of these articles is concerned with the US Federal State California. For further meanings see California.
flag seal of California
Karte der USA, Kalifornien hervorgehoben

other Federal States

base data
pointed name: The golden State of
(The golden State)
capital: Sacramento
largest city: Of Los Angeles
Rank (within the USA): 3
altogether: 410,000 km ²
country: 404,298 km ²
water (%): 20,047 km ² (4.72%)
rank (within the USA): 1
altogether (2004): 35.893.799
density: 88 E./km ²
member state
place: 31
since: 9. September 1850
time belt: Pacific: UTC 8-7
degree of latitude: 32°30'N to 42°N
degree of longitude: 114°8'W to 124°24'W
broad: 402.5 km
length: 1,240 km
highest situation: 4,418 m
average situation: 884 m
deepest situation: -86 m
governor: Arnold Schwarzenegger
postal: APPROX.
ISO 3166-2: US-CA

California (English California) is the US Federal State most densely populated with distance. It lies in the west of the USA, borders on the Pacific ocean, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona and the Mexican State of Baja California on the peninsula Niederkalifornien.

Table of contents

„Willkommen in Kalifornien“
„welcomes in California “

the name California

the name California has a mythischen origin. 1510 published the Spaniard Ordones de Montalvo a novel, in which an island of full gold occurs named California, inhabited from beautiful Amazonen, which are controlled by queen Califia. When Cortés' soldiers came 1535 to Baja California, they, it believed an island was, and designated it after Montalvos book.


the capital of California is since 1854 Sacramento. The most important cities are Los Angeles, the second largest city of the USA and with the surrounding population centre one the largest Metropolregionen of the earth, and San Francisco, the center of the densely populated area San Francisco Bay AREA around the bay ofSan Francisco, San Francisco Bay.

Further important cities are San Diego, San Jose, Oakland, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Anaheim, Santa Ana and San Bernardino.


California is with 35.893.799Inhabitants (conditions: 2004) the most densely populated and surface-moderately the third biggest Federal State of the USA. The population structure builds itself up as follows: 46.7% white, 32.4% Hispanics, 10.9% Asians, 6.7% black and Afro American, 1.0% Indian, 0.3% Hawaiian. There are 11.502.870 households. The Pro-Kopf-Einkommen amounts to 29,707 US Dollar (conditions: 2002).


governor of the Federal State are since 2003 a Filmschauspieler Arnold Schwarzenegger originating from Austria, which belongs to the republican party.

national park

in California gives it 26 of national park. With distance is the Yosemite national park usually-visited; as further well-known of national park are among other things the Death Valley national park, the Joshua Tree national park, the letting volume CAN IC leaving, the Redwood national park, the Sequoia and Kings Canyon national park to call as well as the Channel Iceland national park.

to Geografie

Pazifikküste bei Big Sur
Pacific coast with bend Sur
California is to the San Andreas distortion in such a way specified because of the seam of two tectonic plates , why it comes in the entire region frequently to earthquakes.

Twopowerful mountain courses pull California through von Nordosten after southwest: the coastal mountains in the west and the Sierra Nevada in the east. Thus the country is divided into six physically different parts:

  • Between the two mountain courses the Sacramento and San Joaquinbecken, that lieafter its two main rivers is designated and between 35° and 40°40' northern latitude lies; the area is about 77,000 km ² largely
  • the coastal line enclosure about 109,000 km ²; the rivers rising in the coastal chains are briefly and usually also only to Rain time available: most importantly are too gradual the Salinas flowing with Monterey , the Gayama (or also Santa Maria) and
  • the Santa Ana that about 100,000 km ² large area of the Sierra Nevada in the east of the State of, that to the west andeastward too steeply that
  • drops about 20,000 km ² comprehensive Flussbecken of the Klamath, north 41. Degree of latitude convenient, rau and of deep Canyon pulled through is
  • the area of the large, between the Columbia, the Colorado and the SierraNevada of lying basin on the eastern side, whose California part is large about 50,000 km ²; it represents a dried up, wild-fissured Hochebene, in which in the County Inyo the death valley (Death valley) lies.
  • At the southwest border the Coloradowüste, those about39,000 km ² enclosure and the remainder of an original sea bay is, which is now up to 100 m under the sea level.

The Tularesee lies in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basin, which it locks at the same time in the south. At the rain time it is about 150km long, however so flat that one through-wades it everywhere can.

California is also well-known as the fruit garden America, whose climate is ideal for the cultivation of grapes/clusters , oranges , lemons and Avocados.

The highest mountain of the USAoutside of Alaska, the Mt. Whitney (4,418   m), lies in California. At the foot of the mountain is the place Lone Pine, in which a well-known film festival takes place annually. Into approximately 170 kilometers distance is the desert area Death Valley (valley of theDeath), which got its name in the time of the first settlers at the west coast, who had to experience pretty often the agonies of heat and thirst, if they crossed „the valley of death “. There are numerous nature parks and beaches more differentlyCondition. Among the most well-known parks the Yosemite national park ranks.

Near the Yosemite park is the winter sports area Mammoth Mountain. It developed from enormous Vulkankratern, whereby itself countless hot and also cold sources and Geysire let regard. Not far removes fromMt. Whitney gives it some salzhaltige seas, among other things to the mono Lake.


Klima in Los Angeles
climate into of Los Angeles

the climate in California can be divided in three zones:

  • At the coast the temperatures are by the influencethe quite cool Pacific causes lower than inside the country. In the north there are often rainy winters. In addition fog in the summer, which provides accordingly for cooler temperatures often, comes.
  • In mountains like the Sierra Nevada becomes it in the summeroften quite hot, due to the altitude the temperatures drop after sunset however fast. In the winter must be gerechnt with very large snow quantities.
  • In the desert it is the whole year during the day usually sunny and warmly, at night cools it howeververy strongly off.

From the mild climate profits under other Los Angeles.


after the landings of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in the year 1542 and Sir Francis Drake in the year 1579 lost European colonial powers the area of thetoday's US Federal State California again as far as possible from the eyes. Afterwards California was as upper California (Alta California) the northern part of the Spanish colony California (as part of new Spain one administered), however only many later than the south part was settled. Only offunder the line of the Paters Junipero Serra first of the 21 Spanish mission stations was built for the year 1769 by Franziskanermönchen, beside this established one also militarily fastened points (Presidios). Already Jesuiten were with the Missionierung busy, them before became however1767 drove out.

Oakland, 1900

1812 was established to Ross a Russian base in the today's Sonoma County in northern California also away as continuation and rounding of the Russian possessions in Alaska. After the separationthe two parts of California of Spain in the year 1823 the country was integrated as province of in the meantime independent Republic of Mexico. The Mexican government returned again to the mission system, until the democratic party the mission nature to 17. March 1833 by decreecompletely dissolved and tries. Settling was promoted at the same time by a substantial immigration. The first immigrants were sold however after the accession Santa Anna, who the mission stations to receive wanted, again. These events put the foundation-stone for the animosity for many decadesbetween California and the Mexican government. 1836 broke loose a rebellion under früherern the customs inspector Alvaredo , which had to be finally confirmed of the ohnmächtigen government of Mexico as a governor of California. In the meantime Johann August Sutter had after its arrival in the year1839 dynamics brought into the development of the country. At this time the country counted about 30,000 Indians and 5,000 Europeans as an inhabitant.

1842 set Santa off Anna governor Alvaredo, who was hated as a the poet with the population, and made general Michel Torena to the new governor, who was just as unpopular however soon as its predecessor. In the spring 1846 the inhabitants of upper California revolted and selected Don José Castro, a born Kalifornier, to the commander of general. Sutter received the grant to build an address,which it gave the name „new Helvetien “. From it a flourishing colony with 20.000 pieces cattle, three horse mills, two Wassermühlen, a sawing mill, a tannery and over 50 houses became fast. Sutter prevailed like a small „emperor “over its„Imperium “, which was developed on agriculture, cattle breeding, wood trade and hunt. 1841 it acquired away Ross of Russia. It lost its possessions few years later in the course of gold fever.

1845 annektierten the USA Texas, which to a very strained relationshipwith Mexico led. During the Mexican-American war a Spanish-upper-California junta on Veranlassung of the US-American consul Larkin in Monterrey 1846 proclaimed the independence from Mexico. But still during the question of the connection to the USA or a European state were discussed,US-American settlers proclaimed a Gegenrepublik, which subjected the whole country with the help of 1846 penetrated US troops after the arrival of John Fremont.

In the year 1848, Niederkalifornien was the Mexicans straight by the contract of Guadalupe Hidalgo (2. February 1848) taken, became a gold find admits - California gold fever. Sutter tried to keep this secret but the message spread rapidly. Goldsucher and luck knights came in large number to California, which contributed to the fact that the public order broke down to a large extent.Hundredthousands through-rooted the earth, the valley of the Sacramento „the golden “west had become. Finally the government recognized the illegitimate conditions on, since so the USA had become an important gold export country. The Indians were sold and exterminated nearly completely.

To9. September 1850 was finally taken up California as state non-slave-holding to the USA. During the civil war California held itself to the union, however practically no role played because of the large distance to the theater of war. 1854 were appointed Sacramento the capital by California.

largest cities

city County inhabitant
of 1.4.2000
of Los Angeles Los Angeles 3.694.820 3.845.541
San Diego San Diego 1.223.400 1.263.756
San Jose Santa Clara 894,943 904,522
San Francisco San Francisco 776,733 744,230
Long Beach Los Angeles 461.522 476,564
Fresno Fresno 427,652 457,719
Sacramento Sacramento 407,018 454,330
Oakland Alameda 399,484 397,976
Santa Ana orange 337,977 342,715
Anaheim orange 328,014 333,776
Riverside Riverside 255,166 288,384
Bakersfield core 247,057 283,936
stick clay/tone San Joaquin 243,771 279,888
Fremont Fremont 203,413 202,373
Glendale Los Angeles 194,973 201,326
Huntington Beach orange 189,594 195,305
Modesto Stanislaus 188,856 206,769
San Bernardino San Bernardino 185,401 198,406
Chula Vista San Diego 173,556 204,879
Oxnard Ventura 170,358 183,587
guards Grove orange 165,196 167,347
Oceanside San Diego 161,029 167,438
Ontario San Bernardino 158,007 170,057
Santa Clarita Los Angeles 151,088 164,800
Salinas Monterey 151,060 148,183
Pomona Los Angeles 149,473 155,448
Santa pink Sonoma 147,595 153,636
Irvine orange 143,072 178,317
Moreno Valley Riverside 142,381 166,290
Hayward Hayward 140,030 140,795
gate-climbs Los Angeles 137.946 142,841
Pasadena Los Angeles 133,936 144,068
Escondido San Diego 133,559 135,462
Sunnyvale Santa Clara 131,760 128,012
Fontana San Bernardino 128,929 158,715
orange orange 128,821 133,819
Rancho Cucamonga San Bernardino 127,743 159,346
filler clay/tone orange 126,003 133,439
Corona Riverside 124,966 145.398
Concord versus Costa 121,780 124,328
Lancaster Los Angeles 118,718 128,928
Thousand Oaks Ventura 117,005 125,054
Vallejo Solano 116,760 118,349
Palmdale Los Angeles 116,670 131,153
El Monte Los Angeles 115,965 122,123
Inglewood Los Angeles 112,580 115,313
Simi Valley Ventura 111,351 118.893
Costa Mesa orange 108,724 110,411
Downey Los Angeles 107,323 110,318
west Covina Los Angeles 105,080 108,668
Daly town center San Mateo 103,621 100,620
Norwalk Los Angeles 103,298 106,683
Berkeley Alameda 102,743 101,517
Santa Clara Santa Clara 102,361 104,001
San Buenaventura Ventura 100.916 104,068
Burbank Los Angeles 100,316 104,114
smelling moon versus Costa 99,216 102,318
Elk Grove Sacramento --¹ 100,760
South gate Los Angeles 96,375 99,627
Fairfield Solano 96,178 103,949
El Cajon San Diego 94,869 93,987
Compton Los Angeles 93,493 96,235
mission Viejo Orange 93,102 96,253
San Mateo San Mateo 92,482 91,275
Santa Barbara Santa Barbara 92,325 87,370
Rialto San Bernardino 91,873 99,659
Visalia Tulare 91,565 104,655
Antioch versus Costa 90,532 100,923
Roseville Roseville 79,921 103,609

¹ formation of the city at the 1. July2000

partner countries

the German Free State of Bavaria are partner country of California.


Karte Kaliforniens
map of California

with 14% of the annually gained gross inland product (largely domestic product) of the USA places Californiaone of the most important economic situations of the country. As of the USA detached member state would be California world-wide the sixth-largest economic power (2003) still before Canada. In particular the south weather-favoured for the industrielle agriculture and the there catchment area cheap Mexican agricultural worker helpCalifornia to this prosperity.

However the water supply requires large efforts. Enormous artificial lakes at the rivers in the neighbour state Arizona, canal constructions (with lengths as between Hamburg and Munich) east of north after south and the aquaducts of that that Sierra Nevada convenient lakes and meltwater supplying mountain snow glaciers comes here great importance. Since likewise for neighbour states (Arizona , Nevada) from them which are entitled the natural resources want to draw, the agriculture turns out increasingly under pressure. Nature protection editions continue to increase this.

see also

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