hand predominantly from unrealistically high Koffeindosierungen and - more serious still - the test persons had to do a longer time interval (from some days to three weeks) before the attempt without koffeinhaltige beverages. Koffein actually restrains the antidiuretische hormone (ADH) of the gland of appendix of brain and signals in such a waythe kidneys, liquid increases to separate. Newer investigations occupy however that the diuretische (urine-driving) effect of the Koffeins (and/or. koffeinhaltiger beverages) only persons concerns, who enjoy not regularly koffeinhaltige beverages. On the other hand the incontestablly existing draining effect of the Koffeins seems in pure form through with „habitual “Kaffetrinkernthe Darreichungsform as koffeinhaltiges beverage to be neutralized and no negative effect on the liquid balance have. In other words: regular coffee benefit makes “immune “to the urine-driving effect of the Koffeins ([14]).

The custom usual in many restaurants, coffee with oneGlass water to serve, serves thus not to adjust a any ullage. Just as the glass water to the wine is it rather the palates “to neutralize” and the taste nerves sensitively to the benefit of the next sip coffee make.

positives of effects of coffee

inan investigation of the national cancer center in Tokyo researchers in a ten-year study found out that from 100.000 coffee drunkards statistically only 214 persons at kidney cancer get sick. Since the appropriate illness number amounts to with non--coffee drunkards 547, one assumes the Antioxidantien of the coffee the kidney cells forwardscarcinogenic oxygen radicals protect. In a comparative investigation it was shown that greener dte does not exhibit this protection effect of the coffee. André Nkondjock of the University of Ottawa discovered that coffee could lower six cups daily the cancer of the breast risk with women over up to 70 per cent. Further the beverage can forwardsBlowing and large intestine cancer protect.

A further large epidemiological study, national the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (publishes at the 1. December 2005), evaluated the health and nourishing data of 9.849 freiwilligen participants. It was shown among other things that the daily benefit of more than 2 cupsCoffee or dte the probability for chronic liver illnesses reduces clearly. This effect, which the scientists attribute mainly to the Koffein, was determined however only with humans with a increased risk for such illnesses, e.g. with alcoholics or over-weighty ([15]).

As the further positive effect becomesthe Parkinsonhemmende effect of the Koffeins discusses, since the production of the nerve messenger material becomes lively Dopamine. Also the outbreak of the Alzheimerkrankheit can by regular benefit possibly. are retarded.

The effects of the consumption of coffee on the power are disputed. Alternating coffee became as drug, which makes impotent,and as aphrodisiac designates. The researcher Amantea found however 1923 out in an human experiment that Koffein did not only increase the desire at the sexual intercourse, but also the Orgasmus strengthened and the quantity of the Ejakulats increased. A current study (2005/2006) showed that Koffein with female rats actuallyan increase of the sex impulse causes. Whether this effect is to be observed also with humans, remains doubtfuly. In opinion of the scientists taken part in the study, the sexual desire became increasing effect of Koffein - if at all available - if necessary with women to occur, not onKoffein are accustomed ([16]).

negatives of effects of coffee

with excessive consumption of coffee and other koffeinhaltigen beverages can occur the following side effects and toxic symptoms:

further the Koffeinmenge of two cups coffee is to reduce the blood circulation of the heart muscle when physical effort measurably after the results of a new study (2006). Thereby the positive effect of physical movement on the heart one reduce clearly. Thisapply in particular with activities in large height or with humans with koronarer heart illness or Arteriosklerose ([17]).

Possible weak points of the study are again the small rehearsing and number (18 participants), the Darreichungsform of the Koffeins in tablet form and the fact that the pro gangs in the days beforethe test neither coffee nor other koffeinhaltige beverages to itself to take were allowed. Since there was no control's group, which was not cured by Koffein, it is not to be excluded that “habitual” coffee drunkards would less sensitively have reacted. Also it is possible that Koffein as a function of its Darreichungsform (z.B. in tablet form or as hot beverage) unfolds different effects.

literature

  • Stewart Lee everything: Teuflisches things: on adventurous journey by the history of the coffee. Campus publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2003. ISBN 3-593-37290-8
  • Ulla Heise: Coffee and coffee house: a history of the coffee. Island publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2002. ISBN 3-458-34495-0
  • Ernesto Illy: From the bean to the Espresso. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, May 2003, S. 82-87, ISSN 0170 - 2971
  • Heinrich Eduard Jacob: Legend and triumphant advance of the coffee. The biography of an world-economical material. Rowohlt: Berlin 1934. Erw. Revised versions Rowohlt, Hamburg 1952 as well as Rowohlt E.G. expenditureNo. 675/676, Reinbek 1964. Also in English (1935), American (1935), Italian (1936), Swedish (1937), French (1953) and Korean (2002)
  • Cornelia Teufl, Stephan Clauss: Coffee. Zabert sand man, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-89883-077-2

Web on the left of

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see also

Café, Kaffeebohne

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