Cameroon

of these articles describes the State of Cameroon; for other meanings see Cameroon (term clarifying).
République you Cameroun (frz.)
Republic of OF Cameroon (English)
Republic of Cameroon
Flagge Kameruns
Wappen Kameruns
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Paix, Travail, Patrie/Peace, Work, Fatherland
(French and/or. English for „peace, work and native country “)

office language French, English
capital Yaoundé
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Paul Biya
prime minister Ephraim Inoni
surface 475,442 km ²
number of inhabitants approx. 16.6 million (UN, 2005)
population density of 35.7 inhabitants per km ² (2005)
gros domestic product/inhabitant 740 US-$ (2004)
independence from France at the 1. January 1960
currency CFA franc (XAF)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT US $640 per person (World Bank, 2003)
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Chant de Ralliement [1]
Kfz characteristic CAM
Internet TLD .cm
preselection +237
Karte Afrika, Kamerun hervorgehoben
Karte Kameruns

Cameroon [ˈkaməruːn, kaməˈruːn] (frz.: Cameroun [kamˈʀun]; English.: Cameroon [ˈkæməɹuːn]) lies in Central Africa and borders on Nigeria, Chad, the Central African Republic of, the Republic of the Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

Table of contents

geography

the interior consists predominantly of flat plateaus, northward to the Adamawa Hochland rise anddrop then gradually again to the valley of the Chad lake in the extreme north. The west is certain of volcanic mountains, which near the coast of the active volcano and the highest collection of west Africa, which Cameroon mountain is towered above. The southern plateaus are with rain forestcovered and lower themselves to broad levels in the coastal area.

The climate is tropical with precipitation-rich rain periods and high temperatures, which are moderated in the altitudes. In the north of the country, with the Chad lake, the climate is drying. The tropical climatealtogether a partitioning in three regional climate zones permits. In the north of the country it is alternating-wet with one drying time of October until April and an average amount of precipitation of approx. 700 mm in the year. Here of Cameroon portions of the Chad basin lie alsoSumpfgebieten. The time, in which the small precipitation falls, extends from July to Septembers. The middle temperature is with 32,2° Celsius. Due to the high temperatures and a middle is appropriate for the small precipitation standing to it in contrast in this areaProbability of dry (all two to five years) forwards. In itself to the south the temperature reaches following internal high country (1,000 to 1,500 m over the sea) 22 °C in the year and it on the average falls precipitation from 1.500 to 1,600 mm annually. Herethe change of the savannahs of the north carries out itself to the rain forest of the south. The following Westkameruner mountain country exhibits constant precipitation between 2.000 and 11,000 mm. The area at the southern discharges of the Cameroon mountain has average amounts of precipitation of 11,000 mmand belongs therefore to the heaviest-rainfall areas of the world. In these two regions it comes to one „drying time “between Decembers and February, whereby also this time remains not complete without precipitation. The coastal plain in the south has equatorial climate with precipitationbetween 1.500 and 2,000 mm and an average temperature of 25° Celsius. Here there is close tropical rain forest. The drier months are Decembers and January. In order to mark the nature area Cameroon in summary, it can be said that Cameroon an Africa in the smallrepresents. With the soils occurring in of Cameroon the south and center it concerns around ferrallitische soils, thus soils the equatorial brown loams of the perpetually damp Tropics. In the north, typical red-brown and red soils are appropriate for the range of drying and Dornensavannethe Trockensavanne forwards.

the largest cities

  1. Yaoundé: 2.000.050
  2. Douala: 3.500.120
  3. Garoua: 287,586
  4. Bamenda: 229,109
  5. Maroua: 205.635
  6. Bafoussam: 185,635
  7. Kousséri: 176,241
  8. Ngaoundéré: 143,030
  9. Kumba: 143,014
  10. Doum: 131,319
  11. Nkongsamba: 114,986
  12. Limbe: 96,629
  13. Edéa: to 91.917

see also list of the cities into Cameroon

population

ethnical is divided Cameroon in 286 different people and language's groups.In the south Bantu ( Luanda, Ewondo, Kpe /Bakwiri, Duala [ 2% of the total population], Basaa , Ngoumba , Beti /Mpongwe - catch [15% of the total population], Boulou , Makaa , Njem , Ndzimou among other things ) live, in the center and in the north Semibantu (Bamiléké [19% of the population], Bamoun [1.3% of the population], Chamba (Samba), Tikar, Vute and other one) as well as tschadische (Kanuri (people), Massa, Moundang and. A.) and sudanische Ethnien (Kirdi [11% of the population], Kotoko, Fulbe [10% of the population], Gbaya and. A.); the southern rain forest is habitat of some thousand Pygmäen. The European minority consists usually of Frenchmen. The grass country of the Bamileke, the coastal province is most closely settled around the port Douala andthe area around the capital Yaoundé. In contrast to this the center and the southeast of the country are human being-poor.

Population trend x1000

languages

approximately likewise many languages are spoken, as there are peoples. As office languages French becomes (approx. 80 %the population) and English (approx. 20% of the population) use. The host language in the north is Ful, in the south is the host languages Jaunde and Pangwe, the languages of the Ewondo and catch. About 40% of the total population speak Bantusprachen, over 20% speak the Sudan - and Az-sand-languages, the remainder of the population speaks the languages of the Semibantu.

training system

defiance of the compulsory schooling still amounts to the portion of the illiterates over 25 per cent. There are national universitiesin Yaounde, Douala, Buea, Dschang and in Ngaoundéré. The catholic Central African university in Yaounde and the Bamenda university of the technology and sciences are private universities.

birth and mortality rate

the birth rate per 1000 humans amount to 39.3 (world average 25.0),while the death rate per 1000 humans at 11,9 is (world average 9.3).

religion

in Cameroon are approximately 40 per cent of the population Christian, over 22 per cent of Muslims and the remainder are Animisten. Most Muslims live inthe northern regions of the country. Like that also the cities are in the northern strongly by the Islam coined/shaped, in terms of figures are the Muslims however only in the north in the majority. A predominant part of the Christian population maintains still alsolocal animistische customs and convictions. Those about 30,000 witnesses Jehovas in the country reject a such religion mixture however categorically. The Kameruner Baptisten maintained since relations with the German federation of Evangelist-freechurch municipalities, close over 100 years.

history

to 1884 stood the whole area of Cameroon under the influence of independent chieftains, was the most powerful ones of whom the Duala.

Historical map (around 1888)

the European influence began in the year 1472. Under the command of Fernando DO Poo landed PortugueseSailors at the coast of Cameroon, in the delta of the Wouri - river. Due to the many crabs, which discovered them in the river Wouri, they called Rio de Camarões ( crab river) it, from whom the name Cameroon is derived. With emerging thatAn active trade inserted Portuguese in particular with slaves, ivory and Palmöl around 1520. Principal trade partners were above all the coastal trunks for example the kings of Duala. Not only at the coast but generally speaking range gave today's Cameroonit up to 19. Century always again important realm formations. To emphasize the Maoui realm is, that along the coastal region of 16 in this connection. up to 18. Century existence had.

In the following years after the appearance of the Portuguese first became sugar piping plan daysput on. In addition the slave trade gained ever more significance. The slave trade ended only to 10. June 1840, when the Duala kings Bell and Akwa signed the first official contract for the completion of the slave trade with the British government, although the Britishthe slave trade to 1807 for illegal had already explained. In this period also the Missionierung Cameroon as well as the study of the hinterland began. That was done particularly via the German Africa researcher Heinrich Barth, the 1851 on behalf the royal geographical societyLondon the seeing era through-traveled and also the north of Cameroon investigated, and for the German army surgeon Gustav Nachtigal, which traveled as first Europeans by the inside of the seeing era. The latter closed protection contracts with the princes DUA-read and other African rulers offand thus Cameroon and Togo placed the areas not stressed yet by other powers 1884 under German rule. (See also German colony)

Cameroon as German colony

the influence of the Germans on Cameroon was already 1868 throughthe establishment of commercial establishments at the delta of the Wouri by that Hamburg trading firms Woermann more strongly become. On pressure of this trading firm it came to 14. July 1884 to the order of Bismarck at Gustav Nachtigal, the German flag in Cameroon toowere called and Cameroon as German protected area to in this way explain, after he had negotiated the contracts specified above. The five days later coming British consul, which wanted to take Cameroon for England in possession, could only against theseProtest to colonization.

A rebellion of the inhabitants of Jossdorf of 20. December to 22. December was thrashed by crews of the corvettes Bismarck and Olga under countering admiral Eduard Knorr. The place was destroyed and again established afterwards as seat of the Gouvernements.

The borders of the protected area were specified however already one year later on the Congo - conference (Congo document) in Berlin. The pacification of the protected area dragged on to short before the First World War. Only 1901 to 1903 the Islamic realms of north Cameroon became(Bornu, Adamawa, Mandara, Kotoko - sultanates) by the colonial force into the German sphere of influence included. The Germans began with the research and development of the hinterland and introduced the extensive agricultural use. In the course of these measures large became Cocoa - and oil palm plan days, particularly at the Cameroon mountain, put on. Besides the structure began functioning infrastructure, in order to make for the blossoming plan day economy possible a better transport. The building of the railway from Nkongsamba served that to the port of Duala.

The course of the borderin numerous contracts again and again again one determined:

to the safety device of the protected area equipped baron von Gravenreuth in the summer 1891 a larger expedition , but fell it to 5. November 1891 with Buea. The area was several times stove of rebellions,whereby the peace treaties were broken. Only ride master of Stetten could subject Buea after several engagements in March 1895 completely. Victorious campaigns against the Bakoko at the lower Sanaga were locked in May 1895. From Kamptz and Bartsch forced in February 1896 against the bending asking ski at the Njong unhindered traffic between the coast of the station in Jaunde.

Subjecting the northeast of the colony forced again captain of Kamptz, by he to 14. January 1899 Ngillastadt, 11. March Tibati conquered andin May the station Joko based. In October 1901 an expedition under Dominik went off , in order to emphasize the German rule in the area of the Schari (southern the Chad lake). It arrived in January 1902 in Garua .

Oneimportant enlargement of the protected area took place 1911 in the Morocco Congo agreement at expense of the French colonies in Central Africa (new Cameroon)

the restaurant administration consisted of offices for district, government and military act ions and Residenturen with indirect administration in the Islamic north of the colony. Before the integration of new Cameroonexisted the districts Rio del Rey, Victoria, Duala, Jabassi, Johann Albrechts High, cash one, Ossidinge, Bamenda, Kribi, Edea, Ebolowa, Lomië, Molundu/Jukaduma, Dume, Yaoundé and banjo, as well as the Residenturen Adamaua and German Chad sea-countries. Two further Residenturbezirke became 1913 in Ngaundere by thoseDivision Adamauas and 1914 in Bamoun by the separation of the small kingdom of the same name of the district Bamenda production.

After the outbreak of the First World War itself those knew in terms of figures and materially (particularly by large lack of ammunition) been subject colonial force still two yearsin Cameroon hold. The bulk of the troop exceeded at the beginning of of February 1916 the border to the neighbouring Spanish Muni area and became on Fernando Póo and/or. in Spain interns. To 20. February 1916 went the last garrison in Mora (north Cameroon) after thatAssures a free departure into the hands to the British colonial army.

see also list of the governors of the German colony Cameroon

to mandate time

by the Versailler contract from 1919 changed Cameroon officially into the possession of the Völkerbundes, that againa mandate for administration at the British and Frenchmen gave. Thereupon Cameroon was divided. This explains the two national languages French and English. The Frenchmen received the larger part (4/5) and established a perfectly independent administration, with which they tried,to as strongly as possible actually bind the country. They carried on a strong development of the cocoa and coffee cultivated areas in their part of the country. However production this desired cash was not extended crops (coffee/cocoa) on large Plantagen, on the contrary one promoted thatCultivation by Kleinbauern, whereby one expected a stronger participation of the population in production for the export. In this way and because of the strong demand, Cameroon developed to an important export country for these two agricultural products. Beside thatit strengthened commitment in the first sector the industrialization of the country was at the same time advanced with which concretely the beginning of the oil promotion and the aluminum production is as well as the structure of breweries meant. It even turned a certain prosperity in, large economic or social progresswere missing however, as also in the British part. The British against it pursued completely different goals. They had only small interest in an economic exploitation of the country on one's own. So many of the previous German owners of plan day knew their seized landed property upan auction in London again ersteigern. It came even to paradoxes the situation that in the British mandated territory of Cameroon lived 1938 still three times more German than Englishmen. Besides the British gave their own administration and by far more to their part of CameroonRight one. Finally the British withdrew themselves even completely from Cameroon.

During the Second World War the French mandated territory of the French government-in-exile, followed the free Frenchman under general de Gaulle. After the Second World War both people federation mandates became throughthe successor organization, the United Nations, converted into trust mandates. A goal of the United Nations was to be achieved a gradual autonomy of the area. In the following years until 1957 it came frequently to unrests and to the fight for the independence of the French colony.

1944 became in Duala the first federation of trade unions, the union syndicats confédérés you of the Cameroun (U.S.C.C.) based. It stood the French C.C.T. close. A violent trade union-hostile campaign began immediately on the part of the conservative catholic Klerus. 1945 organized thoseU.S.C.C. the first larger strike. Troublemakers plünderten some buildings and supplied with so to the settlers the pretext to supply itself with weapons from the only weakly guarded arsenal of the garrison to Duala and a Treibjagd on the strikers and finally upTo organize African generally. According to an official estimation more than 80 humans were murdered.

1947 become carrots around Nyobé the Secretary-General of the U.S.C.C. selected. 1948 become the union population you of the Cameroun (U.P.C.), the first political mass party,based. Carrots around Nyobé their Secretary-General becomes.it requires 1952 as first Kameruner, the opportunity has before the UN to speak, an end of the mandate time.

1953 create the French Missionar Louis Paul Aujoulat a political party with the goal, which linksU.P.C. to fight.1955 become the U.P.C. forbidden. 1957 takes place elections, but an amnesty law is passed only 12 days before the elections by the French national assembly in first reading. The U.P.C reacts to its view to out the falsified electionswith the admission of the armed fight.

1957 came the first Cameroonian government under André Marie Mbida in the French mandated territory to power and the first condition for the French part of Cameroon were issued. Mbida was first a coworker Aujoulats, divided itselfthen however with this. On recommending the French high clerk acre in Cameroon Jean Ramadier Ahmadou Ahidjo, the later dictator withdraws, from the government Mbida and provokes a cabinet crisis. In September 1958 carrots around Nyobé one kills. In October 1958announces Ramadiers successor the will general de Gaulles to grant to Cameroon independence. 1959 signs Ahmadou Ahidjo and Michel Debré a contract over the “co-operation” of France and Cameroon, for which France far secures the crucial influence.

Cameroon sinceindependence

at the 1. January 1960 receives French Cameroon after a popular vote and after running out the UN-mandate independence and called themselves east Cameroon. The north of the British mandated territory was correct during a preceding popular vote for the connection at Nigeria,the southern part decided for a connection to the State of Cameroon; thus it comes to the two office languages French and English and the problem of two completely separate management systems. At the 11. November 1960 became Cameroon member of the UNESCO. Thatfrom the Prime Minister to the Cameroonian president Fulbe Ahmadou Ahidjo ascended establishes a bloody dictatorship and lets each independent expression of opinion suppress. It is advised by French specialists from the environment extreme rights. “Final” striking down of the U.P.C. becomes again and againannounced, yet all journeys of the president remain secret in his own country from fear of notices. With the help of its French advisors and brutal repression succeeds strengthening Ahidjo its regime. The unit party Rassemblement Democratique you Peuple Camerounais (RDPC) one bases.

Reforms are accomplished only 1972. The Federal Republic of Cameroon was converted into a unit state (republic combined Cameroon). After the resignation of the president Ahidjo to 6. November 1982 became his prime minister Paul Biya the head of state and chairman of the unit partyRDPC. It won 1984 the elections and could a Putschversuch defeat. Biya promised the democratization of the country and more social justice. With the elections 1988 Biya without rival candidate stood as a candidate and received the majority. Its government was loaded by the economicaland social crisis of the country during the 1980er years, which were charged to it and its corrupt cabinet. The demands for Pressefreiheit and completion one-party system became ever louder. With the permission of the Pressefreiheit many critical newspapers and the opposition appearedin the country continued to increase. Beginning of the 1990er years came it increased to unrests and general strikes with the demand to the end of the monopolistic position of the RDPC. Biya gave way to the pressure of the road zögerlich and left the formation of opposition partiestoo, so that 1992 the first free elections took place, with which Biya won again. The opposition assumed electoral fraud, since foreign choice observers were obstructed. More probable it is however that the opposition parties were too much splintered (with the choice 32 parties began)in order to bundle their voices. Nevertheless the election result had as a consequence that the RDPC (89 seats) with the largest opposition party UNPD (65 seats) had to form a coalition. By French support and skillful Ausspielen of its political opponents he knew his majority to 1997in the parliament hold and with the elections in the same year one confirmed.

politics

the former French mandated territory east Cameroon are independent since January 1960, British west Cameroon followed in October 1961. Since 1972 Cameroon is one Präsidialrepublik with a new condition, whose text was changed last 1996. The parliament with 180 members is selected for seven years. Head of state is since 1982 Paul Biya. Head of the government of the country is Ephraim Inoni since 2004.

Kamerun ist Mitglied des Commonwealth OF nation. It is the first country, which joined the federation, without a colony of Great Britain to have been before.

administration

the provinces of Cameroon

the state is divided into ten provinces:

No. Name (French/English) Capital
1 Adamaoua/Adamawa Ngaoundéré
2 Centre Yaoundé
3 Est/East Bertoua
4 Extrême north/extremes North Maroua
5 suffer-orally Douala
6 north/North Garoua
7 north Ouest/Northwest Bamenda
8 south/South Ebolowa
9 south Ouest/Southwest Buea
10 Ouest/west Bafoussam

economics

base data

the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of the country amounted to in the year 2004 approximately 12.7 billion Euro (2002: 7.5 billion Euro). The average yearly income per inhabitant is attachedabout 780 euro (2002: 500 euro).

The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT of the country sits down together from 42 per cent of agriculture, to 20 per cent of industry and 38 per cent of services. So also approximately 60 per cent of the employed persons is active in the agriculture. However is this number easily declining in the last years.

unemployment

unemployment was in the year 1992 on the average about 25 per cent of the population. The national employment administration, the “fund national de l'Emploi” or “national Employment find” with head office in Yaoundéand seven labour offices country-wide, unemployment tries to fight with active means.

Within eleven years (1990-2001) one registered an annual inflation rate of 4,9 per cent.

foreign trade

the country imports goods in the value of 1.205 trillion CFA francs. Imported goodsabove all mineral and other raw materials, semimanufactured products, are industrielle of consumer goods, food, beverages, tobacco and transportation equipment. Somewhat more is exported into other countries: 1,363 trillion CFA franc. Among them above all oil, wood products, cocoa and coffee. Cameroon has thathighest Holzeinschlag of all states of Africa. Since the corruption in the country flowers, is relatively simple appropriate permission to get.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

the national holiday becomes to 20. May celebrated.

Francis

Bebey, Mongo Beti, Calixthe Beyala, Bole Butake count literature to the well-known Cameroonian writers, Papé Mongo, Ferdinad Oyono and René Philombe. Mongo Beti had already into the 1950er years with its critical representation of the mission acres in its 1956 appeared novel Le pauvre Christian de Bomba (the poor Christian of Bomba) for attentionensured.

film

admits became in particular the directors Jean Marie Teno and Jean Pierre Bekolo.

music

of one of the berümtesten musicians of the country is a poet, singer, composer and singer-songwriter Francis Bebey. Its musikethnologisches work Musiquede L'Afrique (1969) is considered as fundamental. Likewise Manu Dibango, with its album “Soul the Makossa” became famous is to be mentioned. Makossa is the music direction and/or. the rhythm, which is round/in the northwest province around Bamenda at home. Bikutsi is from the area around Yaoundé. More modern PopsängerInnen is Dora Decca from Douala, Petit Pays and Sérgo Polo. In the range jazz/world music the multi-instrument valleyist smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Bona originating from Cameroon is to be emphasized.

sport

Cameroonian national soccer team in the play against Germany

The most popular kind of sport in Cameroon is the football. The national soccer team “ Les Lions Indomptables became first - which admits unbezähmbaren lion” by successes with the soccer world championship 1982 in Spain, where her only scarcely at the later world champion Italy in the Vorrundefailed. Eight years later the large triumph followed with the soccer world championship 1990 in Italy, where one could draw as a first African team into the quarter final (unfortunate defeat against England - 2:3 n.V.). Star of the crew was Roger Milla, that twiceto Africa soccer player of the yearly one selected. In the consequence itself Cameroon knew each mark qualify for the WM. For 2006 however “the unbezähmbaren lions” already separated in the qualification round.

Further successes with the olympic plays 2000 as well as2000, 2002 followed the won Africa championships. In Germany the attention addressed itself on the coach Winfried shepherd, to 17. November 2004 however after a 0:3 - defeat against Germany dismisses is.

In the public interest was also death of theCameroonian midfield player Mark Vivien Foé, to 26. June 2003 in the semi-final of the Konföderationen cup between its country and Colombia broke down and still on the way from the field to the hospital deceased shortly thereafter.

military

Cameroon has one Territorial army, a navy and air forces and have at present approximately 23,100 soldiers in the service. A military service does not exist.

See in addition major items: Cameroonian armed forces

literature

  • Mongo Beti, Main bass sur le Cameroun. Autopsie d'une décolonisation (1972), new editionwith La Découverte, Paris 2003. (Topic Neokolonialismus, which the French Minister of the Interior at that time Raymond Marcellin forbade)
  • Andreas's hitting a corner ore, the Duala and colonial powers. An investigation to resistance, protest and Protonationalismus in Cameroon before the Second World War, LIT publishing house 1997.
  • Regina fox/Stefanie Michels, Cameroon, journey know-how publishing house Därr, June 2004, S. 504.
  • Joachim Zeller/Stefanie Michels: Cameroonian national hero - faithful German servant and soldier. Mebenga m' Ebono alias Martin Paul Samba. In: Ulrich van the Heyden, Joachim Zeller (Hg.) „…Power and portion of the world domination. “Berlin and the German colonialism. Unrast publishing house. Münster 2005, ISBN 3-89771-024-2

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Wiktionary: Cameroon - word origin, synonyms and translations
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coordinates: 2°-13° N, 8°-16° O

 

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