|of these articles is occupied with the city Kaliningrad in Russia. A further, formerly Russian city of the same name with Moscow carries the name Koroljow since 1995|
|Coat of arms||map|
|federation circle:||Northwest Russia|
|federation subject:||Oblast Kaliningrad|
|kind of municipality:||City|
|geographical location:|| |
Coordinates: 54° 44 ' N; 20° 29 ' O 54° 44 ' N; 20° 29 ' O
|height:||4.8 meters and. NN|
|surface:||215.7 km ²|
|inhabitants:||434.954 (1. January 2005)|
|Population density:||2,016 inhabitants everkm ²|
|postal zip code:||236010|
|telephone preselection:||+7 (01 12)|
|city arrangement:||5 urban districts|
of the city administration:
|pl. Pobedy 1, Kaliningrad|
|mayor:||Juri Sawenko (2005)|
|list of the cities in Russia|
Kaliningrad (Russian Калининград, litauisch Kaliningradas), until 1946 officially king mountain (Russian Кёнигсберг, Polish Królewiec, litauisch Karaliaučius), is the capital of the Oblast Kaliningrad, a Russian Exklave between Poland and Lithuania with entrance to the Baltic Sea.The city is traffic junction as well as economics and cultural center with universities, universities, research institutes, theatres and museums.
The today's city Kaliningrad has 434,954 predominantly Russian inhabitants (conditions 1. January 2005) and is after 1945 on the soil in the Second World War nearlycompletely destroyed German city king mountain developed. This was capital of East Prussia and the governmental district of the same name as well as until 1918 also coronation/culmination and third Residenzstadt of the Prussian monarchy.
Table of contents
the name of the city
the today's name of the city (literaltranslated:Kalininstadt), designated after Mikhail Iwanowitsch Kalinin, one the responsible persons for the massacre of Katyn, is not only in Germany a much discussed topic: Frequently to the tradition one refers, common German names also for cities toouse, which are already for a long time no longer German or never were, about Moscow or Peking. On the other hand one argues, these cities were also not renamed however in recent history in the local language. On the other hand is despite renamingin German publications the use of the name king mountain far spreads.
Kenigsberg or Kenig is briefly one today colloquially, sometimes used russifizierte form of the old name “king mountain” for the city Kaliningrad. In the discussion around the possible“Kenigsberg” an important role plays future name of the city Kaliningrad, since he is accepted also by parts of the Russian population. In particular in the advertisement and as designation of routistic and gastronomischen mechanisms he is quite common. “Kaliningrad” appears due to of thePurchase to the crime of Katyn extremely disputed. For political-historical-ideological reasons many want in addition, not to the original Prussian-German “king mountain” back.
Movements in Kaliningrad, itself for the re-use of the historical name “king mountain” or a renaming in “Kant degrees” (after thathere 1724 born philosopher Immanuel Kant) use, however only by a small part of the Russian urban population are carried at present. Opponents of a back designation after king mountain subordinate revisionistic and revanchistische background, renaming are predominantly the property rights of refugees to affirm. Tomost probable is to time that - at least for the more near future - which will be name “Kaliningrad” the far official name during some, particularly with the tourism in connection standing, companies “Kenig” as” pointed name “for the city it uses.
The name confusion achieved a current high point due to the 750-Jahr-Feier of the city in the year 2005. On the part of the government in Moscow was forbidden to the meeting committee to use for this the name king mountain. The ceremonies became on the day of the conquest of king mountain throughthe Red Army put. The title “750 years Kaliningrad Königsberg” was rejected of Moscow short hand. A compromise offered itself with “60 years to storm on king mountain, 750 years our city”. At the end of of 2004 was finally decided that officially of the “Kaliningrader city anniversary” thoseSpeech to be is. The main ceremonies found at the 1. July 2005 instead of.
Kaliningrad is the westernmost large city of Russia and lies 4.8 meters over the sea level. Itof the Oblast Kaliningrad at the river Pregel (Pregolja ) are in the west, which flows by Kaliningrad and west into freshness flows to the city the Haff (Kaliningradski Zaliw). This again becomes by the narrow peninsula the carbon elimination Nehrung ofthe Baltic Sea defined. To 15. November 1901 opened Königsberger ship canal (today: “Kaliningrader ship canal”) connects the city with that 50 kilometers removed Pillau (Baltijsk) and with the open sea.
The landscape is coined/shaped by far levels, offand by Moränenhügeln to be interrupted on.
In the north and the west the city borders on the peninsula SAM country (Semljandskij Poluostrow), in the east and the south on the Pregelniederung.
the city is divided into five urban districts:
- Baltijski(Baltic quarter)
- of Moskowski (Muscovite quarter)
- Leningrad ski (Lenin grader quarter)
- Oktjabrski (October quarter)
- Zentralny (center - northwest the historical center)
Kaliningrad is at the transition from oceanic to continental climate (partially very cold winters).Altogether the weather is however rather inconsistant. Also the air temperature is affected by the proximity to the sea. In addition, nature offers surprises here: Ground frost in the month May or Regen to Silvester and New Year - those are characteristics, forthe city are typical.
The annual average temperature amounts to 7.2 degrees Celsius, the annual amount of precipitation of 802 millimeters on the average. The warmest months are July and August with on the average 16.7 to 17 degrees Celsius, the coldest months are January and February with -2,5up to -3.2 degrees Celsius on the average. Most precipitation falls in August, September and November with on the average 89 to 91 millimeters, few from February to April with 37 to 43 millimeters on the average.
see major item king mountain (Prussia)
the area of the today's city Kaliningrad already is since 3000 v. Chr. settled. 1242 created Lübecker of buyers a first trading base. 1255 established the German medal on Veranlassung of the böhmischen king Ottokar II. in place of the conquered and destroyed prussischen castle Tvankste first a wooden castle named Conigsberg, which was replaced 1257 by a building of stones. The castle served for the protection against the heidnischen Pruzzen. In the surrounding field of the castle three cities developed named Old part of town, praise not and Kneiphof, which received their own administration, its attachment, a market and a church in each case. Generally the year 1255 (750-Jahrfeier 2005) is regarded as a developing year of the entire town.
The old part of town became 1256 in the area of the later rock fill damput on and after the destruction by the Prussen 1263 in the valley underneath the lock mountain again developed. It received to 28. February 1286 the municipal law - praise not 1300 and Kneiphof 1327. In the year 1339 all three cities member becomethe Hanse. The Kneiphofinsel was since 1322 of religious district, for which between 1330 and 1380 the cathedral was established. After the loss of the Marienburg 1457 the castle seat of the high master of the German medal became.
Between 1466 and 1657 stoodthe city as part of the medal state, starting from 1525 of the duchy Prussia, under leaning sovereignty of the Polish Litaui union. 1506 ordered the highest marshal and high master Friedrich of Saxonia that the names of the three cities old part of town king mountain, Kneiphof Königsberg and praise non--king mountain should read,but with the common occurrence only king mountain. Since 1525 the old part of town was residence of the kings of Prussia. 1544 were created the first Evangelist university in king mountain (“Albertina” ) by duke Albrecht.
To 18. January 1701 crowned itself cure prince Friedrich III.in thatKönigsberger castle church as Friedrich I. to the king in Prussia. The three cities, old part of town and Kneiphof did not become to 28. August 1724 to the city king mountain combines. The city was capital of the province East Prussia and became particularly in the empire multiple asunofficial second capital (to Berlin) of the total state seen. After the conquest of king mountain to 22. January 1758 in the seven-year-old war by Russian troops, resided to its field marshal Wilhelm Fermor for four years in the city lock. In the years 1764, 1769 and 1775devastated fires the city. During the Napoleoni wars 16 occupied to. June of 1807 French armed forces under general Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult king mountain. Some days after the peace treaty of Tilsit, to 25. , The Frenchmen the city left July 1807.
1860if the building of the Prussian east course became, the king mountain at Berlin attached and the city an important junction in intra-European traffic made, completed. In again-created German realm experienced king mountain an economic upswing. After that 1. World war those became thatGrowth of the city obstructing fortifications geschleift. By the Versailler peace treaty had been separated East Prussia from the remaining realm area, which led to large, in particular economic problems, however by a purposeful economic policy (see German east fair) and other measures (see shipping service East Prussia) to be moderated could.
In 2. World war suffered king mountain 1944 by British air raids strong destruction and burned several days long. The historical town centre, consisting of the quarters old part of town, praise not and Kneiphof was practically completely destroyed, among them the cathedral, the lock,all churches of the city center, the old and the new university as well as the old memory quarter. Few weeks before end of the war the city avowed as the “fortress” was taken by Soviet troops. The military guidance of the city under general Otto lax one resultedto 9. April 1945.
of in April 1945 about 150,000 Königsbergern stayed many died by food scarceness, illnesses and encroachments of soldiers. In December 1945 still about 20,000 Königsberger lived inthe city.
In response the usually promoted settlement of Soviet citizens took place in to 4. July 1946 officially in Kaliningrad (after that briefly before the deceased stalinistischen politician Mikhail Iwanowitsch Kalinin, which by the way never was in the city) renamed city.Only at the 11. October 1947, thus two and a half years after the conquest of the city, arranged Stalin the Deportation of the remaining German population from the Kaliningrader area. This was removed in the course of the following yearly with courses into the Soviet zone of occupation.After the fate through-lived before most felt their classification as a release.
The Oblast Kaliningrad belonged to the former east areas of the German Reich occupied by Soviet troops, which applied up to the official acknowledgment 1990 after (west) German view international-law as under Soviet administration standing. Only with the signing of the two-plus four-contract to 12. September 1990 did the Federal Republic of Germany as a condition for the entry of the GDR (reunification) without all territorial claims east to the or Neisse line and recognized thereby Kaliningrad as to the Soviet Union belonging on.
1991 are led the Exklave to the special economic zone “amber country” and since that time by the following governors:
- 25. September 1991 -Yuriy Matotschkin
- 5. November 1996 - Leonid Gorbenko
- 7. December 2000 - Vladimir Jegorow
- 28. September 2005 - Georgij Boos
many Russians from the Baltic states or from other former Soviet republics, where it now contrary to in former times a minoritybecame, since 1992 in Kaliningrad settled. Also many Russian-Germans, who had been kidnapped in the Stalin time into the asiatic parts of the Soviet Union, settled themselves with their (often) Russian and/or. not-German relatives in the Oblast Kaliningrad on,mostly however in order to emigrate from here further to Germany.
Since the European Union extension at the 1. May 2004 was still intensified the isolation of the region. In the course 750. City anniversary at the 1. July 2005 became in the last years andsome construction measures are still accomplished in the city: Thus the cathedral was continued to restore, just like the south (main) station. Within the range of the today's city centre at the victory place shopping centres were opened, it are to follow still further. The place became as representativeCity centre with jumping wells transforms. Here in the context of the ceremonies the Christian proceeds he cathedral was opened, whose inside is however still incomplete.
Furthermore one plans the building “fishing village” of a shopping centre mentioned in the historisierenden style on a vacant area at the Pregel nearby the cathedralin architectural support both to old Hanseatic cities and at Moscow and sank Petersburg under inclusion of a pedestrian balance bridge (anniversary bridge , within the range of the former emperor bridge), already built, over a Pregelarm - likewise in the historisierenden style. The fundsfor these building projects come partially from companies, partially from the twin city Moscow, beside it also public funds are used.
Kaliningrad has to fight with numerous social problems. The rate at infections regarding the immunodeficiency illness AIDS as well as on Tuberkulose is country-wide one the highest and the life expectancy is compared with other regions in Russia one the lowest ones. For this it must be stated however relating that the statistics is over AIDS patient in Kaliningrad one of the few complete in Russia.The environmental pollution of the Baltic Sea by unsettled waste water endangers not only the Kaliningrader population, but also neighbour states Poland and Lithuania. Concerns prepare the many road children, prostitutes and drug-addicted since beginning of the 1990er years also.
simultaneous with the political and economic development rose the total population earlier king mountain continuously. Around 1400 approximately 10,000 inhabitants in the city lived. With two large plague epidemic diseases 1601/1602 and 1709 to 1711 diedin each case a quarter of the inhabitants. 1813 had the city of 50,000 inhabitants. In the year 1864 king mountain became by exceeding of the 100,000 inhabitant border the large city.
By numerous incorporations the total population rose until 1910 to 246.000 inhabitants. After that 1. World war slowed down280,000 inhabitants in the city lived themselves growth, 1925. Until 1933 the number of inhabitants rose by numerous incorporations to 316.000. Briefly before outbreak 2. World war lived 360,000 humans in king mountain. In June 1945 the number of inhabitants of the city went throughthe effects of the war - escape and driving of the German population out - up to 73.000 back.
By purposeful settlement politics of the Soviet government the Russian population of the new city Kaliningrad rose until 1959 to 204.000 and doubled themselves to1989. In the year 2005 Kaliningrad had 435,000 inhabitants.
With the following numbers of inhabitants it concerns until 1819 usually around estimations, from 1871 to 2002 around census results and 2005 a computation.
in the year 2002 were red-elect Juri Sawenko as a mayor von Kaliningrad. He had taken over 1998 the office of its predecessor Witali Schipow. The city administration exercises executive power (implementing force) in Kaliningrad, those from the governmentthe city and the governing mayor exists. The mayor is selected together with the vice-mayor by the population Kaliningrads on four years. The legislation (legislative force) is placed of the Stadtduma Kaliningrads. This consists of the delegates and supervises inher function the mayor.
In the Stadtduma are the same political forces as in the Russian federation parliament (Duma): Strongest Kraft is the president-faithful camp, whereupon follow the communists, who are very strong in the city. Most important political topics are thosehigh unemployment as well as the social and public health policy. In addition come the economic problems, which are connected with the Exklavensituation. Further large difficulties arise as a result of the high degree at organized criminality and corruption in the administration. One also politically after howbefore strong voice the military possesses.
museums museum for
the Immanuel Kant museum and the cathedral museum possesses culture and objects of interest [work on]. Is worth mentioning the museum forHistory and art with a collection worth seeing, among other things with parts of the Prussia collection, and the amber museum with a large collection at Juweliererzeugnissen from amber, furnished in an old fortress. Interesting also the art gallery is Kaliningrads with their eightExhibition halls.
The museum of the world ocean was furnished in the earlier research ship „Witjas “at the Pregelufer. The exhibition inside the museum shows the newest technologies of the exploration of the sea as well as fauna and Flora of the Weltmeere. On the submarine stowed next door is an exhibition overthe Russian submarine fleet accommodated.
the Kaliningrader Philharmonic Concert Hall is accommodated in the earlier catholic church „to the holy family “. She was built 1907, in 2. World war destroys and after end of the war again developed. The there organ-resounds also1980 opened to good acoustics.
The drama theatre and earlier Königsberger Schauspielhaus were finished placed 1910. After nearly complete destruction in 2. World war took place 1960 a reconstruction after older plans. The column porch became after the model of the Bolschoi theatre in Moscowestablished.
As performance place of the supraregional well-known Kaliningrader of doll theatre “the Luisenkirche serves Kukol ” since 1975. The Neoromani church was built in the year 1901 after plans of the architect Fritz heating man.
in former times the closely cultivated city centreof Vorkriegszeiten today in former times the lock consists broad roads, stand and only two buildings of parks, the place, at that: Apart from the location of the former Königsberger of lock today the building ruin of the advice house ( cathedral Sowjetow) stands, into thoseinto the 1960er years the city administration to draw in should, which remained unbenutzbar for static reasons however.
On the Kant island (in former times Kneiphof) cathedral stands, for that as only building received from the old city center land development remained as the second building of the Königsbergeris. It is used at present as cultural center. On the inside two small chapels are and behind the cathedral the grave Immanuel Kant. The present city centre is in the northwest of the old city center at the Pobedy Ploschtschad (in former times Hansaplatz), onthe theatre, north station, city administration, many business and the Russian-orthodox Christian proceeds he cathedral are.
Worth seeing also the old person stock exchange ( today firm) is, the Villenvororte, the Nikolski Sobor (Nikolauskirche, formerly Juditter parish church) and different further churches, itself in a university buildingfinding Wallenrodt library as well as parts of a city attachment from that 19. Century with several town-gates: Rossgärter gate (Gorodskije Worota Rosgertnerskije), Wrangelturm (Baschnja Wrangelja), Dohnaturm with amber museum (Baschnja Dona), king gate (Korolewskije Worota), SackheimerGate (Gorodskije Worota Sakchaimskije), Friedländer gate (Gorodskije Worota Fridlandskije), breaking citizens gate (Gorodskije Worota Brandenburskije) and Friedrichsburger gate (Gorodskije Worota Fridrichsburskije).
to the standing and monuments worth mentioning those belongscreated and 1864 by Christian Daniel smoke revealed statue Immanuel Kant. The 1945 lost come fixed image at Veranlassung and expense of Marion countess DO-hope after-poured and again set up 1992 at the university. Worth seeing is also the cosmonaut monument. Withthe monument honours Kaliningrad the cosmonauts and honour citizens of the city - Alexei Leonow, Juri Romanenko and Alexander Wiktorenko. Further monuments are the Kutusowdenkmal, the Schillerdenkmal, the monument for Zar Peter I., „Mütterchen Russia “- monument and the monumentthe 1,200 Gardisten.
the zoo 1911 the Königsberger zoo (late Kaliningrader zoo) and are thus one of the oldest zoos in Russia. In the today's zoo, which is at the same time a Dendropark, more than 2.200 livesAnimals. On the territory stand many animal sculptures, some buildings and plants as well as a Leuchtfontäne from the German history of the city also today remained still. Bear and lion outdoor installations, Adlervoliere and sea-animal house with external basins are some few received Vorkriegsbauten.
Alsothe Leuchtfontäne, which did not function many decades, was restored and again taken in enterprise for the hundred-year anniversary of the zoo in the year 1996. With high up to 18 a water jet meters it is one of the largest jumping wells Kaliningrads. Remainedalso 1911 the built society house in modern baroque style. The building with two floors, palm hall and terraces, projected by Otto walter Kuckuck, was converted after the Second World War and serves as elephant house.
Nearby the main avenue a bronze figure stands to honoursthe first zoo leader Herman Claass. The sculpture was provided from walter rose mountain and shows a boy, who feeds a Panter and two of its boys. This sculpture became to 14. June 1913 reveals and applied after that for 2. World war long timeas verschollen. Only 1990 were found, restored it and set up on its base. In the zoo there are also different stone and bronze animal sculptures.
to the culinary specialities of the city Kaliningrad belong the Wodka the mark Stary Kenigsberg and the beer of the mark ostmark. Since beginning of the 1990er years numerous restaurants in the city were opened. There the guest beside the old eastPrussian speciality Königsberger Klopse become, also Italian Pizza orJapanese Sushi serves. In addition, in the offer are many fish and different salads. Another earlier speciality, Königsberger mark (net stomach of the cattle), does not belong any longer to the Esskultur of the city.
By the population one of the most well-known Russian courts is gladly eaten,Borschtsch, a soup from red patches, which is served hot with sour cream and as Akroschka (cold Kwas soup) tastes similar. Further tasty courts of the Russian kitchen are Bœuf Stroganoff (geschnetzeltes Rinderfilet, in sour Sauce scorched), Ikra or Krasnaja Ikra (blackeror red caviar), Blini (pancake usually served with caviar or salmon and sour Sauce) and Aladyi (sweet Blini with jam filling). To the dessert is Blintschiki (pancake) from semolina or book wheat with sweet sauce particularly likes.
economics and infrastructure
the city is an important economic and industrial centre, which are connected by a channel with the ice-free outer port Baltijsk at the Baltic Sea. To the most important economic sectors belong among other things the chemical industry,mechanical engineering, the furniture industry and the production of music instruments. Kaliningrad is as all year round ice-free sea port an important Russian location for the shipyard industry.
The mechanism of a special economic zone „Jantar “in Kaliningrad in the year 1991 shows only zögerliche successes, what thatdominant bureaucracy, to which high criminality and the corruption frequently which can be found one charges. In the city there is a large Fischereiflotte (the largest of Russia) as well as autoassembly for BMW and KIA.
The economy suffers very from that increasingly strong bulkheading of theArea from its neighbours and the many to state borders to the Russian heartland, which can be overcome. This led to a fall of the export and brought high unemployment with itself. Large hopes are set into the find by oil in the Baltic Sea. Large one Parts of the rural population in the environment of the city work in usually the genossenschaftlich organized agriculture and - at the coast - the fishery. Very much agriculture is operated here also for self-sufficiency.
With Chrabrowo an airport with connections is mainly in the Russian heartland and to Poland. From Baltijsk with Kaliningrad out a regular exists after driving connection sank Petersburg, in addition to Copenhagen, Riga and Kiel. The most important road connectionto the Russian heartland runs parallel to the railway over Tschernjachowsk and Tschernyschewskoje, Lithuania and white Russia.
Kaliningrads remote station is the south station (in the timetable use Kaliningrad Pasaschirski; in former times king mountain main station). Railways operate after Gdynia in Poland with course cars to Berlin, after Baltijsk, over Tschernjachowsk and Lithuania to Moscow, sank Petersburg, Minsk - Homel, Charkow and Anapa as well as after Bagrationowsk. The distance direction Berlin has European track width.
To 26. May 1881 opened the “Königsberger horse railway company” the first horse route course and to 31. May 1895 the first “urban electrical streetcar”. Traffic became inJanuary 1945 adjusted and to 7. November 1946 again taken up. Oberleitungsbusse drove of 15. October 1943 to 27. January 1945 in the city. After dreissigjähriger interruption the trolley bus enterprise became to 5. November 1975 again taken up. A large part of the public one Local passenger traffic (ÖPNV) one masters also by the same-trieven buses.
Kaliningrad accommodates several universities, high and technical schools, academies, research institutes and libraries.
An important educational facility of the city is the Immanuel Kant university Kaliningrad (to July2005:National University of Kaliningrad). It is the today's follow-on equipment of the Albertina, the old university of king mountain (Prussia), which was created 1544 by duke Albrecht. One of the most well-known professors to the Albertina was the philosopher Immanuel Kant.
In the context of the Alexander heart program for GermanRussian co-operation the German academic exchange service (DAAD) put for foreign policy and international relations of the university means to the chair at the disposal, in order to accomplish at the national Immanuel Kant university Kaliningrad training meetings to European and international studies. ThatProject of the politics policies can tie to traditional connections between Jena and the earlier king mountain.
Kant and the philosophers spruce, Hegel and Schelling teaching in Jena rank among the most important philosophers of the German idealism. This very day monuments remind on in Kaliningradthe spirit sizes. And the writings of Kant - about to the eternal peace (1795 ) - essential, topical lehr and teaching subjects at both partner universities are natural. With the help of the co-operation project is the Immanuel Kant university also in the future the Europeanand international knowledge company move close.
The later Austrian Nobelpreisträger Konrad Lorenz likewise king mountain taught at the university.
Further important education mechanisms in Kaliningrad are the Baltic national academy for Fischereiflotte, Baltic Institut for economics and finances, Baltic military Marineinstitut, thoseBranch of the international Slawi G. - R. - Derschawin university, the branch of the mainurban spirit-scientific institute, the branch Muscovites of the spirit-scientific J.P.Daschkowa institute, the branch Peter citizens of the institute for economic external relations, economics and right, Institut “Kaliningrader higher one school for administration”, the university of the ministry of the Interior of Russiain Kaliningrad, the school for international Business Kaliningrad and the national technical University of Kaliningrad.
- Alexei Archipowitsch Leonow, cosmonaut
- Juri Wiktorowitsch Romanenko, cosmonaut
- Alexander Stepanowitsch Wiktorenko, cosmonaut
Sons and daughters of the city
- Ljudmila Putina, wife of Russian president Vladimir Putin
- of peoples Frobarth: The Königsberger area in the policy of the Soviet Union 1945- 1990: with an analytic view of the Kaliningrader of area in the policy of Russia 1991 - 2000. Pointedly, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8305-0226-5
- Michael Wieck: Certification of the fall of king mountain. A 'validity Jew 'reports, university publishing house winter, Heidelberg 2001, ISBN 3-8253-7123-9
- Jürgen Manthey, king mountain: History of a citizen of the world republic, C. Hanser, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-446-20619-1
- German city Atlas; Volume: II; 7 volume. Acta Collegii Historiae Urbanae Societatis Historicorum Internationalis - series of C. On behalf the Kuratoriums for comparative city history e. V. andwith support of the German research council, hrsg. by Heinz Stoob †, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Jürgen Lafrenz and Peter Johannek. City briefcase king mountain, author: Roll ago Hubatsch.ISBN 3-89115-318-x; Dortmund Altenbeken, 1979.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Kaliningrad - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Kaliningrad- Word origin, synonyms and translations|
- http://www.kaliningrad.info/index.php3?lang=ger (travel guide, German)
- the film king mountain is DEAD, France/Germany 2004 of max & Gilbert
- Interactive map with photo OF king mountain and modern Kaliningrad
- Slideshow with more pictures OF king mountain and decay Kaliningrad
- http://www.herder-institut.de(Technical library with the topic Eastern Europe, thus also East Prussia)
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