|of these articles is concerned with the US Federal State California. For further meanings see California.|
|flag||seal of California|
|pointed name:|| The golden State of|
(The golden State)
|largest city:||Of Los Angeles|
|Rank (within the USA):||3|
|altogether:||410,000 km ²|
|country:||404,298 km ²|
|water (%):||20,047 km ² (4.72%)|
|rank (within the USA):||1|
|density:||88 E./km ²|
|since:||9. September 1850|
|time belt:||Pacific: UTC 8-7|
|degree of latitude:||32°30'N to 42°N|
|degree of longitude:||114°8'W to 124°24'W|
|highest situation:||4,418 m|
|average situation:||884 m|
|deepest situation:||-86 m|
California (English California) is the US Federal State most densely populated with distance. It lies in the west of the USA, borders on the Pacific ocean, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona and the Mexican State of Baja California on the peninsula Niederkalifornien.
Table of contents
the name California
the name California has a mythischen origin. 1510 published the Spaniard Ordones de Montalvo a novel, in which an island of full gold occurs named California, inhabited from beautiful Amazonen, which are controlled by queen Califia. When Cortés' soldiers came 1535 to Baja California, they, it believed an island was, and designated it after Montalvos book.
the capital of California is since 1854 Sacramento. The most important cities are Los Angeles, the second largest city of the USA and with the surrounding population centre one the largest Metropolregionen of the earth, and San Francisco, the center of the densely populated area San Francisco Bay AREA around the bay ofSan Francisco, San Francisco Bay.
California is with 35.893.799Inhabitants (conditions: 2004) the most densely populated and surface-moderately the third biggest Federal State of the USA. The population structure builds itself up as follows: 46.7% white, 32.4% Hispanics, 10.9% Asians, 6.7% black and Afro American, 1.0% Indian, 0.3% Hawaiian. There are 11.502.870 households. The Pro-Kopf-Einkommen amounts to 29,707 US Dollar (conditions: 2002).
in California gives it 26 of national park. With distance is the Yosemite national park usually-visited; as further well-known of national park are among other things the Death Valley national park, the Joshua Tree national park, the letting volume CAN IC leaving, the Redwood national park, the Sequoia and Kings Canyon national park to call as well as the Channel Iceland national park.
Twopowerful mountain courses pull California through von Nordosten after southwest: the coastal mountains in the west and the Sierra Nevada in the east. Thus the country is divided into six physically different parts:
- Between the two mountain courses the Sacramento and San Joaquinbecken, that lieafter its two main rivers is designated and between 35° and 40°40' northern latitude lies; the area is about 77,000 km ² largely
- the coastal line enclosure about 109,000 km ²; the rivers rising in the coastal chains are briefly and usually also only to Rain time available: most importantly are too gradual the Salinas flowing with Monterey , the Gayama (or also Santa Maria) and
- the Santa Ana that about 100,000 km ² large area of the Sierra Nevada in the east of the State of, that to the west andeastward too steeply that
- drops about 20,000 km ² comprehensive Flussbecken of the Klamath, north 41. Degree of latitude convenient, rau and of deep Canyon pulled through is
- the area of the large, between the Columbia, the Colorado and the SierraNevada of lying basin on the eastern side, whose California part is large about 50,000 km ²; it represents a dried up, wild-fissured Hochebene, in which in the County Inyo the death valley (Death valley) lies.
- At the southwest border the Coloradowüste, those about39,000 km ² enclosure and the remainder of an original sea bay is, which is now up to 100 m under the sea level.
The Tularesee lies in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basin, which it locks at the same time in the south. At the rain time it is about 150km long, however so flat that one through-wades it everywhere can.
The highest mountain of the USAoutside of Alaska, the Mt. Whitney (4,418 m), lies in California. At the foot of the mountain is the place Lone Pine, in which a well-known film festival takes place annually. Into approximately 170 kilometers distance is the desert area Death Valley (valley of theDeath), which got its name in the time of the first settlers at the west coast, who had to experience pretty often the agonies of heat and thirst, if they crossed „the valley of death “. There are numerous nature parks and beaches more differentlyCondition. Among the most well-known parks the Yosemite national park ranks.
Near the Yosemite park is the winter sports area Mammoth Mountain. It developed from enormous Vulkankratern, whereby itself countless hot and also cold sources and Geysire let regard. Not far removes fromMt. Whitney gives it some salzhaltige seas, among other things to the mono Lake.
the climate in California can be divided in three zones:
- At the coast the temperatures are by the influencethe quite cool Pacific causes lower than inside the country. In the north there are often rainy winters. In addition fog in the summer, which provides accordingly for cooler temperatures often, comes.
- In mountains like the Sierra Nevada becomes it in the summeroften quite hot, due to the altitude the temperatures drop after sunset however fast. In the winter must be gerechnt with very large snow quantities.
- In the desert it is the whole year during the day usually sunny and warmly, at night cools it howeververy strongly off.
From the mild climate profits under other Los Angeles.
after the landings of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in the year 1542 and Sir Francis Drake in the year 1579 lost European colonial powers the area of thetoday's US Federal State California again as far as possible from the eyes. Afterwards California was as upper California (Alta California) the northern part of the Spanish colony California (as part of new Spain one administered), however only many later than the south part was settled. Only offunder the line of the Paters Junipero Serra first of the 21 Spanish mission stations was built for the year 1769 by Franziskanermönchen, beside this established one also militarily fastened points (Presidios). Already Jesuiten were with the Missionierung busy, them before became however1767 drove out.
1812 was established to Ross a Russian base in the today's Sonoma County in northern California also away as continuation and rounding of the Russian possessions in Alaska. After the separationthe two parts of California of Spain in the year 1823 the country was integrated as province of in the meantime independent Republic of Mexico. The Mexican government returned again to the mission system, until the democratic party the mission nature to 17. March 1833 by decreecompletely dissolved and tries. Settling was promoted at the same time by a substantial immigration. The first immigrants were sold however after the accession Santa Anna, who the mission stations to receive wanted, again. These events put the foundation-stone for the animosity for many decadesbetween California and the Mexican government. 1836 broke loose a rebellion under früherern the customs inspector Alvaredo , which had to be finally confirmed of the ohnmächtigen government of Mexico as a governor of California. In the meantime Johann August Sutter had after its arrival in the year1839 dynamics brought into the development of the country. At this time the country counted about 30,000 Indians and 5,000 Europeans as an inhabitant.
1842 set Santa off Anna governor Alvaredo, who was hated as a the poet with the population, and made general Michel Torena to the new governor, who was just as unpopular however soon as its predecessor. In the spring 1846 the inhabitants of upper California revolted and selected Don José Castro, a born Kalifornier, to the commander of general. Sutter received the grant to build an address,which it gave the name „new Helvetien “. From it a flourishing colony with 20.000 pieces cattle, three horse mills, two Wassermühlen, a sawing mill, a tannery and over 50 houses became fast. Sutter prevailed like a small „emperor “over its„Imperium “, which was developed on agriculture, cattle breeding, wood trade and hunt. 1841 it acquired away Ross of Russia. It lost its possessions few years later in the course of gold fever.
1845 annektierten the USA Texas, which to a very strained relationshipwith Mexico led. During the Mexican-American war a Spanish-upper-California junta on Veranlassung of the US-American consul Larkin in Monterrey 1846 proclaimed the independence from Mexico. But still during the question of the connection to the USA or a European state were discussed,US-American settlers proclaimed a Gegenrepublik, which subjected the whole country with the help of 1846 penetrated US troops after the arrival of John Fremont.
In the year 1848, Niederkalifornien was the Mexicans straight by the contract of Guadalupe Hidalgo (2. February 1848) taken, became a gold find admits - California gold fever. Sutter tried to keep this secret but the message spread rapidly. Goldsucher and luck knights came in large number to California, which contributed to the fact that the public order broke down to a large extent.Hundredthousands through-rooted the earth, the valley of the Sacramento „the golden “west had become. Finally the government recognized the illegitimate conditions on, since so the USA had become an important gold export country. The Indians were sold and exterminated nearly completely.
To9. September 1850 was finally taken up California as state non-slave-holding to the USA. During the civil war California held itself to the union, however practically no role played because of the large distance to the theater of war. 1854 were appointed Sacramento the capital by California.
|of Los Angeles||Los Angeles||3.694.820||3.845.541|
|San Diego||San Diego||1.223.400||1.263.756|
|San Jose||Santa Clara||894,943||904,522|
|San Francisco||San Francisco||776,733||744,230|
|Long Beach||Los Angeles||461.522||476,564|
|stick clay/tone||San Joaquin||243,771||279,888|
|San Bernardino||San Bernardino||185,401||198,406|
|Chula Vista||San Diego||173,556||204,879|
|Santa Clarita||Los Angeles||151,088||164,800|
|Rancho Cucamonga||San Bernardino||127,743||159,346|
|El Monte||Los Angeles||115,965||122,123|
|west Covina||Los Angeles||105,080||108,668|
|Daly town center||San Mateo||103,621||100,620|
|Santa Clara||Santa Clara||102,361||104,001|
|smelling moon||versus Costa||99,216||102,318|
|South gate||Los Angeles||96,375||99,627|
|El Cajon||San Diego||94,869||93,987|
|San Mateo||San Mateo||92,482||91,275|
|Santa Barbara||Santa Barbara||92,325||87,370|
¹ formation of the city at the 1. July2000
the German Free State of Bavaria are partner country of California.
with 14% of the annually gained gross inland product (largely domestic product) of the USA places Californiaone of the most important economic situations of the country. As of the USA detached member state would be California world-wide the sixth-largest economic power (2003) still before Canada. In particular the south weather-favoured for the industrielle agriculture and the there catchment area cheap Mexican agricultural worker helpCalifornia to this prosperity.
However the water supply requires large efforts. Enormous artificial lakes at the rivers in the neighbour state Arizona, canal constructions (with lengths as between Hamburg and Munich) east of north after south and the aquaducts of that that Sierra Nevada convenient lakes and meltwater supplying mountain snow glaciers comes here great importance. Since likewise for neighbour states (Arizona , Nevada) from them which are entitled the natural resources want to draw, the agriculture turns out increasingly under pressure. Nature protection editions continue to increase this.
- north California, south California
- universities in California
- list of the cities in California
- list of the Countys in California
- list of the governors of California
Web on the left of
- official side of California
- California Tourism - California tourism office
- California Dreaming -A PowerPoint project to country, culture and people a contribution with teacher-on-line (author: Briefly Ludwig's)
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