of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see emperor (term clarifying).

Emperor is the highest title of nobility.

The German word emperor leads itself like also the Russian and/or. slawische Zar of latin name Caesar - afterthe Roman statesman - off ( Caesar in the antique one like „Kaisar “ , not „Zäsar “ , expressed) and the highest-ranking monarchs designated Gaius Iulius Caesar in Europe. In many European languages today from latin a word becomes imperatorderived word for the highest lay ruler uses. The European title was applied later also to the rulers of Persia , Ethiopia , China , Japan , Korea and Annams (Viet Nam) and 1878 also by the kings of England intheir function as rulers of India accepted. The emperor title usually only to such monarch was entitled, who exercised a supranational rule.

Table of contents

the development of the European emperor title

statue of the Augustus

the change of the name Caesar to the ruler title took placein one nearly 100 years lasting process of death Gaius Iulius Caesars 44 v. Chr. up to the assumption of office of the emperor Claudius in the year 41. To the full Roman Herrschertitulatur the three components of Imperator, Caesar and Augustus belonged since Augustus.

Since beginning of the European Middle Ages became, depending upon epoch and language area of one this title for the designation of the highest related. Most Germanic languages transferred the designation Caesar in the antique discussion, to which also the Greek form Kaisar corresponds.From this the German word emperor developed.

In the Roman languages against it a word taken by Imperator designates the emperor, for instance the Italian imperatore or the French empereur, to which also the English decreases/goes back emperor. Also in the Albanian Word mbret for „king “ is to be recognized still the Imperator.

emergence of the emperor title in antique Rome

after Gaius Iulius Caesar in the years 49 - 45 v. Chr. in the civil war the autocracy over Rome had achieved, daredit it not to add itself the king title verpönten with the Romans. Since the early Roman republic had known the extraordinary office of the dictator however for times of distress, Caesar from the senate could be selected to the Dictator perpetuus („dictator on lifetime “).

Besides it carried the title Imperator, which deduced itself from the term imperium and originally designated the military command authority over a Legion. At present the republic could each commander of a Legion from its troops to the Imperator be proclaimed. Laterthe title remained reserving alone the emperors. It designated the actual source of its power, the military force.

As first emperors to history however Caesar, but its large nephew Gaius Octavius, is not considered the later Augustus. This took after Caesars murder 44v. Chr. its names on, since the dictator had by will adopted it . It called itself from 42 v. Chr. to 38 v. Chr. Gaius Iulius divi filius Caesar (thus „son of the God-light Gaius Iulius Caesar “), then to 27 v. Chr. Imperator Caesar divi filius (it does not have the surname Octavian, under which he admits with historians is, officially probably led).

After also it had switched off all competitors around power, it masked its actually king-same position by modestlysounding title princeps, that before as princeps senatus „first of the senate “, when had designated first under resembling, now however as „a first citizen “ one understood. Out of this title the French and English prince and the Italian went principe out, which mean all „prince “, and from this again German prince.

For the alleged „re-establishment of the republic “the senate Octavian lent 27 v. Chr. the honour title Augustus, „the raised one “, under which it into thoseHistory was received. Not only its surnames Caesar and Augustus as well as its title Imperator, but also its public offices, the highest in Rome, became in its family hereditary, so that the Prinzipat represented in fact a monarchy.

Since emperor Claudius becamethe name Caesar finally for the component of the Roman Herrschertitulatur.

In late ancient times the meaning of the title Augustus changed itself. Since the Tetrarchie emperor Diokletians partly two Augusti , thus to senior emperors, existed to who in each case its own rule range was subordinate. Since Valentinian I. an emperor in the west, another prevailed in the east. This development became after death Theodosius' I. finally. In the west the number of the Roman emperors 476 ended and/or. Herakleios put 480, in the east around 626 the title Imperator Augustus off and led from now on the designation basileus - with it ended late ancient times the Kaisertum, and the Byzantine took its beginning.

special meanings of the title „Caesar “

since the time of emperor Hadrian the title Caesar became on thatdesignated successors of the ruler applied. The realm reform among emperors Diokletian planned a four-rule (Tetrarchie) these junior emperors (Caesares), subordinated of in each case two senior emperors (Augusti) and two. Valentinian I. raised his son equal Gratian toAugustus.

In the Byzantine realm Caesar remained part of the official Kaisertitulatur to Justinian II. Subsequently, it emerges further as special honour titles, almost exclusively within the imperial family. Under Alexios I. Komnenos loses the title this meaning and becomes laterto an honour title devalued.

Sakrale position dock ore around

to the highest public offices in antique Rome had heard also that of the upper priest, the Pontifex Maximus, which had already had Caesar. It lent to its and Augustus' successors beside theirsecular also a sakrale became. The sakrale will the Kaisertum could on a long tradition look back, which had already begun in the old person Orient. Caesar was already God light and this line in antique Rome was continued. It culminated finally inthe rigiden yard ceremony of late ancient times. After the Christianisierung under Konstantin the large one the heidnische title Pontifex Maximus was put down (although only under Gratian and Theodosius I.), the Sakralität remained however to a large extent untouched of it.

Also the Byzantine emperors, who Russian Zaren and the emperors of the holy Roman realm led from sakralen, occasionally as Sakrament understood rites of its coronation/culmination a priest-same position off, as well as the requirement, the highest lay dignitaries and the Pope on an equal footingzu sein. This requirement and the associated interferences of the emperors into the church range led in the evening country in the 11. Century to a heavy conflict between the Roman-German Kaisertum and the Roman papacy, the Investiturstreit, in that the latterto a large extent interspersed and later even for itself in requirement took itself to have the Kaisertum and even the choice of the Rex Romanorum. This requirement became however in 14. Century finally rejected (see golden bull). In addition,in the other abendländischen kingdoms it came, if also not in this hardness, to a dispute. In the east - both in Byzanz and in Russia - it always succeeded to the emperors and the Zaren against it, the priority before thatTo protect Patriarchen of their respective orthodox churches.

the power of the emperor

the Roman monarchy was an acceptance system. The Kaisertum was undisputed as such, but the person of the individual emperor could be fallen. The emperor had thusby the relevant groups of the realm to be accepted, so that it could hold itself. These groups were first (27. v. Chr. to approximately 238 n. Chr.) the senate, the Plebs urbana in Rome and the military (Praetorianer, putting ions). No instance could develop, which made the rule power of a person as a whole obligatory. Neither the senate, nor the Plebs urbana still the army were authorize an emperor to in or set off. (Lit.: Flaig (1992) ch. 4FF.). The army won however rapidly a supremacy. 37 n. Chr. it raised Caligula by acclamation to the emperor, which was accepted by the remaining two institutions. Also the army was not at first homogeneous. No army part could speak in the name of others,so that every now and then the armed argument between different emperor candidates had to bring the decision. Only, when an army part won the Vormacht, it could find over the emperor collection. This happened, when emperor Gallienus created a Roman central army as elite unit, that the Provinzialheerenfaced. The system of the tetrarchischen rule introduced by Diokletian led itself to an appropriate number of armies, and. And. again faced.

The rule assumption by usurpation causes that the acting emperor died or was fallen. Therefore the emperor had if possiblecontrol the center (Lit.: Being man (1984)). That applied to the Prinzipatsepoche and to the soldier emperors. With the exception of the emperors of the Tetrarchie all strove to win the rule over the entire realm. In 4. Century changedthis fundamentally. The usurpers wanted to control not the whole realm, but only their subrange (like Magnus Maximus). This situation permitted two possibilities: Either the regional emperors subordinated themselves to the central emperor, or however the rule areas became actualdivided. This last development had the consequence that the Roman realm could not react to tensions any longer as a whole. There was no more center of the total realm, but several centers. There was no more capital and no institution, those the realmfrom Syria to Spain clasped. The developments ran apart: In the east the Kaisertum kept, in the west it by the army masters (magic stringer militum) was marginalisiert. Military Kraft of the realm nevertheless remained still long time relatively intact.

Valentinian I. the office for army master had strengthened. He had raised its son Gratian to the second Augustus in the west realm. When Valentinian died, the two army masters Equitus and Merobaudes raised the 4-jährigen Sohn Valentinian II.to the Augustus. Gratian accepted this act. Thus hadthe army masters for the first time and under disobedience in relation to the will of the deceased and in opposition to the acting emperor as Kaisermacher works; however it concerned with Valentinian the half brother Gratians, so that this no act represented against the emperor family. 15Years later it came to the confrontation between Valentinian and Arbogast, in runs those the emperor its army master to dismiss searched, which did not succeed however. This tore the dismissal document up with the words: You me the office did not give andit will also not be able to take to me (Zosimos IV 53f.). Arbogast had been raised after the death of its predecessor (probable its father), the Frankish army master Bauto from the officers to its successor, the first genuine usurpation of the office for army master. ThatEmperor had to accept that. Thus the office for army master stepped as independent institution beside the office for emperor. The emperor had lost control of the army. That was the beginning of the end of the Roman dock ore around (Lit.: Demandt (1984)).

The emperor title in the Frankish realm

example of an emperor in the Frankish realm - Karl the large one between the Popes Gelasius I. and Gregor I. from the Sakramentar Karl of the bald one (around 870)

after the fall of the westRoman realm and thatJoggle of his last emperor Romulus Augustulus in the year 476 tore the emperor tradition in the west first off. The eastRoman emperors raised the requirement to be now the legal rulers of the entire Roman realm and Justinian I.(527-565) was able by conquestof parts of Italy to support Spain and North Africa this requirement temporarily also power-politics. In 7. and 8. Century however was this Byzantine requirement in the west in view of the erstarkenden Germanic kingdoms of Franconias or Langobarden as well as the Islamic conquest of North Africa andlarge parts of Spain only theoretically. The emperor coronation/culmination of the Franconia king of Karl of the large one at the Weihnachtstag of the yearly 800 in Rome was regarded therefore as power-politics justified re-establishment (west) of the Roman realm (restauratio imperii), and Karl the large one attained 812also the acknowledgment of the of equal standingness of its emperor title of the Byzantine Kaisertum.

Karl the large one called himself serenissimus Augustus A deo coronatus magnus, pacificus, imperator romanum gubernans imperium, qui et by misericordiam dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum, „more all-benevolently, raised, from Godcrown, more largely, peace of emperors bringing, which governs the Roman realm, by God mercy also king of Franconias and Langobarden “. Above all the rule over the langobardische (= lombardische) since that time Kingdom of Italy became the power-politics key of the northItalian dock ore around. This becameduring 9. Century in different lines of the Karolinger far-ore-erases, whereby last two eastFrankish (German) Karolinger kings - Karl III. (Karl of the thickness, 887-888) and Arnulf of Kärnten (896-899) - to emperors ascended, turned out however with the decay of power of the Karolinger inearly 10. Century into the hands burgundischer or northItalian ruling powers, in order to come to 924 for scarcely three decades completely except use.

the emperors of the holy Roman realm

major item of Roman-German emperors

the emperor coronation/culmination Heinrichs VI. by Pope Coelestin III. in an illustration from that dear one ad honorem Augusti of the Petrus de Ebulo, 1196

after its conquest of north Italy 951/52 was it the Roman-German king Otto I. (Otto the large one), the 962 with its emperor coronation/culmination by the Popein Rome the tradition of the Roman one and the Karolingerreiches revived. Since that time all German kings up to the end of the holy Roman realm of German nation regarded themselves in the year 1806 as only entitled successors of the Roman Caesaren and as lay heads that Christianity. For the acquisition of the emperor crown however a complex Rome course was for the coronation/culmination necessary by the Pope during all Middle Ages, which presupposed appropriate instruments of power and money. Thus it explains itself that some German kings only after years or decades thatEmperor titles attained and that a whole number of further kings never could receive this title. In particular between 1250 and 1313 and between 1378 and 1433 there were „emperorless “phases for many decades again. The last German kings, itself in Rome of Popesto Roman emperors to crown, was 1433 the Luxemburger Sigismund and 1452 the having citizen Friedrich III. left., which deceased to 1493. Its son and successor Maximilian I. however no Rome course succeeded, but was allowed it to 1508 with papal permission the title „choosingRoman emperor “ assume, whom since that time all German kings led until 1806 starting from their royal rule start. Maximilians grandchild and successor Karl V.was the last German king, who did not let itself be crowned again 1530 from a Pope to the emperor - howevermore in Rome (which it had 1527 conquers and plündern to leave), to be but in Bologna - than purposeful humiliating of the Pope, who there traveling had, instead of as before hosts of the future emperor. Karl's brother and successor Ferdinand I.did withoutwith rule start 1556 completely on a papal coronation/culmination, but led with agreement of the cure princes from now on as a German king automatically also the Roman emperor title. The papal protest resounded ungehört, all successors Ferdinands I. acted until 1806 likewise.

The Roman-German Kaisertum was since center 15. Century with the house having castle remained. As after the death by emperor Karl VI. in the year 1740 the habsburgischen hereditary countries to the heiress to the throne Maria Theresia went (pragmatic sanction), could it after the right of the holy one Roman realm as a woman to the empress not to be selected. The house having castle lost therefore first the emperor crown, which went to the Bavarian Wittelsbacher. After the death of the Wittelsbacher of emperor, their man became Franz I. Stephan of Lorraine 1745 to the emperorselected. Since it showed little political interest, it took over the realm business and acted as an empress, although it could not have gotten the title of the empress independently. When Franz died 1765, their son became Josef II.to the Roman-German emperor selected andbecame thereby successor as an emperor of the HRR.

Between the choice (see in addition also choice monarchy) and its coronation/culmination to the Roman emperor these monarchs carried the title German king. This was also the title of the selected successor to the throne of an emperor,if such during lifetimes of the predecessor was already selected.

Also the title Augustus (raised one) remained to the rulers of the holy Roman realm. However one led the word of its original latin verb form augere in the Middle Ages increase ( for, increase) ago. Therefore the title component Semper Augustus of the Roman-German emperors is usually translated in the Middle Ages with all time Mehrer of the realm, in the modern times also with all time of raised emperors.

the Kaisertum in Austria

Franz I. with the Insignien dock ore around Austria to prevent painted by Friedrich

Amerling over that Napoleon I. 1804 to its coronation/culmination the Insignien of the holy Roman realm used and in such a way in its old-venerable emperor tradition to place itself could, had thatRoman-German emperors at that time, the having citizen Franz II., which let transfer Reichskleinodien from Nuremberg to Vienna, where them - apart from an interruption during the time of the national socialism, when they returned at short notice to Nuremberg - until today in thatVault of the yard castle to be kept. Emperor Franz II. 1806 the crown of the holy Roman realm laid down and explained at the same time this realm for extinct, in order to exclude a possible choice Napoleon from the beginning as its successor.

There the having citizen protokollarisch notbehind the other European emperors - which „Emporkömmling “Napoleon and the Russian Zaren - back to stand wanted, it had already accepted in view of the holy one disintegrating of Roman realm in the year 1804 the title of a hereditary emperor of Austria. This again-created emperor title,with no coronation/culmination act, although an emperor crown existed, was actually traditionless, main header was connected however on in far population circles long given the identification since that 15. Century nearly continuously of the having citizens of led Roman emperor title with its master country Austriaoff.

For one century the Austrian emperor title formed from now on the symbolic clammy ones for that first for Kaisertum Austria, starting from 1867 Austria Hungary habsburgische many people realm specified; in particular the long governing Franz Joseph I.(1848-1916) became the Personifizierung of the “emperor” absolutely. Its large nephewand successor Karl I., had to do 1918 without the government and go into the exile.

German emperors

Die niemals wirklich existierende Kaiserkrone des Deutschen Reiches von 1871 auf den Türmen des Reichstagsgebäudes
never the really existing emperor crown of the German Reich of 1871 on the towers of the realm tag building

„German emperor “ was starting from 1871the title of the king of Prussia in its characteristic as presidency of the federation in föderal organized hereditary monarchy German Reich (see also list of the heads of state of the German Reich). Title carriers were the three Hohenzollernkaiser William I., Friedrich III. and William II. The title expired with successful proclaiming of the German Reich to the republic to 9. November 1918 by Philipp sheath man.

proclaiming one „German emperor “

after the victory of Prussia and its German allied one over France in the French-German war 1870/71 became the king of Prussia, William I., to 18. January 1871 in the mirror hall of the lock Versailles to „the German emperor “proclaims. This happened against its original will, because before it it was direct over it betweenWilliam I. and his Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck come to a heavy argument around the accurate title. Since the king understood itself less as German than Preusse, it had wanted original to reject the emperor title, preferred however in case of itsAcceptance the title „emperors of Germany “. This would have laid out however as requirement on German-language areas the realm belonging to - for instance Austria, Switzerland and areas in north Italy -, not to, in addition, as long-range requirement for rule opposite the remaining German federal princesto be interpreted can. Besides this Titulatur would have suggested that Germany was possession of the emperor. In order to switch this Konfliktpotenzial off from the beginning, Bismarck insisted on the Titulatur „German emperor and king of Prussia “and finally succeeded. From the beginning that separatedTitle „of the emperor deputationof the revolution of 1848, emperor of the Germans, out, since this would have emphasized the aspect of the people sovereignty too much.

With the proclamation the locking emperor high of the German sovereigns - thereby, present on lock Versaillesthe agreement of one „Konstituante “noticed -, saw themselves her speaker, the Grand Duke of bathing, thus in a constitutional and personal dilemma. Probably of Bismarck in an advisory manner, he solved it, by he the general high on „the emperor Wilhelm “ out-brought.

power of the German emperor

was essentially taken over there 1871 the condition north Germans of the federation as realm condition, had „the German emperor “state-legally only the position of the there „Bundespräsidialen “, was thus evenly not „emperor of Germany “, whichwith the partly maintained sovereignty of the member states (so with that of the Kingdoms of Bavaria, Saxonia and Württemberg and the free cities Bremen, Luebeck and Hamburg) would have collided.

The German emperor title was therefore constitutionally only a sounding name for those rathersober function of the Prussian king as a president of the Upper House of Parliament of German princes and free cities - the formally highest constitutional body first starting from 1867 north Germans of the federationand starting from 1871 of the German one of Reich extended by South Germany. Nevertheless this emperor title placedfor the Prussian monarch opposite the German domestic kings of Bavaria, Saxonia and Württemberg a rank increase and led on international level to an adjustment of rank of the Prussian-German monarch with the emperors of Austria and Russia. This title was supplemented inthe communist manifesto for emperor proclamation by a resort to the medieval form „of the Semper Augustus, sketched by Bismarck, “. The new emperor therein designation as an all time Mehrer of the German Reich, not at martial conquests, but at the goods and giftsthe peace on that areas of national welfare, liberty and Gesittung.

Immediately the title at public meaning won by to it the attaching „realm< /b>romance “since „the liberty wars “against Napoleon I.. In particular under the propagandistically talentedlast German emperor Wilhelm II. (1888-1918) the emperor title won the predominance in relation to the Prussian king title and became the symbol of the unit of the nation.

Politically however the German emperor was ever more powerful as a king of the by far largest Federal State (Prussia) than state legal.This power eroded however under the long government of William II. (1888-1918), the 1917 in fact, if de jure were also not replaced from the military dictatorship of the highest army command OHL under Erich Ludendorff.

the emperor title in Byzanz


in the eastRoman or Byzantine realm existed the Roman emperor tradition after the end of the antique ones still approximately 1000 years away - up to conquest Konstantinopels by the Turks in the year 1453. Among emperors Herakleios (610-641) became in place oflatin Augustus Imperator the Greek title Basileus imported, what carried more strongly becoming Gräzisierung of the realm calculation for that. To be legal successors of the antique Roman emperors never gave the state-legally justified requirement up the respective Basileus of Byzanz. With since812 extended Titulatur Basileus clay/tone Rhomaion, „rulers of the Romans “, made the emperors in Konstantinopel this requirement again strengthened clearly, supposed as special demarcation by Karl the large one in the year 800 renewed westRoman Kaisertum (which in thatResearch is however contentious). Title of the Byzantine main emperors was also Autokrator, during Basileus - in particular since that 10. Century - at Mitkaiser one assigned.

During the crusades Konstantinopel on operation of Venice was taken 1204 by the cross driver armies. In Konstantinopeland so-called latin empire, dependent on papal Rome and Venice, developed for further areas controlled by „the Lateinern “(catholics) particularly on French noble one governed cross driver state. The same saw itself actual - both by successful “Greek” Gegenoffensiven andby the independence tendency of the own “Frankish” Vasallen - very soon on the capital Konstantinopel limits. With their back conquest by the Greek emperors 1261 latin Empire of, the last emperor Balduin II. ended von Nikaia. (1228-1261) deceased 1273 in the exile. ItsSon Philipp of Courtenay kept however his requirement on the throne upright as Titular emperors († 1283), its granddaughter Katharina II. († 1346) to their son Robert von Anjou, the prince of Tarent left the emperor title to latin († 1366). After thatBecome extinct the tarentinischen Anjou 1373 fell the Titular Kaisertum at Jakob von Beaux, after its death at the French princes Ludwig, Herzog von Anjou († 1384). Its son Ludwig II. from Anjou 1384 seem as last requirement on the imperial titleto have raised. This younger house Anjou, in 14. and 15. Century with changing success also requirement on the king crown of Sicilies (more exact: on the partial realm of Neapel), became extinct 1480 with count Rene of Provence raised,as Titularkönig of Jerusalem, Sicilies and Aragon also the requirements on latin the emperor title had inherited. These fell in the long run - without they would have been made obviously still valid - at Renes inheriting: the kings of France and thoseDukes of Lorraine and bar, and over these again the Austrian emperor house having castle Lorraine.

Nikaia (Nizäa)

after conquest Konstantinopels 1204 had themselves in sharp opposition to latin Empire of some „Greek “(i.e. orthodox) succession states in an educated manner, under thosesome the claim on the vakant become Byzantine emperor title laid. The most powerful partial state was first from the Laskariden, then starting from 1258/59 empire of Nikaia, governed by the Palaiologen, (Latin also: Nicäa), to which it finally succeeded to back-conquer Konstantinopel 1261to establish and the Byzantine realm under the dynasty of the Palaiologen for again nearly two centuries again. The last Byzantine emperor Konstantin XI. Palaiologos (1449-1453) died during the conquest of its capital by the Osmanen in the fight. Side branches thatPalaiologen dynasty survived on a long-term basis in Italy (Mark count von Montferrat) and until today in France; from latter line influential persons originate like the also literary talented Ambassador at the Zarenhof Maurice Paléologue (1859-1944), which played an important political role in the First World War.


few were successfully - despite better dynastischer requirements - the competitive states of Thessaloniki, its rulers from the Byzantine emperor dynasty of the Angeloi governing to 1204 came and between 1215 to 1240 likewise requirement on thatEmperor titles raised, as well as the Empire of Trapezunt lain in the northern small Asia, which was controlled by descendants until 1185 of the emperor dynasty of the Komnenen governing in Byzanz. While Thessaloniki was partly conquered by Nikaia, partly into subordinated partial principalities (Despotate) disintegrated,Trapezunt knew its self-sufficiency even longer than the 1453 of the Osmanen conquered Byzantine realm to state. Similarly as this in its end however also Trapezunt had become long a Turkish vassal state - first dependent on the smallasiatic sultanate Ikonium (Konya), then of the Osmanen. These forced 1461 the surrender of Trapezunt, set the last „Grosskomnenen off “ David Komnenos (1458-1461) and murdered the Exkaiser and its family 1466.

emperor titles on the Balkans

Bulgariain the Middle Ages

the Byzantine model affected itself in the high Middle Ages on larger realm formations of slawischer peoples on the Balkans, those in open competition to the Byzantine Kaisertum likewise the emperor and/or. Zarentitel assumed. The first attempt of this kind was that of the Bulgaren ChansSimeon I. († 927), which accepted 917 the title „Zar of the Bulgaren and Greeks “. This Bulgarian empire was again destroyed however one hundred years later (1018) by the Byzantiner. The dynasty of the Aseniden attached 1185 to the Zarentradition, butthis second Bulgarian realm lost in 14. Century at power and meaning, long before it 1393 by the Osmanen was conquered.


instead became at that time the Kingdom of Serbia the new challenger of Byzanz, its ruler Stefan Duschan(† 1355) in the year 1346 demonstratively the emperor title accepted. This empire disintegrated however after the sudden death of its founder rapidly, already before the Osmanen subjected the Serbs of its rule.

Bulgaria in the modern times

as since 1878autonomous Principality of Bulgaria 1908 its independence from the Osmani realm explained, took the past prince Ferdinand I. in tying to the medieval large realm tradition the Zarentitel. Also Konstantinopel would have almost conquered the Bulgaren in the first Balkans war of 1912/13. These coveredBulgaria could never convert imperial ambitions however in view of strong competitive neighbours, and also internationally the Zarentitel was not recognized. Instead the rulers of Bulgaria from 1908 to 1946 firmierten in relation to the foreign country as kings.

emperor titles in Russia

soas first the Frankish and the German kings than successors of the westRoman emperors saw themselves later, then the large princes of Moscow regarded themselves since the case of Konstantinopel as legal inheriting of the eastRoman dock ore around. They were now the most outstanding rulersorthodox faith, and large prince Iwan III. 1472 Zoe ( soot had. Sofia), a niece of the last emperor von Byzanz Konstantin XI. Paläologos married. Under Iwan III. the idea was formulated of Moscow as third Rome and the titles Zar “for the first time uses. In the year 1547 large prince Iwan IV. left itself. the terrible one officially to the Zaren of completely Russia crown. Zar Peter I. (Peter the large one) 1721 took additionally the imperial title „to Imperator “ and/or. „Imperial majesty “(Imperatorskoje Welitschestwo) on. Since that time becamethe Russian rulers also in the Western European system of the yards and the diplomacy of the emperor titles awarded. Both titles - Imperator and Zar - carried the Russian emperors as far as the fall of the last ruler from the house Romanow, Nikolaus' II.,in the year 1917.

the French Kaisertum

Napoleon I. in its Ornat as emperors

Frankreich since 987 governing the Kapetinger was, from those all later governing dynasties up to that since the days of the westFrankish Karolinger and Bourbonen and the Orleans descended, a kingdom been. Although a westFrankish Karolinger 9. Century - Karl II. the bald one - the Roman emperor crown had at short notice carried and later French kings such as Franz I., the opponent of many years of theHaving citizen Karl V. in 16. Century, with whose acquisition dear-outer-apply, did not have France an emperor tradition. Into years 1792 revolution also the monarchy ended with the joggle of the king in the French.

In the year 1804 the military dictator at that time Napoléon Bonaparte tried,since its Putsch of 1799 of the 1.Consul of the French republic to justify a new monarchische tradition. Similarly as the consul title on antique traditions of the Roman republic referred, took also from Napoleon I.1804 accepted emperor titles (Empereur) upthe antique Roman tradition military dock ore around purchase. By the clasping Napoleon tied this post+revolutionary French dock ore around with the 1805 again-created king crown of Italy (actual north and central Italy) at the same time to karolingische traditions, particularly since the Italian king crown was the old Langobardenkrone,those had already carried Karl the large one. By Napoleon itself 1804 in the church Notre Dame in Paris in the presence of the Pope Pius VII., which did not participate however in the actual coronation/culmination act, with own hand to „the emperor of the Frenchmen“, was a matter it crowned obviously of a synthesis out of sakraler authentication and individual achievement authentication, whereby however latter in form one outweighed „coronation/culmination from own Kraft “. This napoleonische Kaisertum became for numerous post office-revolutionary Militärkaisertümer of the future (see Haiti, Mexico,many later still Central Africa, causes also Brazil) exemplary. Even the German emperor proclamation of 1871, already mentioned, missed - despite its in the long run different bases of the old Prussian military monarchy and the bundesfürstlichen request fiction - not the nimbus of a large militaryVictory (just over the napoleonisch imperial France).

The Kaisertum Napoleon I. was based on the nimbus of the victorious, ingenious field gentleman. As soon as Napoleon could not guarantee these victories any longer, eroded the legitimacy of its rule, which broke down 1814/15 twice against a totalEuropean coalition. NapoleonNephew Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, itself the late Napoléon III. , was able after the revolution of 1848 , which „the Bürgerkönigtum “the Orleans had eliminated, of praises its deceased of uncle living to the president of the second French republic called to be selected. 1851it made by a Putsch the president on lifetime, 1852 proclaimed itself it on the coronation/culmination day Napoleon I. the restoration of the bonapartistischen dock ore around. This so-called „2. Empire “was based on generous promotion of bourgeoisen capitalism during simultaneous plebiszitärer inclusion of catholic-rural layers, butit was based beside it similarly as the first empire very strongly also on military success. Logically also this Militärkaisertum III. ended to personally little military Napoleon. mit einer militärischen Katastrophe – Frankreichs Niederlage beiSedan im Deutsch-Französischen Kriegvon 1870, diethe immediate fall of the emperor to the consequence had.

European Kaisertum outside of Europe

outside of Europe came it into 19. Century to a row more again production, often from modern European traditions of drawing Kaisertümer. All these new creations stood in the context of theEuropean imperialism and colonialism.


an interesting case non-European dock ore around forms the Empire of Brazil. The past Portuguese colony had Napoleon I. in contrast to the Spanish neighbour colonies of Latin America in the age. a completely own development taken:Similarly as in Spain Napoleon had marched also into Portugal and the political system the colonial power there had shaken, but differently than the Spanish king family the Portuguese yard (with British assistance) the escape had succeeded to 1808 into the overseas colony Brazil.The independence efforts budding also there went therefore a time long with the reform readiness of the monarchy conformal: 1815 proclaimed the Portuguese prince regent (starting from 1816: King Johann VITH) Brazil to the equal partial kingdom one „combined kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve “.This to the British (under its parts likewise by no means equal) „combined Kingdom of “ reminding construction held, so long the royal yard in Rio de Janeiro resided. But when king Johann and its yard had to return 1821 to Portugal (where her alreadyfor a long time were required), had the Portuguese-Brazilian Crown Prince Peter only the choice staying as a prince regent in Rio of the Brazilian movement of independence to be fallen or at their point place themselves. Obviously quite of the South American Caudillismo its neighbour states affectedEuropean prince selected the second way and explained themselves, by setting its father off and waiving each connection at Portugal, as Peter I. to the emperor of Brazil. To that extent the new empire was a singular mixture from bonapartistischer illegitimacy anddynastischer continuity, particularly since Peter married an ore duchess of the ultralegitimistischen house having castle. It was still more remarkable that the Empire of Brazil survived even the fall of its founder 1831. Peter I. peter thanked II. in favor of its son and successor to the throne under age.off, and also thoseForces, which had forced this change of power, decided for the new child emperor born in Brazil as the obviously best symbol of national unit and as means to civil war avoidance. 1840 took over Peter II. personally the government, and only because it it intelligentlyin styles of a constitutional liberal citizen president to lead, existed the Empire of Brazil knew a further half century. The personally revered emperor became however old, its daughter and its French son-in-law was a little popular, continued the dynasty after death of thegoverning emperor became questionable. At the end the Brazilian Kaisertum of the zuspitzenden conflicts between republicans and uncompromising conservative ones took itself into the pliers, as the crowning princess Isabella acting in representation of the absent emperor 1888 for conscience reasons the abolition thatSlavery ordered and thus a wedge between dynasty and conservative slave owners floated. A Militärputsch forced Peter II. already 1889 for resignation and the whole dynasty for leaving the country. The ex emperor died 1891 in the French exile, those from his son-in-lawdescending line of the imperially Brazilian princes von Orleans Braganza exists this very day.

Central American empires

in the Karibik and in Latin America originated in in 19. Century created, usually short-lived Kaisertümer on the one hand from anti-colonialistic attitude, on the other hand in supportto the post office-revolutionary military Kaisertum Napoleon I. in France.


this ambivalente context can be observed first in Haiti, to the past French colony Saint Domingue, itself into the 1790er years by a bloody rebellion the past blackSlaves from the supremacy of the white ones to release tried. After the revolutionary France had tried to maintain colonialism and slavery by force expeditionary troops Napoleons were forced in the long run nevertheless 1804 to the surrender. The last leader of the black independence fight, Jean Jacques Dessalines, proclaimed itself- completely like his past enemy Napoleon I. - in the year 1804 to „the Empereur “Jacques I., was however already fallen and murdered 1806. Thereupon Haiti split until 1820 into a northern and southern partial state, whereby the ruler of the north,Henri Christophe, between 1811 and 1820 as „a king Henri I. “ governed.

Also in the 1820 combined republic Haiti accepted one of its presidents, since 1847 governing Faustin the Soulouque, the emperor title and governed between 1849 and 1859 as Faustin I.,before it was driven 1859 in the exile. Since that time Haiti is (still very unstable) a republic.

The emperors of Haiti were hardly respected by the remainder of the world as such, completely similarly as late Jean Bédel Bokassa in the Central African republic.


something similar antikolonialistisch bonapartistische ambivalences shows the establishment one dock ore around in Mexico, which had fought for its independence from Spain after civil war of many years 1821. There it succeeded to the military leader Agustín de Iturbide, that only 1820 upthe side of the insurgent ones changed was, which it had fought before as a Spanish officer, itself 1822 as Agustín I. to proclaim to the emperor („Emperador “, Imperator). Already after ten months this monarchy 1823 was terminated. As the resigned andif exilierte Iturbide 1824 its word fallow and to Mexico returned, he was shot by republican troops.

The second Mexican empire (1863 - 1867) was the result of a civil war between liberals and conservative ones and the alliance of the latters alsoa foreign imperialism. In May 1863 the French emperor Napoleon III. left. Mexico by its troops occupy, in July 1863 the republican system of government by an empire by French grace one replaced. To the new emperor the Mexican conservative ones selected 1864 alsoAgreement Napoleon the Austrian ore duke Maximilian, a brother Franz Josephs I., which should the international legitimacy of the new state increase and at the same time of the earlier (Spanish ) having citizen rule in Mexico ( until 1700) remind. There the new emperor childlesswas, it adopted 1865 the descendants of its predecessor Iturbide and explained its grandchild Augustin as the successor to the throne - a symbolic act of the fusion of old and new world. The social basis of this empire was nevertheless much too weak: As the FrenchExpedition corps 1867 took, fallow the rule off Maximilians together, which became republic under Benito Juárez restored, which taken prisoner having citizens shot under martial law just like once Iturbide. The adopted successors to the throne, prince Agustín de Iturbide y Green, became only 1890 of president Porfirio Díaz arrests and expropriates, and deceased 1925 in the US-American exile. With it the male line of this emperor house expired.


the connection with European colonial rule is particularly for the 1876/77 of the dominant British upthe soil of the replaced Mogulreichs again created Empire of India importantly, although it takes up also the tradition of the Grossmoguln to itself. The respective king (or the governing queen) of Great Britain led in personnel union the title of an emperor (or an empress) ofIndia. This emperor title possessed a double function: It should relating to domestic affairs the non-uniform (partly direct, partly indirect) British rule in India symbolically lining buntings, and it should with regard to foreign policy the equal rank of the British kingdom in relation to the European Empires of Russia, Austria and Germanyguarantee. Only in the course the British king did to the division of the Empire of India in two independent States of India and Pakistan 1948 without the guidance of this Indian emperor title.

it has

Nichteuropäi emperors since the early modern times itself inEurope in-patriated to call also the rulers of important non-European realms “emperors”.


China had already early its own tradition of a ruler, who had a universal requirement. This Anpruch also hardly became on the part of the Europeans inQuestion posed.


the Japanese title of the Tennō is strongly religiously loaded just like the European emperor title. Locking of Japan until 1854 made considerations up to then redundant around of equal standingness with European emperors.


thatGloss of the Moguln in India was at present the intensive contact with the Europeans already flowed, the Gleichrangikeit of the Grossmoguls with the European emperors did not stand not to the discussion. To the British Kaisertum in India, years after the official end thatGrossmoguln was proclaimed 1858, sees further below.


of the Schah of Persia stepped likewise only late into contact with Europe. The European emperors were already long history as Soraya as a German “empress on the Pfauentron” the rainbow pressturned up. The splendourful 2500-Jahrfeier of the Persian Kaisertumes fell likewise into a late phase, in which the last European monarchs would deliver no more Rangstreitikeiten.1979 had then fallen the Persian Pahlevi dynasty, had long lasted the only two generations and on officerputsch decreased/went back.


just like Persia stepped Ethiopia only late on the world stage. The Negus Negesti („king of the kings “) of Ethiopia began to be only really noticed, when it actually already was with the emperor glory to end.1975/76 were fallen also it.

the Osmani Sultan

also the osmanische Sultan (Osmani realm) could do at the latest since that 15. /16. Century not only imperial authority, but also imperial rank stress. The Sultan/Kalif - traditionis however a completely different one than the European emperor tradition. In Arab-Persian-Turkish-Mongolian mixing tradition the designations “Sultan” (also “Sultan of the Sultane”) stood, „for Padischah “(large king) or „Khan “(also „ Khan of the Khane “) right at the top in the official title of the osmanischen rulers. The title Kalifwas added starting from 1517, became however only in 19. Century more importantly. In addition, the Osmanen rulers carried the explicit title of a “emperor of the three cities of Konstantinopel, Adrianopel and Bursa”. The osmanische Sultan became accordingly later also in the diplomatic traffic ofEuropean powers as „an imperial majesty “ recognition. The fall of the osmanischen sultanate 1922 and that of the Kalifats 1924 bendeten this tradition.


in Southeast Asia took starting from 1806 those so far as kings firmierenden ruler of Annam Viet Nam thatEmperor title on with permission of the great power China, which stressed traditionally the sovereignty over the area. The French colonial gentlemen penetrating after 1860 translated however the vietnamesischen emperor title starting from 1884 purposefully as „a king “and refused to it thereby the acknowledgment. In the year1945 were proclaimed „an Empire of Viet Nam “, which was divided however after few weeks into a communist north and a republican south (first under French, then under US-American hegemony) in favor of the last emperor king by Annam, Bao Dai (1926-1945), at short notice. Exkaiser BaoDai functioned 1949-1955 as a republican head of state of south Viet Nam, before he went into the French exile.


likewise in the imperialistic-colonialistic context stands the 1897 acceptance of the emperor title taken place by the king of Korea, although this was anti-colonialistic meant.The Korean kings stood traditionally under the upper rule of the emperors of China, but forced the exit of the Japanese-Chinese war China 1895 to recognize the independence of Korea. This act should be from Japanese view however only the preliminary stage to own colonizing of Korea,but imperialistic interests of Russia temporarily formed a counterweight. The acceptance of the emperor title by that already since 1864/73 governing king Kwang Mu symbolized Korean striving for of equal standingness with the rulers of Japan and China and the serious before this backgroundSake for retaining independence. When Russia 1904/05 was militarily defeated of Japan, however the power equilibrium necessary for it broke down. The Korean emperor had 1905 „protectorate “of the Japanese Tennō to accept and became - as too self-willed - 1907 ofthe Japanese to the resignation in a forced manner, 1910 the Japanese also his son and successor emperors Hyung Hui set off and made also formal for the independence of the country an end. Japanese colonial rule in Korea lasted up to of Japan defeat in secondWorld war 1945. The two ex emperors, down staged by the Japanese 1910 to princes, deceased 1919 and/or. 1926 in Korea, their descendants live in South Korea.


a Japanese colony was also 1932 created, however internationally hardly recognizedState „Mandschukuo “ (Mandschu state) in the Chinese province of Manchuria occupied by Japan. This state, which ended to 1934 with the defeat of Japan in the Second World War 1945, whereby Manchuria fell to communist China, became proclaimed from the Japanese to the empire.The emperor title of the head of state resulted from its person - the former (and the latter) emperor governed of China, between 1908 and 1912 „“and again 1917 had Pu Yi, that there as child emperors (under the foreign exchange „Hsüan Tung “) (in vain)proclaimed from a general to the emperor was. Pu Yi had begun already 1932 the office one „regents “from Mandschukuo, which he as master country its ancestor - who Chinese Mandschu dynasty - and thus as its legitimate inheritance understood. During thatEmperor von Mandschukuo (its new foreign exchange read:„Kang of width unit “) value put symbolically to the Chinese emperor tradition to tie (and with it further by completely China connected a requirement for rule), was interested the Japanese to put the new out dock ore around of Mandschukuo.This was actually only a Japanese puppet government, even if with a state visit Pu Yis in Japan were demonstrated 1937 equal rank with the Japanese Tenno Hirohito. Pu Yi, after Soviet and Chinese detention of many years to an exemplary citizen of the new People's RepublicChina reeducated, deceased 1967 in Peking. Its Autobiografie worth reading gave the collecting main off for the Bernardo Bertolucci - to film the last emperor. With Pu Yis brother and former successor to the throne Pu Dschieh died 1987 the closest male line of the Qing - dynastyout, live more distant member of the former emperor house however this very day in China.

the farce of the Central African empire

as bizarr seeming Epilog on the bonapartistische emperor tradition 19. Century appears the short-lived post office-colonial empire in the Central African republic. That there since 1966 by a Putsch to power president Jean Bedel Bokassa, a former NCO of the French colonial army arrived, proclaimed itself 1977 to „the Empereur “and imitated thereby the self coronation/culmination Napoleon I. also in Paris manufactured Krönungsinsignien. The empirethis the poet internationally hardly and remained short-lived, already 1979 were recognized Bokassa were fallen.


the only today still existing empire of the world is Japan with its Tennō.

list of the empires

work on []

European Empires of

non-European Empires of

see also

of literature

  • Alexander Demandt: The case of Rome. The dissolution of the Roman realm in the judgement of future generations. Munich 1984.
  • Egon Flaig: The emperor provoke. The usurpation in the Roman realm. (Historical studies 7) Frankfurt 1992.
  • Egon Flaig: Majority decisions in the antique one. Dynamic one and risks. In: Max-Planck company. Yearbook (1997) S. 676 - 681).
  • Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Bd. 5, frame.851 FF. (to the Kaisertum in Byzanz and in the holy Roman realm, including resuming literature)
  • Alan E. Wardmann: Usurpers and Internal Conflicts into the 4-th Century. In “Historia” 33 (1984) S. 220 - 237.

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