Calendar drafts

calendar drafts are called generally attempts to improve or replace by a new calendar the Gregorian calendar.

Table of contents

to criticism at the Gregorian calendar

the Gregorian calendar order is essentially because of his advanced leap year - regulation generally recognized. The structure of the internal order of the calendar year maintained since the Augustei calendar reform in the year 8 of our time calculation exhibits however several points of criticism: On the one hand the length of the months is very different with 28, 29, 30 and 31 days, the distribution of the short and long months in the course of the year is irregular. In addition the years and the months correspond not with the seven-day week cycle: Both the months and the years begin at any weekday. Thus 14 different yearly calendars (seven variants of the common yearly , which can begin at each weekday, and likewise many leap year variants) develop.

demands of a reform calendar

from different sides are made different requirements against a new or revised calendar, which is mutually exclusive partially:

  • A reformed calendar should be a supranational and supra religious system.
  • For the avoidance of serious problems of acceptance and to the integration possibility for the Jewish, Christian, Muslim, hinduistische and the buddhistischen fixed calendar the traditional 7-Tage should be maintained week as far as possible.
  • The center of the reform calendar which can be aimed at should be brought (religion-neutrally) into the proximity to the memo year sun turn. Accordingly the alternative sun turn would lie in the proximity of the turn of the year.
  • The number of months should be divisible by two and as also as possible by four, in order to facilitate half yearly and quarter statistics. For the statistics it appears in particular desirable that at least the quarter lengths agree.
  • It should be possible to get along with only two yearly calendars: one for the common year and one for the leap year.
  • Each year should begin with the first day of the week. This is since the year 1975 according to the regulations that internationally Standardization Organization (ISO) religion-neutrally Monday. Each current date could thereafter its certain weekday be assigned in the long term.
  • Finally the development of an improved calendar should take place for the purpose of the minimization from problems of acceptance considering the principle of the lowest possible interference. That means in particular that the number of being omitted current date should fail as small as possible.

comparison of some calendar drafts

the two temporarily reform calendars made of France and the Soviet Union, already converted , are confronted to the Gregorian calendar as well as several calendar drafts not converted yet on the basis some criteria.

Days per year days per month days per week months per year week and.
Month in
cycle intact
switching rule yearly
Gemeinj. Schaltj.
Gregor. 365 ,366 28, 29, 30, 31 7 12 no day arithmetically 14
republic. 365 ,366 30 10 12 no day astronomically 2
Soviet. 365 ,366 30 5 12 no day ? 2
C & T 364 ,371 7, 30, 31 7 12-13 no week arithmetically 2
Sym454 364 ,371 28, 35 7 12 week arithmetically 2
world 365 ,366 30, 31 7 12 no no day arithmetically 2
updated world calendar 364, 365 ,366 29, 30, 31 7 12 no no day arithmetically 3
boarding school. Eternal 365 ,366 28 7 13 no day arithmetically 2
positivist. 365 ,366 28 7 13 no day arithmetically 2
Sexagesimal 365 ,366 60 6 6 no day astronomically 2
Triangular 365 ,366 36 6 10 no day arithmetically 2
legend: religious demand favorable characteristic neutral characteristic

fundamental today arithmetic calendars are considered as the astronomical calendars superior. Since however in principle each astronomical calendar can be changed into an arithmetic, this difference is not relevant with a calendar comparison.

see also


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)