Channel (hydraulic engineering)

in the hydraulic engineering one understands a watercourse artificially put on or also a natural watercourse, whose process and level were changed by structures by channel (see also Qanat). Depending upon size this can be used also as route of transportation.

Ein typischer Kanal in Venedig
A typical channel in Venice

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channel in the city in cities, which are close because of a flat seacoast, and as routes of transportation. The channels are usually by senkrechte verges limited or rich directly to the houses near.

For its channels is typical Venice and some cities of the Netherlands and Belgium with their Grachten, like e.g. Amsterdam or Brügge.

Contrary to the channel varies in the fleet (e.g. in Hamburg) the water level with the Tide.

In cities the river courses of majority are canalized. Some were shifted also something (e.g. the Danube channel in Vienna).

See also: Flood, bridge, drains

channel on the country

or Havel channel with Ruhlsdorf: View eastward

a channel can serve transport - today special the navigation -, in earlier times also the transport of wood (flowing, Schwemmkanal) or from peat (Fehnkanal). Other channels serve for - and/or. Drainage, to the use of water power (mill, power station, factory channel), whereby naturally uses also combined are possible. Thus many canalized rivers are used both and route of transportation and for the production of water power.

In addition the river with a weir is accumulated. Since weir for ships is not passable, become beside the weir one or more shipping sluices inserted, with whose assistance the ships overcome the level difference of the weir. In the range of the weir then usually a hydro-electric power plant is inserted.

Often - to keep unimpaired around the ships of the water flows of the weir - the kana reading ores river course before the weir spaciously into a military arm and an air-lock arm is divided, D. h., resistance and air-lock are spatially separately built into the river course.

With some channels as for example the Dortmund Ems channel become over the environment on dams the lyingSections by safety gates against losses of water by leakages secured.

See also: River straightening, list of the channels

historical

lug and channels for water supply already drove the Assyrer and Syrians by rock and mountains. Sanherib left in 7. Jh. v. Chr. one at least. 55 km long drinking water channel for the supply of Ninive establish, with air-locks and a large aquaduct.

In the area of the transportation channels Pharao Necho II. began. (move 610-595 v. Chr.) in Egypt with the involving heavy losses work on a channel connection between the Nile and/or. Mediterranean and the Red Sea, however only around 280 v. Chr. under Ptolemaios II. one finished. It was the forerunner of the Sueskanals.

The largest antique channel of the Near East was the Nahrawan channel along the Tigris in close proximity to Ktesiphon. It originated from that 3. Century, was 400 km long and 122 m broad.

In China was probable from that the 6. Jh. v. Chr. coming Hong Gou channel the first artificial water way. A more well-known technical achievement was however the magic channel (Ling Qu) from the time Qin Shihuangdis around 219 v. Chr., which two rivers flowing opposite - left and Xiang restrained and interconnected. It was projected by ski Lu, served first the organizational supply and was the first channel, which was led in uneven area along contours (32 km long).

The Chinese were up to the modern times the largest Wasserbauingenieure, their masterpiece are the emperor channel (over 1700 km long, often 30 m broad, difference in height approx. 42 m).

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