Kambodscha

Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea
Kingdom of Kambodscha
Flagge Kambodschas
Wappen Kambodschas
detail detail
office language Khmer
capital Phnom Penh
system of government constitutional monarchy
head of state king Norodom Sihamoni
prime minister Hun Sen
surface 181,040 km ²
number of inhabitants 13.607.000 (2004)
population density of 80 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 306 US-$ (2004)
independence from France to 9. November 1953
currency Riel (KHR), since March 1980
time belt UTC +7h
national anthem Nokoreach
national holiday 9. November
Kfz characteristic K
internet TLD .kh
preselection + 855
Karte Asien, Kambodscha hervorgehoben
Karte von Kambodscha

Kambodscha (more khmer: Kâmpŭchea) is in Southeast Asia because of the gulf of Thailand.It borders on Thailand, Laos and Viet Nam.

Table of contents

work on []

Geography

situation

of Kambodscha lies on the Indochinesi peninsula between of Laos, which pushes to the northeast border of the country, Thailand, which border northwest and west, and Viet Nam, whose south part follows east. In the southwest pushesKambodscha on 160 km length to the gulf of Thailand.

landscape

Reisfelder nahe dem Tonle-Sap-See
of rice fields near the Tonle Sap lake

of two thirds of the surface of the country consist of the Kambodschani basin, which lies maximally 30 meters over the sea level. Inthe Tonle Sap lake, which is connected with the Mekong by the Tonle Sap river , is appropriate for this level. The Dangrekgebirge, which borders in the north on Thailand, reaches 600 m height. The mountains in the northeast of the country are toto 1,200 m highly. Along the gulf of Thailand run the Kardamon mountains, whose summit up to 1.813 m (Phnom Aural) is high.


climate

Klimadiagramm Phnom Penh
climatic diagram Phnom Penh

the climate is tropical monsoon with a rain time betweenMay and September. The southwest monsoon bring along large amounts of precipitation. The Mekong swells thereby up to the 25-fachen of its normal quantity of water on and floods the surrounding fields and areas. With this flood the Tonle Sap river changes its direction and fills the Tonle Sap lakeup, which can grow on the triple of its size. In the drying time of November until April the wind from north-east blows. At this time it does not rain mostly at all. The temperatures are very stable over the year and liebetween 30 to 34 degrees Celsius. However the air humidity varies strongly. In the rain time it lies with over 90%. In the drying time it can sink under 50%.

cities

the largest cities are (conditions 1.January 2005):Phnom Penh of 1.313.851 inhabitants, Sihanoukville of 209,005 inhabitants, Battambang of 176,089 inhabitants, Siem Reap of 147,866 inhabitants, Sisophon of 132,264 inhabitants and Kratie of 100,345 inhabitants.

population

population trend x1000

ethnical main group are the Khmer. The largest minorities educate with about in each case 500,000 humans the Chinese usually living in the cities, to their presence in Kambodscha since that 13. Century is occupied, and the Vietnamesen in the southeast of the country. A further subpopulationthose are approximately 200,000 schafiitischen Sunniten as Islamic minority, the Cham and the Malaien. In the mountain regions of the northeast provinces Ratanakiri and Mondulkiri , usually in summary Khmer Loeu („Hochland Khmer “ ) live a number of smaller ethnical groups mentioned. Altogether belong to them about100,000 humans on.

The majority of the Kambodschaner, approximately 95%, are trailers since late 13. Century, Theravâda finding coming from Sri Lanka in far parts of Southeast Asia spreading - Buddhismus.

Main settlement areas are the fruitful washing land surfaces to thatBanks of the Mekong, the Tonle Sap of lake and the inland waters system between the confluence of Mekong and Tonle Sap river and that, today in Viet Nam lain, Mekong - Deltas.

Also over 2% annually (conditions 2003) the population growth is today onethe highest in the region.

history

major item: History Kambodschas

very much moved history Kambodschas covers one period of approximately 1,200 years. It is enough over the cultural and political bloom time of the Khmer realm (9. to 15. Century) with Angkor as center over colonial rule of the Frenchmen (1863 - 1945) and the terrible regime of of the red ones Khmer (1975 - 1979) up to the current, still very recent democracy.

politics

Pavilion of the king palace in Phnom Penh

Kambodscha is, in accordance with the condition of 24. September 1993, a democratic constitutional monarchy.

Head of state is (since 14. October 2004) King Norodom Sihamoni. Successors to the throne must from one of the threeroyalistischen aristocracy sexes come and at least 30 years old its. They become consisting by the royal throne advice, of the presidents of the national assembly and the senate and their deputies, which prime minister determines and the highest monks of the two largest monk medals. Head of the governmentthat is, after suggestion of the national assembly of the king appointed, a prime minister (since 1986: Hun Sen).
The legislation takes place in a parliamentary system of two Houses. The national assembly (122 delegates) is selected every 5 years by the people. The legislative senate consists of61 members, from whom two the king and two determine the further national assembly. All further are actually to be selected every six years by the people, which did not happen so far however yet. Parties: CPP (“Kambodschani people's party”), FUNCINPEC (“national unit front for an independent,neutral, peaceful and cooperative Kambodscha "), SRP (“a SAM Rainsy party”, formerly KNP, “a Khmer national party”), KCP (“a Kambodschani citizen party”), BLP (“Buddhisti liberals a party”).
Since the first free elections governs, partly in coalitions, the CPP.
In December 1997, in accordance with the condition, the high advice becamethe judge shank furnished. The iurisdiction takes place via a maximum court and the subordinate courts.
, Defaults affected the juridical system be based primarily up, of the French juridical system from the time as the country under the administration of the “United nation Transitional Authority inCambodia " (UNTAC) stood, for royal decrees and decisions of the maximum court. Besides influences of the customary law are increasing, from the communist right theory and the citizen right.
Der Landesname Kambodscha
The national name Kambodscha

Kambodscha is member of a number of international organizations, in particular that United Nations and the ASEAN.

administrative arrangement

Kambodscha is in 20 provinces (Khet) and four cities (Krung) partitions. The provinces sit down further from districts (Srok) and municipalities (Khum),the cities from urban districts (Khan) and quarters (Sangkat) together.

  • Provinces:
Banteay Meancheay, Battambang, Kompong Cham, Kompong Chhnang, Kompong Speu, Kompong Thom, coming poet, Kandal, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondul Kiri, Oddar Meancheay, PUR-sows, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Ratanakkiri, Siem Reap, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo
  • of cities:
Kep, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville
  • islands:
Kaoh Sess, Kaoh Polaway, Kaoh Rong, Kaoh Thass, Kaoh Treas, Kaoh Traolach, Kaoh seaweed

economics

the country is developed little, which structures economics essentially agrarian therefore. More than 80% of the cultivated areaare rice fields. Further agricultural products: Corn, india rubber, vegetable, sugar palms, tobacco, jute, cotton and coffee.

In Kambodscha the markets are the main place of transshipment for goods of all kinds

beside the cultivation of rice form fishing (Tonle Sap lake,Rivers) a substantial nourishing basis (protein supply!) the population. The tourism developed in the last years to an important source of income Kambodschas. In the year 2004 the number of the Kambodscha visitors crossed for the first time the million-mark. Most important destinations in Kambodscha are thatWorld cultural monument Angkor, the coastal place Sihanoukville and the capital Phnom Penh.

Appraisals of international organizations (World Bank, asiatic development bank) speak of the fact that the economy Kambodschas of about. 50 families one control. Widespread corruption of the political and military elite of theCountry become for “disappearing” from foreign funds in an order of magnitude of annually approx. 300 millions US Dollar responsible made.

culture

Markt in Kambodscha
market in Kambodscha

the national holiday to 9. November reminded of on one side by prince Norodom the Sihanouk proclaimedand of France independence recognized Kambodschas in the year 1953.

culinary

basic food are cooked rice, fish and vegetables. As culinary speciality roasted queues ( the per-capita consumption are considered because of fish and queue meat is with approximately 50 kg perPerson and year). In the flooded rice fields and waters particularly live many innocuous kinds, which are acted on many markets.

literature

  • Karl-Heinz Golcio: History Kambodschas. The country of the Khmer from Angkor to the present. Munich 2003. ISBN 3406494358.
  • Jürgen Horlemann, Erwin Steinhauer: Kampuchea 1979. Release or aggression? Cologne 1979.
  • January Myrdal: Art and imperialism by the example Angkor. Munich 1973. ISBN 3485018279.
  • Patrik Razelenberg: The red Khmer and the 3. Indochina war. Hamburg 1995.
  • Beat Richner: A Swiss physician in Kambodscha. Zurich 1996.
  • Manfred Rohde: Parting from the Killing Fields. Bonn 1999.
  • William Shawcross: Shade war. Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction Kambodschas. 1980.
  • Norodom Sihanouk: Kambodscha. Chronicle of the war and hope. 1980.
  • Michael Sontheimer: Kambodscha. Country of the gentle murderers. Reinbek 1990.
  • Tiziano Terzani, Ariane Barth: Holocaust in Kambodscha. Reinbek 1980.
  • François Ponchaud: Year Zero. Rinehart gets vienna clay/tone 1975.
  • Loung Ung: The far way of hope. Frankfurt/Main 2002.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Kambodscha - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 10°-15° N, 102°-107° O

 

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