Kaisertum Austria

the Kaisertum Austria became at the 11. August 1804 as hereditary monarchy of Franz II., the last emperor of the holy Roman realm of German nation, justifies. Thus Franz wanted the equal rank with Napoléon I. protect, which had crowned itself before to the emperor of the Frenchmen. Franz II. was now as Franz I. the first emperor of Austria, a many people state, which widens areas of Italy at its south border, which today's Austria, Böhmen, Mähren, whom Slowakei covered, as well as large parts today's Poland and the Ukraine in the north and expanded in the east and southeast over Hungary , Slovenia and Croatia in today's Romania and Serbia. After two years doubledock ore around the avowed it to 6. To August 1806 the old holy Roman realm for expired and put its crown down, since the danger of an assumption existed by Napoléon.

Table of contents

from Napoléon to the Viennese congress

the further wars against Napoléon ran changeful. By the press citizen peace of 1805 have-castle-reaches Tirol the Vorlande as well as the Italian areas, about Venetien , which had acquired it 1797 , lost. Still more badly it came 1809 in peacetime of Schönbrunn, where it had to deliver the areas beside the only acquired Salzburg also to the Adriaküste (the Illyri provinces so by the Frenchmen mentioned) and a Binnenstaat became. Nevertheless emperor Franz could marry its daughter Marie Louise with Napoléon. The son Napoléon II. developed from this connection. most time its (of short) life with the title duke of realm city in Vienna lived.

Only with the Viennese congress 1814/15 ended the wars against Napoléon, which had loaded the country economically allerschwerstens. 1811 had to be explained even the national bankruptcy. After the congress the territorial extent before the wars was repaired on the whole. Without the remote Austrian Netherlands and front Austria one did, one acquired but Salzburg durably. There was however to nearly to end of the congress the plan to leave Salzburg with Bavaria and to create but on the Rhine a new front Austria, which after today's terms Rhinehesse, which Pfalz and the Saarland would have covered. Whereupon then in favor of national unanimity one did without. In Italy the area up to the Po was controlled directly. From the areas of the duchy Milan and the Republic of Venice the Kingdom of Lombardo Venetien was tinkered, which remained a durable unrest stove. In the duchy Parma, the duchy Modena and the Toskana prevailed habsburgische Sekundogenituren.

Vormärz and civil revolution

the following era until 1848 are coined/shaped of the regency of the prince Metternich, which tried interior as with regard to foreign policy to retain a precarious peace particularly since the call strengthened after civil liberties and began the beginnings of national self-sufficiency to develop. In the art and literature were conventional Meier and Vormärz prevailing.

1848 came it into have-castle-reach, how also otherwise in Europe for revolution, with which political and national problems were nearly inextricably linked. Centers were beside Vienna and Prague Milan and above all Hungary. In Italy field marshal Radetzky could suppress the rebellions as well as strike back a piemontesische invading army. The revolution was by far more virulenter in Hungary, where Reichstag in October already it had set the having citizens off and Lajos Kossuth acted as a De-Facto-president. In the long run the having citizens could hold themselves only owing to solid Russian troop assistance and the employment of the Croats under Banus Jellačić, which rejected a suppression of Croatia by the Hungary more strongly than the rule of the having citizens. The fight of the nationalities, which would have blown up the realm nearly, saved now the having citizens against each other. Also in Vienna the revolution was struck down by Jellačić and Windischgrätz 1849.

The condition by 1848, those of Franz of Pillersdorf prepared was (Pillersdorf condition,) never came into force. The new emperor Franz Joseph I. forced the empire a condition on (oktroyierte condition), which was again repealed set however 1851. Until 1859 the emperor governed alone (Neoabsolutismus).

Solferino and Magenta

1859 after the battle of Solferino and Magenta in the Lombardei were lost the Italian possessions. Napoléon III. the Italian national movement supported and the inexperienced young emperor could into a war against France be pulled, in which it transferred the command to all abundance also still. Milan and the Sekundogenituren went at Sardinien Piemont lost, only to Venetien remained for the Kaisertum still a few years. The battle of Solferino and Magenta, with which on only one day ten thousands soldiers on the battleground were bled, was the cause for the establishment of the red cross and for those Geneva conventions (1864), which Austria Hungary joined 1866.

This defeat, which damaged the imperial prestige heavily, not possibly made a maintaining of the neoabsolutistischen regiment. It came to two draft constitutions (October diploma and February patent 1861 , both by arrangement of the emperor issue 1860). Already these two draft constitutions show a strong varying between centralism and federalism, whereby first by the liberals and the latter of the conservative ones were carried. Both did not prove as goal-prominently. The model of the October diploma to let the parliament of the land days select had liberals the middle class against itself and the attempt of the liberal Prime Minister Anton von Schmerling to let a general Reichstag direct select failed not least because of the boycott to that Hungary.

the “German question”

into the middle 1860er - years these condition experiments were overshadowed by the German question. The conflict around the succession to the throne in Schleswig-Holstein had brought the Austrian of Prussian conflicts in the German federation to escalating. Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck used the controversy as an opportunity, on a smallGerman solution in addition-work. In the battle of Königgrätz in Böhmen 1866 Austria was struck crucially, its confederates were annektiert partly (Kingdom of Hanover, cure Hessen, Nassau, Frankfurt/Main) or came into Prussian dependence. Venetien was lost despite Austrian victories into Italy (particularly over the Italian fleet in the sea-battle of Lissa under William of Tegetthoff) - this had already before been contractually under the allies Prussia and Italy settled.

the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy

also on the inside had to be placed the realm on a new basis, the imperial prestige was again at the soil. As the most passable way it seemed Franz Joseph to offer itself with the moderate Hungarian liberals under Gyula of Andrássy and Ferenc Deák for some and the Kingdom of Hungary a special status. 1867 with the reconciliation, which granted an equivalent status to the Hungarian region (Transleithanien), were converted the Kaisertum Austria into the double monarchy Austria Hungary. The Austrian controlled part kept a condition the designation Kaisertum Austria

valid to 1918, whose now only to the Austrian region of the Austria-Hungarian total state referred, simultaneous from now on was not to no more used. This region was called official now the kingdoms and countries represented in the realm advice, unofficially it Cisleithanien was often called. The name “Austria” was however still felt as possible name for a total state, therefore it was rejected by the Hungary vehement. Only 1916 became the name “Austria” for the western realm half (again) officially.

countries in the Kaisertum Austria

see also

 

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