Kakapo

Kakapo
Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)
systematics
Class: Birds (Aves)
order: Parrots (Psittaciformes)
family: Actual parrots (Psittacidae)
Unterfamilie: Owl parrots (Strigopinae)
kind: Owl parrots (Strigops)
kind: Kakapo
scientific name
Strigops habroptilus
Gray, 1845

the Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) is a parrot, which is resident in New Zealand. It is the only kind of the Unterfamilie Strigopinae (owl parrots). The night-active bird is essentially an herbivore. It is possibly the only well-known flight-unable parrot and the most long-lived bird. The Kakapo is acutefrom becoming extinct threatens.

Table of contents

the Kakapo - of becoming extinct prepared

Kakapo in the museum threatens king in Bonn

due to missing natural enemies developed the Kakapo - like many other kinds of bird of New Zealand also - in the course of the evolution than reaction to strong over populationan extremely complicated mating behavior, which reduced the existence to a measure healthy for the sensitive ecological system of an island world. There - apart from some kinds of grab bird - only with the arrival of first pioneers from Polynesien and late Europes Raubtiere to New Zealand, developed the Kakapos no escape instinct cameopposite robbers; with danger they remain squatting and to know on the soil therefore victims of wild ores cats, dogs , Mardern , weasels and Frettchen to become easy. Nest robbers represent a further danger like the rat. The survivors Kakapos became therefore in 20. Century upsmaller islands before New Zealand (Codfish Iceland, Maud Iceland, Fiordland and Little Barrier Iceland) resettled, which were released from Raubtieren. The mating behavior successful for past times makes the today's efforts more difficult to receive the kind. Kakapos breed not in each year, but onlyif certain trees carry plentifully, of their fruits them partially nourish themselves.

appearance

of the Kakapo is an extremely thick bird. An average, attained full growth Kakapo weighs between six and sieves Pound and can with its wings at best a little herumwackeln, if he, over something too stolpern… (Douglas of Adam, Mark Carwadine/the last its kind - S.146) camouflage
is afraid

all Kakapos still remained is characterised by a MOO-green plumage, which exhibits at the back black strips and by that the bird in the Unterholz is well camouflaged.The strength and stiffness, which would be necessary for an airworthyness, are missing to the feathers/springs. Due to the unusual softness of the plumage the kind carries also the kind designation “habroptilus” (altgriech. habro “softly”, ptilon “feather/spring”).

The Unterkörper, which is necks and the face rather green-yellowish befiedert, whereby the colouringstrongly between individual individuals varies. From bird bellows in scientific collections one knows however that it gave in former times also copies, which were completely yellowish befiedert.

Face veils and whiskers

Kakapos have a so-called face veil; that is, the face is surrounded by fine feathers/springs, like itfor owls is typical. The European immigrants on New Zealand called therefore the Kakapo also owl parrot. The bill surrounded fine “Schnurrhaare”, with which it the soil beta-constantly, if it runs with lowered head at the soil. The ends of the tail feathers/springs are mostly zerschlissen, there them constantly toSoil to be along-pulled.

Kakapos are very large parrots; the male birds measure up to 60 centimeters and weigh between three and four kilograms, if they reached the sex-ripe. For their size Kakapos have relatively small wings, and the strengthened breastbone is missing to them (Sternum), to which the flight musculature of other birds is fastened. They use their wings for balancing and around their case to brake, if they jump down from trees. Differently than other land birds Kakapos can store large quantities depot fat.

The bill of the Kakapos is suitable for it, the foodto cut up very finely. For this reason Kakapos have very small compared to other birds of their size bend. The feet are large and flaky and have as forward with all parrots two and two toes arranged to the rear. Their pronounced claws are to climbingadapted (adaptation).

One of the most unusual characteristics of the Kakapos is their strong, but pleasant smell. Descriptions compare this smell with those from flowers and honey or Bienenwachs. The pronounced smell is however also debt to the fact that Raubtiere find the relatively defenseless bird simple.

spreading and habitat

the Kakapos settled in former times all three Hauptinseln of New Zealand. All Kakapos, from whose existence one knows, was resettled predominantly today on two small islands: Chalky Iceland (width unit Kakahu o Tamatea) and Codfish Iceland.

The habitat of the Kakapos covered in former timesdifferent Habitate, under it alpine herb zones, shrub country both at the coast and in mountain regions. In addition they inhabited a multiplicity of different forest forms, with which different tree kinds dominated such as Rimu or illusory beeches, Tawa or rate. As habitat they preferred themselves thereby forest edge zones orregenerating forest areas, since these offered a larger variance at vegetation to them. In the fjord areas of New Zealand one called the regions, which sealed themselves after avalanche outlets or landslides with, fruit-basic bush work regenerated, „Kakapo gardens “.

The islands, on which the Kakapos was resettled, are free of (originallynot on New Zealand domestic) robbery mammals such as weasels, cats or dogs. All these robbery mammals are able to kill an attained full growth Kakapo. Rats and Fuchskusus - likewise by human settlers imported - eat both Kakapo eggs and the young Küken. In addition they are foodand NIST place competitors. Also deer, which were introduced by the Europeans, are food competitors of the Kakapos. Deer exterminated plants in parts, which belong to the präferierten Nahrungspflanzen of the Kakapos.

In addition the Kakapo was hunted both by the Maori and the Europeans. Today the birds standunder complete protection.

behavior and food

Kakapos are night-active birds. During the day they rest hidden in trees or on the ground; at night they touch by their district. Although Kakapos cannot fly, they are exzellente Kletterer, into the crowns of the highestTrees climb. One observed, how they down-slide from these heightsparachute-similarly “, by spreading their wings and thus their case brakes. Kakapos are excellent Wanderer. During one night they can put and overcome several kilometers back thereby hundreds of elevator meters. They can alsowith a considerable speed run, do not regard their speed however not as a longer distance.

Kakapos nourish themselves predominantly of a large number of plants, seed, fruits, Pollen and even of the tree juice of trees. With special preference they eat the fruits of the Rimu tree and nourish themselvesexcluding of it, if these fruits are plentifully present. To its behavior repertoire it belongs to hold a sheet with a foot and to strip with their bill the nutritious parts, so that the hardfibrous sheet components over-remain. The leftovers of such vegetable fibers are a clear characteristic of the presence of Kakapos.One already observed beyond that that Kakapos insects and other eddyless animals eat.

Kakapos are by nature very curious and react every now and then even interested to occasionally present humans. Reservation coworkers, who had occasionally more intensive contact with some birds, write a pronounced personality to thesetoo.

As other parrots also have Kakapos a large range of different calls, which have different functions. Additionally to „the booms “and „chings “their Balzrufe, they communicate for example with one „skraark “their presence to other birds.

behavior opposite robbers

Kakapos showin view of a robber it will not at least understand an adapted
behavior opposite Raubtieren most birds inserted into New Zealand that something is loose, and in security to bring itself briskly, even if they do not have to abandon thereby any eggs or Küken, lying in the nest - howeverthe Kakapo. Its only reaction in view of a robber is not to know completely simply what for a way of life should be. It has at all no term of it that possibly on the idea could purge to something, to do to him pain. Thus it is inclined to it, completelyto remain confused and to the other animal the next course leave squatting in its nest - that usually fast comes and is final…. (Adam, Carwadine S. 147)

The reaction of a Kakapos to a robber or an other threat belongs to the behavior patterns,in recent time in particular were not very helpful to them. Kakapos, which feel threatened, solidify, in order to blur in such a way with their environment. This behavior may not be a suitable protection opposite eagles, which were in former times their most important Nachsteller, it protects it however before thatby humans introduced Raubtieren, which rely particularly on their sense of smell.

Balzverhalten

Balzarena

Kakapos have a Balzverhalten, which does not resemble other parrots. Males collect themselves at a joint Balzarena and compete with one another around the favour of the females. ThoseFemales, who appear to the Balzarena, observe the Balz of the males and select from the Balzenden the male, with which they pair themselves. The males do not have an active role in the partner choice, and it comes to no generation of pairs.

The Balzarenen usually lies on hills;during the Balzzeit the males leave their traditional districts and pull to this Balzarenen, where each male creates itself its own Balzplatz. Balzarenen can be distant up to seven kilometers from the traditional district of a male. With the arrival to the Balzarena begins an argument underthe males, with which they fight to spread wings, opened bills, raised claws with gesträubten feathers/springs, apart and under loud Krächzen and humming among themselves for the best Balzplätze within these Balzarena. Occasionally with these fights also birds are hurt.

the individual Balzplätze

thoseindividual Balzplätze is distant within this arena on the average about 50 meters from each other. The males dig for its Balzplätze one about ten centimeters deep, dish-shaped recess into the soil, which has for instance a diameter of a half meter, so that the birds into this recessfit. The Balzplätze is put on gladly before rock, earth slopes or trunks, which reflect the sound of the calls. To the individual Balzplatz a network at paths, either about 50 meters on a hill of along-pulled or as round way with a diameter of approximately 20 belongs itself metersa hill orbit.

The males release both their Balzplätze and the paths from branches and sheets. Reservation coworkers use this habit of the birds, by putting some branches into the Balzplatz, in order to determine in such a way whether the Balzplatz is used actively. A male, during thatNight at the Balzplatz would appear, clears carefully these branches.

Balzrufe

of the Kakapo blows two enormous air bags up in its two chest sides, sinks the head between them and begins something from itself to to give, what he regards as exciting Grunzlaute. These sounds becomegradual more deeply, resound in its two air bags against, spread then in night air and fulfill the valleys in the periphery of miles with the schaurigen sound of an enormous at the night striking heart… (Adam, Carwadine S.148f)

around females to tighten, leave the males during the nighttheir “boom “- calls erschallen. Males begin with quiet Grunzgeräu, which increase in strength, while their Kehlsack blows itself up. After a consequence of approximately 20 boom calls the volume decreases again. After a short break the male begins again with a consequence of “boom“- Calls. The males turn a little after a consequence of calls, in order so the “boom “- calls in another direction erschallen to leave. These calls can be heard at zero winds a night up to a distance by approximately a kilometer, and the windcan its call as far as five kilometers carry. Males call up to eight hours during one night; each male leaves therefore thousands of “boom “- calls over night erschallen. This Balzverhalten can drag on over three to four months. The males lose in this timeup to the half of their body weight.

mating

female by the “boom “- calls and abandoned also their territories are tightened, in order to pull over several kilometers away to this Balzarenen. A female decided for a male and enters its Balzplatz, a complex Balzverhalten begins on the part of the male. The male varies from side to side, while it makes clicking noises with its bill. It closes its back for the female, spreads its wings and goes backwards toward it. Over the actual mating act little is well-known- it is only accepted that it is very short.

Males are sexually very excitable in this time and try the Kopulation also with other one than with a Kakapo female to carry out. One observed males thereby, like her tried, itself with a fallen down branch orto pair a together-rolled sweater.

brood

the female returns to the mating to its traditional district, in order to put its eggs there and largetighten afterwards the boys. The males continue meanwhile their Balzrufe, in order to attract still further mating-willing females.

ThoseFemales put four eggs between and for each brood cycle. They build their nest on earth in the protection of plants or in hollow trunks. They trembling rods their eggs reliably, are however forced to leave their nest at night for the food search. The eggsare exposed to the danger thereby both, by robbers to be eaten and erfrieren.

The Küken, which slips after a breeding time of approximately 30 days, is exposed to robbers just like the eggs. The Küken is flügge after approximately ten to twelve weeks. The femalefeeds the young birds occasionally up to its sixth life month, while this become slowly more independent.

Kakapos, which are very long-lived birds, have a relatively long Adoleszenz - time (puberty). Males begin their “boomwith - calls only at that 5. Lebensjahr; Females look for the Balzarenen of the malesonly starting from their 9. to 10. Lebensjahr up. In addition Kakapos breed not each year and have one of the lowest reproduction rates under the birds. They breed only, if due to tree mast is to them plentifully a food at disposal. The Rimu trees through-live such tree mast only all threeuntil five years. In forests, in which the Rimu tree outweighs, as for instance on Codfish Iceland, the Kakapos breeds accordingly irregularly.

systematics

Kea, ein Nestorpapagei
Kea, a Nestorpapagei

of the Kakapo are generally an only representative of the kind Strigops, those as Unterfamilie into the actual parrotsbeside a number of further to be arranged. Over the exact phylogenetische position nothing is well-known, mostly it as ursprünglichste form all other genuine parrots opposite is placed and represents thus the group of sisters all these groups:

--- Genuine parrots (Psittacidae)    |? -- Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) |-- other Psittacidae

after other sources is taken this ursprünglichste position also by the Nestorpapageien (Nestorinae ), likewise living on New Zealand.

historical

the ancestors of the Kakapos

the ancestors of the Kakapos dipped before several millions years for the first time on the of New ZealandIslands up. Among scientists is assumed these birds were smaller than the today's Kakapos and more other parrots resembled. In their adjustment to their habitat it more largely, more heavily and lost gradually their airworthyness. On New Zealand were mammals at this time only throughthree small kinds of bat represent. Kakapos seem to have filled out with their way of life the niche, other place one by mammals were predominantly occupied. Before the first arrival of humans Kakapos were extremely successful with their life strategy; one assumes millions of individuals before the arrivalfirst humans on New Zealand lived.

began to settle settlement of New Zealand

by the Maori from Polynesien before approximately 1000 years Maori New Zealand. They hunted Kakapos as food and converted their skins and feathers/springs to Capes. Dried Kakapo heads became as ear decorationused. Due to its flight inability, its strong smell and its habit to solidify when threat the Kakapos for the Maori and the dogs introduced by them was simple booty. Polynesian rats, which were brought in by the Maori on New Zealand, ate the Küken and eggs. Through Rodungen limited Maoris the habitat of the Kakapos in such a way that the birds in some regions had already become extinct, when the Europeans on New Zealand arrived.

Europeans large surfaces of the islands

of New Zealand for agriculture and pastoral industry began settlement of New Zealand by the Europeans starting from 1840 to make arable and to still further limit thus the Kakapo habitat. With the Europeans further robbery mammals arrived to New Zealand; Cats, European rats and still more dog, which hunted both adults Kakapos and the young birds.

The Europeans knew few about the Kakapos, to the scientistsGeorge Gray of British museum it 1845 on basis of bird bellows described. As the Maori regarded the European settlers on New Zealand Kakapos as food, with which one could feed also the dogs. Toward end 19. Century probably were Kakapos as scientific curiosity in Europeadmits, and thousands of the birds were caught or killed in New Zealand, over copies and/or. Bird bellows for zoos to supply museums and collecting tanks. Those living catch birds died within fewer months.

At the latest since 1870 itself the collecting tanks were conscious that the number of Kakapos clearlyand the danger of becoming extinct this kind decreased existed. Unfortunate meadow concentrated one in the consequence to collect as many bird bellows as possible, before this kind disappeared.

Starting from 1880 by the Europeans on New Zealand Hermeline, Frettchen and weasels in large number were released, overto reduce thus the number of rapidly increasing rabbits. The animals did not however only hunt rabbits, but also numerous native kinds - under it for the Kakapo.

beginning of the rescue attempts

already 1891 decided the government of New Zealand to explain resolution Iceland in the fjord area as the nature reservationand 1894 appointed smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Henry the leader this reservation. As engaged Naturschützer was conscious itself Henry that the individual number of the native birds decreased due to the imported robbers rapidly. It recognized the value of the resolution Iceland as robbery-animal-free reservation and began Kakapos and Kiwis on theseTo resettle island. Until 1900 it over 200 Kakapos there had evacuated. 1900 through-swam Marder the strait between the island and the mainland, settled there and destroyed within six years the entire Kakapopopulation on resolution Iceland.

1903 one had already three Kakapos ofResolution Iceland to the nature reservation Hauturu/Little Barrier Iceland northeast from Auckland evacuates. Since on this island however also wild ores Hauskatzen lived, these three birds were not again seen. one settled three Kakapos in the reservation Kapiti Iceland northwest of 1912 from Wellington. One of these birdssurvived at least until 1936.

1920 up to the beginning of the 1970er years

during the world economic crisis into the 1920er and 30's as well as the two world wars did not stand the protection of the Kakapos in the focus of the government of New Zealand. 1920 were the Kakapo on the north islandbecome extinct, its occurrence on the southern island had dramatically sunk. One of the few regions, where he still occurred, was the fissured fjord country. While the 1930er years Kakapos were seen there still frequent or their calls were heard. Occasionally they also still landed in the pot of huntersand road workers. Into the 1940er years decreased the number of observations however clearly.

Into the 1950er years began that new Zealand would game-run service systematically in the fjord country for Kakapos to look. Only few indications that at all still individuals found to filters expeditions between 1951 and 1956existed to this kind. From concern that deer and Mufflons in the fjord area stressed important Nahrungspflanzen for itself and so that continued to limit the chance of survival of these birds still one made the decision to hold the next birds, which one would find, in shank. Of the five birds, which onetherefore 1961 in the Mount Bruce native Bird reserve close master clay/tone on the north island brought, died four in the first months their shank; the fifth bird survived at least four years. The 1967 caught bird did not survive the first year its shank.

1970 totoday

at the beginning of the 1970er years was unclear it whether at all still Kakapos existed. By helicopters it succeeded however now to make also expeditions in regions of New Zealand which were to a large extent inaccessible up to this time. Valleys, which were surrounded by almost senkrechten rock cliffs,up to this time from the settlement by deer and Mufflons had remained exempted - however also to here Marder had already penetrated.

From 1974 to 1976 one found a number of male birds and was for the first time in the situation to observe the Balzverhalten so in detail,that one could describe it scientifically. One attributed the absence of female birds to the fact that they become when breeding rapidly victims of Mardern. One did not consider it impossible, which no female birds lived more and which kind thereby had in principle already become extinct. Everythingcaught birds were released into more protected reservations such as Maud Iceland.

one began 1977 finally to examine also Stewart Iceland (Rakiura) systematically. Already in the decades before were occasionally from there Kakapo observations were announced - the last 1970 by a deer hunter. The 1977er expedition found alreadyon the first expedition day a Kakapo Balzarena. Since she found in the following weeks traces of dozens birds, hope rose to find here perhaps nevertheless still females. 1980 one looked for the island systematically with trackhounds off (the dogs did not carry from caution of muzzle baskets, thereby itthe rare birds to kill could). Under in such a way found birds were 5 females. One was also sure itself that on Stewart Iceland, weasels or Frettchen lived no Marder. However lived here wild ores Hauskatzen, which killed the Kakapos in alarming number. From 1977 to 1982 diedapproximately 50% the estimated Kakapopopulation on Stewart Iceland by cats. On the island Little Barrier Iceland (Hauturu) one had already purposefully exterminated wild ores the cats; Marder, weasels and Frettchen did not occur here. One began to settle birds also here purposefully.

Northwest the Stewart Icelandthe Codfish island lies. After one had exterminated the opossums occurring there, one began to settle also this island purposefully with Kakapos. 1995 consisted the entire world population of the Kakapos only of 50 individuals, only 19 of it were females.

first inventory recovery

1989 became„a Kakapo Recovery plan “to the inventory receipt and - structure developed and a mechanism establishes, which should convert this plan, „the Kakapo Recovery Group “. One of the first measures was not to supply on Little Barrier Iceland the females with additional fodder there in the sieved past yearsBreeding success to determine had been. The measure had success. Four birds put eggs, 1991 two young birds were successfully drawn up. 1992 bred also the birds on Codfish Iceland the first time. Since the fruits of the Rimu trees did not develop due to bad weather conditions, not sufficiently food stood for thoseYoung birds for the order. Three underfed young birds were brought in the Auckland zoo, where two died; third, which one baptized Hoki, was drawn up successfully with the hand and settled afterwards on Maud Iceland. Only 1997 came it again to the brood. Again those did not mature a Rimu being afraidout, but with an additional feeding of the nut/mother birds three young birds became large.

While on Codfish and Little Barrier Iceland cats, weasel, Frettchen as well as European rats did not seem, here however the smaller Polynesian rat lived. Only gradually it became clear that this kind of rat attained full growth Kakapos inPeace left, however Kakapo eggs and Küken ate. In addition the Polynesian rat was a food competitor of the Kakapo. One decided to release and give up Little Barrier Iceland as settlement place Codfish Iceland from the rats to, since this area was too fissured, around the animals meaningfully cares for there toocan. For two years one settled the birds on Pear Iceland and poisoned in this time the rats living on Codfish Iceland. A part of the slipped young birds was drawn up artificially and in three years rose the number of well-known individuals of 50 to 62Birds.

When it was foreseeable that 2001 would carry the Rimu trees on Codfish Iceland plentifully, one settled all 21 sex-matured females on this island over. 20 of the females actually put eggs, and at the beginning of 2002 24 Küken slipped - in the previous 20 years were altogether only15 young birds largely become. In one year thereby the population had risen around 39% to 86 individuals.

A plentiful fruit lug of the Rimu trees was not for the next two years to expect - the Kakapos bred accordingly in these years not in the forests ofCodfish Iceland, which was dominated by Rimu trees. Other tree species fruits more regularly than the Rimu tree; it seemed meaningful to settle the Chalky Iceland dominated by illusory beeches more strongly. Young, not yet sex-ripe birds on Chalky Iceland settled in hope that it itself the thereFruit cycle to adapt and thus more frequently would breed. Eighteen birds were brought after Chalky Iceland; however three females at a bacteria infection died. One inoculated and treated the remaining birds her with antibiotics.

the Kakapo Recovery program

still the survivors of animals becomeover the Kakapo Recovery program cares for intensively, in order to ensure so kind preservation. With removal programs one tries to protect and energize to more frequent broods the birds against Raubtieren. Males, which unfruchtbar one considers, are kept away from the females, in order to avoid unproductive mating.

Overto receive, one tries to avoid the genetic variety that only few males dominate the mating. A only one male bird comes from the south island from New Zealand; one attaches special meaning to it during the Sicherstellung of the genetic variety. It is more yellowish drawn than thoseremaining birds and “boomt “in another dialect. The bird, which is approximately 50 years old, is already father of two male and a female boy.

Females are supplied with additional fodder. They receive their fodder at individual fodder act ions in hope,that they will breed annually sometime. Occasionally eggs and young birds are removed, in order to encourage so the female birds to put a second time of eggs. Older females are used than spare mothers and were successfully drawn up young birds. Other young birds were artificially expenditure-bred and afterwards with thatHand drawn up.

The nests of the Kakapos are constantly observed with different methods. If the female leaves the nest at night, in order to look for food, the eggs are warm-held by reservation coworkers with covers, in order to prevent the fact that - as in the past already happens - eggs orYoung birds erfrieren. The nests are treated also with flea powder, after a female crushed an egg by mistake, when it scratched itself due to flea bites.

For it that the Kakapos will more survive some years as kind, to have it improves the prospects clearly. Sudden death onmade clear in addition, for a bacteria infection of three of the 2002 15 female young birds slipped, how critical the existence of the birds is.

inventory development of the Kakapo

number of Kakapos in the respective year:

  • 1986: 22, in this year the budget becomes estimated preservationthe kind increases.
    Development of the Kakapopopulation
  • 1991: 50
  • 1992: 49
  • 1993: 49
  • 1994: 47
  • 1995: 49
  • 1996: 51
  • 1997: 54
  • 1998: 55
  • 1999: 62
  • 2000: 62
  • 2001: 62
  • 2002: 86
  • 2003: 86
  • 2004: 83
  • 2005: 86

literature

  • Don V. Merton/Rodney B.Morris/Ian A.E. Atkinson: “Lek behaviour in A parrot: the Kakapo Strigops habroptilus OF new Zealand. “IBIS, journal OF The British Ornithologists' union, Vol.126, No.3, 1984.
  • Hugh Best/Ralph Powlesland: “Kakapo”. (Brochure) 36 pages. John McIndoe&New Zealand would game-run service, dune DIN 1985.
  • David Cemmick/thickly Veitch: “Kakapo Country. The storyOF the World's most unusal bird " (Foreword David Bellamy) 130 sides with beautiful illustrations of D.Cemmick. Hodder and Stoughton, Auckland 1987.ISBN 0-340-416475.
  • Rod Morris/Hal Smith: “Game South. Saving new Zealand's Endangered Birds " (Kakapo: in particular chapter 6, page 135-157 with many photos) .TVNZ and CenturyHutchinson, Auckland 1988,238 sides.ISBN 1-86941-043-2
  • Philip Temple/Chris Gaskin: “The story OF the kakapo. Parrot OF the Night. “Hodder&Stoughton, Auckland 1988. 38 sides. (1990: Pricewinner: Children's Picture Book OF the Year Award). ISBN 0-340-519673.
  • David Butler (1989); Quest for the Kakapo.The fill story OFNew Zealand `s most remarkable bird. “Auckland; Heinemann Reed, 1989, ISBN 0-7900-0065-2. 136 sides. Detailed description of the history of the Kakapos to 1989
  • Ralph Powlesland: “Kakapo Recovery plan 1989-1994” Publised by The department OF Conservation/DoC, Wellington 1989.
  • R.G. Powlesland/A.Roberts/B.D.Lloyd/D.Merton: “NUMBER, fate, and distribution OF Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)found on Stewart Iceland, new Zealand 1979-1992 " in: “New Zealand journal OF Zoology”, 1995, vol.22: PAGE 239-248. (Scientific representation) .PDF format:[1]
  • Mary Cresswell/Kakapo management Group: “Kakapo Recovery plan 1996-2005.” Threatened Species Recovery plan No.21. DoC/department OF Conservation, P.O.Box 10-420, Wellington (1996). As pdf file, 1911 KB: [2]
  • Don Merton: “Kakapo”, in: P.J.Higgins (OD.): “Handbook OF Australian, new Zealand and Antarctic Birds”. Volume. 4, PAGE 633-646. RAOU. Oxford University press, Melbourne 1999. (Scientific representation).
  • Tim Higham: “The Kakapo OF Codfish Iceland.” in: New Zealand geo graphics of magazines, NUMBER 15 (July Sept. 1992) PAGE 30-38.Auckland ISSN 0113-9967.
  • Climo, Gideon & Ballance, Alison; Hoki: the story OF A kakapo Auckland; Godwit, 1997, ISBN 1-86962-009-7. 60 sides. Told in detail the first five Lebensjahre of a by hand drawn up Kakapos.
  • Derek Grzelewski: “Kakapo. Bird on the brink. “in: New Zealand geo graphics (magazines)NUMBER 56, (March April 2002) ISSN 0113-9967. (Very beautiful photos and a mad report!)
  • Jenny Jones; The Kakapo, Auckland; Reed 2003, ISBN 1-86948-662-5. 32 sides. Actually a Kinderbuch, due to its detailed descriptions however for each age suitably.
  • Gerard Hutching: “Bake from the Brink. TheFight ton of save our Endangered Birds. “Penguin Books Publisher, Auckland 2004.ISBN 0-14-301948-1. (Capter 5; PAGE 62-83).

German-language literature:

  • “Owl parrot or Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)” in: “Brehms exotic bird world”, Safari publishing house 1956.
  • Christopher Perrins: “the BLV encyclopedia - birds of the world” Munich 2005 (large sized photo book, entryto the Kakapo with short information and beautiful pictures side: 310/311).
  • Jim Rearden: “The last days of the Kakapo”. in: “Geo magazine” No. 2/1978, page 88-102. (over the preservation efforts in Fiordland).
  • Matthias Schellhorn: “Travel guide nature New Zealand” BLV publishing house, Munich 2004 (the Kakapo hardly occurs, but as overviewover the Flora and fauna of NZ perhaps completely helpfully).
  • “Owl parrot: Humming the last male " (page 198-201) balzt in: “The bird world” saves H.Stern, G.Thielcke Ravensburger publishing house to Hg.R.L.Schreiber, A.W.Diamond, 1987.
  • Douglas of Adam & Mark of Carwardine; The last ones of their kind - a journey to the becoming extinct animals of our earth, Hoffmannand Campe, Hamburg, 1991, ISBN 3-455-08384-6. As paperback with Heyne in different editions available among other things 1992 last 2005. ISBN 3453061152. As well as as audio CD available.

video

  • “Birds OF new Zealand - A rare View” by Rob Morris&Rod Hayden. About 3Birds: Takahe Kakapo Black Robin. Wildly South/Natural History Series. TV NZ Enterprises, Auckland /Dunedin 1990. 98 minutes (Kakapo film of 1982; with rare pictures of Fiordland and Stewart Iceland)
  • “ton of save the Kakapo” by Alison Ballance. Wildly South video, Natural History new Zealand Ltd. Dune DIN 1998. (60 Minutes.About the breeding season 1997 on Codfish Iceland, very descriptive and beautiful film!) www.wildsouth.co.nz
  • of game New Zealand - last Refugium for Kakapos. Contribution from the NDR row “expeditions in the animal realm” [3] (2005)
  • the mysterious Kakapo, owl parrots in New Zealand. Contribution from the row adventure wilderness. (2001)

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