Kagyü (Tibetan transliteriert: bKa' brgyud) one is beside Nyingma, Sakya and Gelug one of the most important school traditions of the Tibetan Buddhismus. Ka-Gyü is the short form of “Ka Bab ski Gyüpa” - the “four rivers of verbal instructions”.
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the Kagyü schools of the Tibetan Buddhismus (Vajrayana) going up Marpa the translator (1012-1097) back, who the Mahamudra - transmission line of Tilopa (988-1069) and Naropa (1016-1100) resumed. In addition Marpa studied Maitripa (Jnanagarhba) and Kukuripa with the large Indian masters. It met during its third journey to India Atisha (982-1054) and studied with it the teachingsthe earlier Kadampa - school. From its journeys to India, where he altogether 17 years was, it brought many buddhistische writings along and translated these into the Tibetan. It is one of the large translators, that justified the tradition of the new translations (Sarma). To thatSarma schools of the new translation period count today the Kagyü, Sakya - and the Gelug - school, contrary to the old translations from that 9. Century, from which the tradition of the old persons translations (Nyingma) developed.
Marpas main pupil was in Tibet because of its miss-richTraining and its mirror-image-ritual singing admitted Yogi Milarepa far away (1042-1123). Milarepa was only introduced after a long phase of extremely hard examinations into tantrische practice. It led a miss-rich life during its practice time and nourished themselves occasionally predominantly of Brennnesseln, therefore it becomes on manyRepresentations with greenish skin color shown. Milarepas most important pupils were the later third on Rechung Dorje Dragpa (Rechungpa) (1084-1161), that life history Milarepas delivered and the monk Gampopa (1079-1153) from Dagpo. Gampopa became famous because of its gel honouring SAMness. Also in the west is its work admits to the stage way(Lamrim) “jewel decoration of release”. It justified the form of the instruction typical for the Kagyü schools, by letting the klösterliche tradition of the earlier Kadmapa and the Yogi tradition of the Indian masters merge with one another.
schools of the Kagyü tradition
the schools of the Kagyü tradition dividetraditionally in the “four large” and “eight small” Kagyü schools up. Besides there is however the still further Kagyü Schulrichtung intimate lines, as well as branch lines, which came out from the Kagyü traditions.
four main pupils,
those had four large Kagyü schools Dagpo Lhaje Gampopa in the future fourSchools based. Among these schools rank:
- Barom Kagyü (hBah.rom), based of Barompa Darma Wangtschug
- Pagru Kagyü (PHag.gru), based of Pagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo
- Karma Kagyü (also Kamtsang Kagyü called), based of the 1.Karmapa for each Düsum Khyenpa
- Tsalpa Kagyü, based of Zangyu Dragpa Darma dragee (Shang Rinpoche) (1121-1193)
Eight small Kagyü schools
of Gampopas pupil Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo go out eight further, the so-called “small” Kagyü schools. They are called historically “small” schools, some of you became in the meantime however more important than some of the large Kagyü schools. The eight small Kagyü schools are:
- Drikung Kagyü
- Drukpa Kagyü
- Hugreb Kagyü
- Krophu Kagyü
- Taklung Kagyü
- Trubo Kagyü
- Yabzang Kagyü
- Yelpa Kagyü
from these Kagyü lines remained received nowadays however no more all than independent schools.
further ones schools in connection with the Kagyü tradition stand
- from Rechungpa, beside Gampopa main pupil of Milarepa, go a their ownstrongly yogisch aligned transmission line in the context of the Kagyü Schultradition out.
- Shangpa Kagyü is the name of a further line, which is close to the Kagyü tradition of Marpa in its teachings. This school came out in their origins however independently and not from the transmission Marpas. It is today however onlyin parts independently keep remained.
- Dagpo Kagyü is used on the one hand as collective term for the four large Kagyü schools, on the other hand designation Dagpo Kagyü one probably only in parts independent line, which from an uncle and the nephew proceeds with Gampopa.
the main transmission thatKagyü schools is the theory of the Mahamudra (large seal or large symbol), which was conveyed by Naropa at Marpa and by Gampopa in different works was stated. Also the so-called. “Six Yogas of Naropa”, which are to be almost found in all school traditions of the Tibetan Buddhismus, havein the Kagyü schools great importance.
The theory of the Mahamudra is based on different stages of meditativer practice, the so-called “four Yogas of the Mahamudra”:
- The development of an one-arranged spirit,
- which Transzendierung of conceptual conceptions,
- which cultivation of the view that all phenomena of fundamentally not-binary nature are, “a taste”,
- The fruit of the path, which lies beyond the still masked effort of the Meditation.
It is said that by these four stages the practicing of the complete implementation of the Mahamudra attains.
Among the six Yogas of Naropa rank:
- Yoga of the internal heat (Tumo)
- Illusionskörper Yoga (Gyulü)
- Traumyoga (Milam)
- Yoga of the clear light (Ösel)
- consciousness transmission (Phowa)
- Yoga of the intermediate condition after the death entrance (Bardo)
important one tantrische practices, which will pass on in the Kagyü schools, are the Yidampraxis over Chakrasamvara, Hevajra and Vajravarahi.
in 19. Century developed under from the Kagyü linecoming master Jamgon Kongtrul and other one the “Rime in such a way specified - movement ", which collected group-spreading theories from all areas Tibets and of masters of all traditions.
beside the original tibeto Mongolian circulation area are Kagyü schools also in Europe and America, as well as parts of north Asia toofind. In Europe some schools of the Kagyü tradition are also in Germany to find Austria and Switzerland.
- Chögyam Trungpa, “the myth of the liberty and the way of the Meditation”, Theseus publishing house, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89620-099-2
- Chögyam Trungpa, “mirror-image-ritual materialism cut through”,Theseus publishing house, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-89620-100-X
- Chögyam Trungpa, “lay illuminating”, Arbor publishing house, free office 2002
- Gampopa, “the precious decoration of release”, Theseus publishing house, Berlin 2000
- Gendün Rinpoche, “heart instructions of a Mahamudra master”, Theseus publishing house, Berlin 1999 ISBN 3-89620-142-5
- Havlat Henrik (over.) Milarepas collected Vajra songs, volume1+2, Theseus publishing house Berlin 1996 and. 1997
- Jamgon Kongtrul, “the large path of awaking”, Theseus publishing house, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-89620-027-5
- Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche, “Opening OF the Dharma”, LIBRARY OF Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala 1974
- Karmapa Wangtschug Dord, “Mahamudra - oceanprotection of the sense, Theseus publishing house Berlin, volume 1 ISBN 3-89620-045-3, volume 2 ISBN 3-89620-036-4, volume 3 ISBN 3-89620-049-6
- Tagpo Tashi Namgyal, “Mahamudra: The Quintessence OF Mind and Meditation ", Shambala Publications, bad clay/tone and. London 1986
- Lama of oils Nydahl, “like the things are. Oneintroduction up-to-date to the teachings Buddhas ", Droemer/Knaur publishing house, 2004, [ISBN: to 342687234X]
- Web on the left of
- Drikung Drukpa in Germany and
- internationally diamond way Germany and
- Kagyu tradition
- Kamalashila Institut
- Karma Dzong - buddhistisches center(Shambala/Vajrayana) Marburg
- Palden Dharma Tare Ling
- rank-young Yeshe
- Shangpa Kagyü
- Taklung Kagyü
- of characteristics of doubtful developments